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1.
Infectio ; 23(3): 271-304, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002162

RESUMO

Abstract Invasive Candidiasis (IC) and candidemia (as its most frequent manifestation) have become the main cause of opportunistic mycosis at hospital settings. This study, made by members of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), was aimed at providing a set of recommendations for the management, follow-up and prevention of IC / candidemia and mucous membrane candida infection in adult, pediatric and neonatal patients in a hospital setting, including the hemato-oncological and critical care units. All the data obtained through an exhaustive search were reviewed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner by all the members of the group, and the recommendations issued are being made after a careful review of the scientific literature available and the consensus of all specialists involved; the emergence of Candida Spp. problem is highlighted and a correct orientation to health professionals regarding the management of patients with candidiasis is provided in a rational and practical way, emphasizing patient evaluation, diagnostic strategies, prophylaxis, empirical treatment, directed treatment and preventative therapy.


Resumen La Candidiasis Invasora (CI) y la candidemia, como su manifestación más frecuente, se ha convertido en la principal causa de micosis oportunista a nivel hospitalario. Este manuscrito realizado por miembros de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), tuvo como objetivo proporcionar un conjunto de recomendaciones para manejo, seguimiento y prevención de la CI/candidemia y de la infección candidiásica de mucosas, en población adulta, pediátrica y neonatal, en un entorno hospitalario, incluyendo las unidades hemato-oncológicas y unidades de cuidado crítico. Todos los datos obtenidos mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, fueron revisados y analizados de manera amplia por todos los miembros del grupo, y las recomendaciones emitidas se elaboraron luego de la evaluación de la literatura científica disponible, y el consenso de todos los especialistas involucrados, reconociendo el problema de la emergencia de las infecciones por Candida Spp. y brindando una correcta orientación a los profesionales de la salud sobre el manejo de pacientes con enfermedad candidiásica, de una forma racional y práctica, enfatizando en la evaluación del paciente, estrategias de diagnóstico, profilaxis, tratamiento empírico, tratamiento dirigido y terapia preventiva.

2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 63-70, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011455

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. Clostridium difficile ocasiona infecciones hospitalarias que resultan en altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. La cepa NAP1/027 se ha asociado con una mayor producción de toxinas y con una mayor gravedad, lo que aumenta la carga de la enfermedad. Objetivo. Describir la epidemiología de las infecciones asociadas con C. difficile y las características de la cepa NAP1/027. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional basado en la revisión de las historias clínicas de los pacientes con muestras de heces positivas para C. difficile identificadas mediante la prueba Xpert™ entre el 2012 y el 2015 en un hospital de alta complejidad. La gravedad de la enfermedad se evaluó con el índice ATLAS. Resultados. Se incluyeron 42 casos de pacientes infectados, 9 de los cuales fueron positivos para la cepa NAP1/027. El uso de antibióticos antes de la infección durante más de siete días fue más frecuente en los casos de pacientes con muestras negativas para NAP1/027. En la mitad de los pacientes, la duración de la diarrea fue mayor de cinco días y no hubo diferencias según el tipo de cepa (p>0,05). Los casos de pacientes positivos para la cepa NAP1/027 se caracterizaron por presentar deposiciones fétidas y sanguinolentas. La gravedad de la infección fue similar entre los grupos. Conclusión. Se comprobó la circulación de la cepa NAP1/027, pero su presencia no supuso diferencias clínicas significativas con respecto a otras cepas, lo cual podría deberse al limitado número de pacientes en este estudio. Sin embargo, su presencia debe alertar a los médicos y a las instituciones de salud, dada su frecuente asociación con la gravedad de la infección y la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial infections leading to high morbidity and mortality. The NAP1/027 strain is associated with a higher toxin production and disease severity, which increases the load of the disease. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of the infections associated with C. difficile and the characteristics related to the NAP1/027 strain. Materials and methods: This was an observational study based on the revision of clinical registries of patients with fecal samples that were positive for C. difficile identified by the Xpert test™ between 2012 and 2015 in a high complexity institution. The severity of the disease was evaluated by means of the ATLAS score. Results: We included 42 infected cases, 9 of which were positive for the NAP1/027strain. The use of antibiotics previous to the infection for more than seven days was more frequent in patients with negative results for NAP1/027. The duration of diarrhea in half of the patients was longer than five days and there were no differences according to the type of strain (p>0.05). Positive cases for the NAP1/027 strain were characterized by presenting fetid and bloody stools. The severity of the infection was similar between the groups. Conclusions: In Colombia, the NAP1/027 strain circulates without significant clinical differences, which could be due to the limited number of patients. Nevertheless, the existence of NAP1/027 should alert physicians and health institutions because of its high association with severity and mortality.

