Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
1.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions had negative impact on the psychopathology of people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Factors involved in the vulnerability to stressful events have been under-investigated in this population. We aimed to assess which factors contributed to COVID-19-induced worsening in both general and specific psychopathology. METHODS: Three-hundred and twelve people with a clinically defined diagnosis of an ED and undergoing a specialist ED treatment in different Italian ED services before the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic filled in an online survey. ED specific and general psychopathology changes after COVID-19 quarantine were retrospectively evaluated. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns (financial condition, fear of contagion, perceived social isolation/support, satisfaction in peer, family or sentimental relationships), illness duration and treatment-related variables (type of treatment provided, type of access to care, satisfaction with therapeutic relationships) were included as predicting factors in a structural equational model, which included latent variables consisting of general and ED psychopathology items as outcomes. RESULTS: A perceived low quality of therapeutic relationships, fear of contagion and increased isolation were positively associated with psychopathology worsening. Reduced satisfaction with family and with friends' relationships and reduced perceived social support were associated with ED and general symptoms deterioration, respectively. No significant effect emerged for intimate relationships, illness duration, economic condition and type of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of clinical variables associated with psychopathological changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period highlighting potential risk and resilience factors and, possibly, informing treatment as well as prevention strategies for EDs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 700-706, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High concentrations of Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, also called Fetuin-A (Fet-A), are associated with insulin resistance, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. Moreover, Fet-A is able to cross the bloodbrain barrier into ischemic brain tissue in adult humans. Although the brain is an important target of insulin action, there is little evidence associating serum levels of Fet-A with psychiatric conditions such as depression and cognitive decline, and no reports about the presence and degree of anxiety disorders. METHODS: We have examined cognitive and emotional alterations in a Caucasian population of 94 subjects. RESULTS: Our data confirmed that, irrespective of insulin sensitivity status, circulating Fet-A levels are positively associated with an increased risk of showing signs of depression according to the BDI-II test, and have reported new evidences of a positive association between Fet-A and state- and trait- anxiety, as measured by the STAI questionnaires. In contrast, no association was observed between Fet-A levels and cognitive performance on the MMSE. LIMITATIONS: Although the study includes a well-characterized population, the small sample size and cross sectional nature are important limitations, and this results should not be considered definitive. The data are based only on Caucasian subjects and their generalizability to other ethnic groups should be done with caution. CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest for the first time a role of Fet-A as an independent risk factor in the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression in prediabetic and diabetic subjects.

3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 346-350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370731

RESUMO

The comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is widely known. The overall rate of association between BD and OCD is very high and varies, depending on the authors, from 11% to 18%, with peaks of 21% in primarily bipolar patients. Vice versa, about 60% of patients with OCD have a second psychiatric diagnosis, which in 23% of cases turns out to be BD. The differences between the BD patients with and without OCD were so numerous and important (e.g., different onset of mood episodes, history of suicide attempts, seasonality, rapid cycling and impulsivity) that the comorbidity between BD and OCD may represent a distinct form of BD, similar to cyclothymic BD for psychopathological features. However, the comorbidity does not seem to have any impact on cognitive performance, such as there is no specific difference between patients who first develop BD and then OCD or vice versa. Anyway, the detection of the neurocognitive profile of these patients at the time of the first clinical evaluation could have clinical implications also in the therapeutic and rehabilitative management of this type of patient. Indeed, it would be desirable to develop a new model of rehabilitation that is less differentiated for both BD and OCD or for their comorbidity, also to make cognitive rehabilitation faster and less expensive. The purpose of this mini-review is to update the knowledge currently available on the impact of BD and OCD comorbidity on neurocognitive profile.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Tentativa de Suicídio
4.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(6): 366-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349730

RESUMO

Postoperative delirium (POD) is a complication that can occur in patients of any age undergoing major surgery. Due to the high incidence of delirium morbidity and mortality, it is important to identify and treat delirium quickly and successfully. Although many organic, surgical and psychiatric risk factors are recognized as putative causes of delirium, heroin withdrawal is not yet well defined and evaluated in the prevention and treatment of POD. We report a case report of a multi-drug addicted patient, without any other psychiatric comorbidity, suffering from heroin-withdrawal POD after urgent major cardiac surgery, successfully treated with clonazepam orally after conventional therapy failure. At the time of discharge, POD was completely solved and without further complications, psychiatric therapy was further reduced just to a low dose of clonazepam and the patient was referred to a specialized drug abuse center. The reported case suggests that clonazepam may be considered a valid option in case of heroin-withdrawal POD after conventional treatments failure.

