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1.
Am Surg ; : 3134821989056, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a non-opioid analgesic commonly utilized for pain control after several types of surgical procedures. METHODS: This scoping primary literature review provides recommendations for intravenous (IV) acetaminophen use based on type of surgery. RESULTS: Intravenous acetaminophen has been widely studied for postoperative pain control and has been compared to other agents such as NSAIDs, opioids, oral/rectal acetaminophen, and placebo. Some of the procedures studied include abdominal, gynecologic, orthopedic, neurosurgical, cardiac, renal, and genitourinary surgeries. Results of these studies have been conflicting and largely have not shown consistent clinical benefit. CONCLUSION: Overall, findings from this review did not support the notion that IV acetaminophen has significant efficacy for postoperative analgesia. Given the limited clinical benefit of IV acetaminophen, especially when compared to the oral or rectal formulations, use is generally not justifiable.

2.
J Agric Environ Ethics ; : 1-18, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223864

RESUMO

Cognitive biases play an important role in creating and perpetuating problems that lead to foodborne illness outbreaks. By using insights from behavioral ethics, we argue that sometimes people engage in unethical behavior that increases the likelihood of foodborne illness outbreaks without necessarily intending to or being consciously aware of it. We demonstrate these insights in an analysis of the 2011 Listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. from the consumption of contaminated cantaloupes. We then provide policy implications that can improve our understanding of other kinds of disease outbreaks and epidemics.

3.
J Econ Behav Organ ; 177: 371-389, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834246

RESUMO

Episodic future thinking, defined as the ability to project oneself into the future, has proven useful to pre-experience the future consequences of present actions. We investigate how episodic future thinking influences the food choices of normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals. In doing so, we conduct a controlled laboratory experiment in which participants are presented with representations of weight-increased and weight-reduced modified images of themselves before performing a food choice task. This allows subjects to vividly imagine the future consequences of their actions. We also test the effect of providing health-related information on food choices to compare with the episodic future thinking effect. Our results suggest that while providing health-related information increases the number of lite snack choices of overweight and obese individuals, engaging in episodic future thinking has a positive impact on the food choices of the obese only. These findings are supported by eye-tracking data showing how visual attention and emotional arousal (measured by pupil size) impact individuals' food choices.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609981

RESUMO

By randomizing the order in which participants perform a cognitive test and a food choice task in a controlled experiment, we investigate whether cognitive capacity can be enhanced by the simple act of anticipating food intake. Our findings show that overweight and obese participants exhibit an anticipatory food reward effect, which helped enhance their mental resources and improve their performance in a cognitive test. However, we find no anticipation effect among normal weight participants. Furthermore, eye tracking data reveal that food temptation, in the form of visual attention and emotional arousal is higher for overweight and obese individuals when they are cognitively impaired.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Cognição , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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