3.
Biomedica ; 35(1): 16-20, 2015 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26148029

RESUMO

Austrian syndrome is defined as the triad consisting of pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis due to invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Few case reports have been reported since its first description in 1975 by Robert Austrian, mainly because it is rarely observed. Below we report the case of a 61 year-old male patient who presented with bacterial meningitis due S. pneumoniae followed by bacterial pneumonia and severe mitral regurgitation, associated with four vegetations on the atrial surface of the posterior mitral leaflet; in addition, there was rupture and prolapse of its middle scallop. The S. pneumoniae bacterium was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. In consequence, the patient was given broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and had an early valve replacement performed, obtaining a good clinical outcome. The key prognostic factor of the Austrian syndrome is determined by the damage of cardiac valves, particularly in patients with a compromised aortic valve; hence, it is necessary to identify the degree of valve injury and define surgical and antibiotic treatment on a timely fashion. However, in subacute, less frequent clinical cases where the mitral valve is the main valve compromised, usually a directed antibiotic therapy associated with advanced support measures are sufficient to control this infection.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(1): 16-20, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-745645

RESUMO

Descrito inicialmente en 1957 por Robert Austrian, el síndrome que lleva su nombre se define como la tríada de neumonía, endocarditis y meningitis secundarias a una infección invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae . Desde entonces, y debido a su infrecuencia, se han reportado muy pocos casos en la literatura científica. A continuación se presenta el caso de un paciente de 61 años de edad con un cuadro inicial de meningitis bacteriana por S. pneumoniae , acompañado de neumonía bacteriana e insuficiencia mitral grave asociada a cuatro vegetaciones sobre la cara auricular de la valva posterior, con ruptura y prolapso de su festón central posterior. Se aisló S. pneumoniae , serotipo 18C, en líquido cefalorraquídeo y en dos hemocultivos. El paciente recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y fue sometido a reemplazo valvular temprano con un resultado clínico satisfactorio. El principal factor pronóstico de esta condición lo determina el daño valvular subsecuente, sobre todo en pacientes con compromiso de la válvula aórtica, por lo que es necesario identificar tempranamente la extensión del compromiso valvular y definir oportunamente el tratamiento quirúrgico y antibiótico del paciente. En casos menos frecuentes, en los que solo hay compromiso de la válvula mitral, la evolución clínica es menos aguda y, por lo general, el tratamiento antibiótico dirigido y las medidas de soporte avanzado suelen ser suficientes para su control.


Austrian syndrome is defined as the triad consisting of pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis due to invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Few case reports have been reported since its first description in 1975 by Robert Austrian, mainly because it is rarely observed. Below we report the case of a 61 year-old male patient who presented with bacterial meningitis due S. pneumoniae followed by bacterial pneumonia and severe mitral regurgitation, associated with four vegetations on the atrial surface of the posterior mitral leaflet; in addition, there was rupture and prolapse of its middle scallop. The S. pneumoniae bacterium was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. In consequence, the patient was given broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and had an early valve replacement performed, obtaining a good clinical outcome. The key prognostic factor of the Austrian syndrome is determined by the damage of cardiac valves, particularly in patients with a compromised aortic valve; hence, it is necessary to identify the degree of valve injury and define surgical and antibiotic treatment on a timely fashion. However, in subacute, less frequent clinical cases where the mitral valve is the main valve compromised, usually a directed antibiotic therapy associated with advanced support measures are sufficient to control this infection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Síndrome
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