5.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are not many valid instruments to quickly and easily identify body dissatisfaction in adolescents. Most studies have used the Stunkard Rating Scale to assess body image. Nevertheless, this scale has been described as too abrupt and crude for adolescents. AIM: Was to validate the body image dimensional assessment (BIDA) questionnaire in a sample of adolescents from Secondary schools of Spain. METHOD: The BIDA consists of four items to answer with reference to a series of four silhouettes using a numeric scale that allows the quantification of the degree of body dissatisfaction (BD), sexual body dissatisfaction (SxBD), comparative body dissatisfaction (CBD) and the calculation of the final body dissatisfaction index (BDIndex). The sample included 2059 adolescents, 1132 males and 929 females aged 13.10 ± 0.89. Participants answered the BIDA and then their anthropometrics measurements were taken. RESULTS: Reliability test, a convergent test and confirmatory factorial analysis were conducted to validate BIDA instrument. A single factor structure emerged from confirmatory factorial analysis; the BIDA demonstrated adequate internal consistency in adolescents: (CFI > 0.90, TLI > 0.90, α > 0.80). Significant correlations (p < 0.001) emerged between the BIDA indices and all the anthropometric measures. CONCLUSIONS: The BIDA questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate body dissatisfaction in Spanish adolescents. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, descriptive study.

6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has gained increasing interest in the last 2 decades. Although a consensus on the diagnostic boundaries of ON has not yet been reached, there is some evidence for an overlap with eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and psychotic disorder. Most of the knowledge about ON has emerged from studies of non-clinical and at-risk populations and is focused on differential diagnosis; therefore, further clinical studies are needed to better outline the ON phenomenon in a real-life setting. OBJECTIVE: This case series aims at describing clinical cases that developed symptoms suggestive of ON after being diagnosed with a prior psychiatric disorder and then discussing them in light of possible clinical pathways. METHODS: Four women consecutively admitted to an outpatient unit for the treatment of eating disorders were diagnosed with ON through a clinical interview, according to Dunn and Bratman's criteria and self-administered questionnaire assessment (ORTO-15), and were considered to be eligible for this case series study. Psychiatric anamnestic data were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: The anamnesis revealed that all patients were previously diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (i.e. obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, illness anxiety disorder, and psychotic disorder) before developing ON. CONCLUSION: Past literature focused on differential diagnosis between ON and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first description of clinical cases in a real-life setting that started with different psychiatric disorders and later developed symptoms suggestive of ON. These cases have generated a new research question on the possibility that different psychiatric disorders may associate with a later onset of ON. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, descriptive study.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670113

RESUMO

Non-invasive measurements of brain function and structure as neuroimaging in patients with mental illnesses are useful and powerful tools for studying discriminatory biomarkers. To date, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI) represent the most used techniques to provide multiple perspectives on brain function, structure, and their connectivity. Recently, there has been rising attention in using machine-learning (ML) techniques, pattern recognition methods, applied to neuroimaging data to characterize disease-related alterations in brain structure and function and to identify phenotypes, for example, for translation into clinical and early diagnosis. Our aim was to provide a systematic review according to the PRISMA statement of Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques in making diagnostic discrimination between SCZ patients from healthy controls using neuroimaging data from functional MRI as input. We included studies using SVM as ML techniques with patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia. From an initial sample of 660 papers, at the end of the screening process, 22 articles were selected, and included in our review. This technique can be a valid, inexpensive, and non-invasive support to recognize and detect patients at an early stage, compared to any currently available assessment or clinical diagnostic methods in order to save crucial time. The higher accuracy of SVM models and the new integrated methods of ML techniques could play a decisive role to detect patients with SCZ or other major psychiatric disorders in the early stages of the disease or to potentially determine their neuroimaging risk factors in the near future.

9.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 28(5): 580-586, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test a model where low self-monitoring (a sub-function of first-person domain of metacognition) and high negative urgency lead to a worsening of binge severity through the mediation of emotional dysregulation in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: Forty non-BED-obese and 46 BED-obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing metacognition and psychopathology. To test our hypothesized model, a structural equation model (SEM) using maximum likelihood estimation was conducted. RESULTS: BED-obese patients had significantly higher scores in BES, UPPS-P Negative urgency, and DERS total score, and lower MSAS self-monitoring than non-BED-obese, while no differences emerged in the MSAS others-monitoring subscale. The structural model demonstrated very good fit indexes (χ2 = 1.377, df = 2; p = .502, CMIN/DF = 0.688, CFI = 1.000, RMSEA = 0.000, TLI = 1.047) and all paths were significant in the predicted directions. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings show that, low self-monitoring and high negative urgency lead BED-obese patients to express the worsening of binge severity through the mediation of emotional dysregulation. This knowledge may be helpful in the clinical practice to develop a tailor-made treatment. Accordingly, an approach through Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy could be attempted in BED-obese patients with these characteristics. Highlights Patients with BED exhibited low self-monitoring and high negative urgency. Binge severity was mediated by high level of emotional dysregulation. Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy may be useful for BED patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Metacognição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356145

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Binge eating disorder (BED) has a considerable clinical relevance by virtue of its high numerous psychiatric and medical comorbidities; among the latter, the most frequent is obesity. Available treatments for BED have shown frequent relapse of binges or weight regain in the long term. The new combination of naltrexone and bupropion sustained release (NB) has proved to be effective for weight loss among obese patients. As NB acts on hypothalamic and reward circuits, that seem involved in the pathogenesis and maintenance of BED symptoms, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of NB in improving pathological eating behavior and losing weight in BED patients. METHODS: In this preliminary study, 23 obese-BED patients and a control group of 20 obese non-BED patients (respectively, Groups 1 and 2) who had previously undergone at least 5 unsuccessful weight-loss programs were treated with NB in addition to modified life style. Evaluation at t0 and after 16 weeks of treatment (t1) included anthropometric measurement, eating behavior assessment and psychopathological questionnaires (EDE-Q, BES, YFAS, BDI and STAI). RESULTS: A significant and similar weight loss (ΔBMI% ≈ 8%) was evident for both groups. Pathological eating behavior (i.e., binge, grazing, emotional eating, craving for carbohydrates, and post-dinner eating), BES score and YFAS severity significantly improved, especially among BED. NB was well tolerated and drop-out rate was low. CONCLUSION: Treatment with NB, in addition to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, seems an effective and well-tolerated option for improving pathological eating behavior and losing weight in obese-BED patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III case-control study.

11.
Int Orthop ; 44(7): 1263-1270, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246164

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: We assessed the role of personality traits, anxiety, and depression in residual pain among patients who underwent total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. METHOD: Eighty-three patients (40 THA and 43 TKA) were interviewed pre-operatively (t0); five days (t1) after surgery; and one (t2), three (t3), six (t4), and 12 months (t5) after surgery. Personality (TCI-R), pain (VAS), anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life (SF-12), functionality (HHS/KSS), and disability (WOMAC) were evaluated. RESULTS: Pain reduction and functional improvement were reported at t5 (both p < 0.001) in both THA and TKA patients. THA patients showed earlier and greater functional improvement after surgery (both p < 0.001) in comparison with TKA. Residual pain (VAS > 30 mm) was noted in 15% of the THA patients and 25% of the TKA patients, and it correlated with the SF-12 PCS (r2 = - 0.412; p < 0.001), SF-12 MCS (r2 = - 0.473; p < 0.001), HADS-A (r2 = 0.619; p = <0.001), HADS-D (r2 = 0.559; p < 0.001), functionality (r2 = - 0.482; p < 0.001), and WOMAC (r2 = 0.536; p < 0.001) scores at t5. High pre-operative harm avoidance, persistence, and anxiety scores were predictive of residual pain after both THA and TKA (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: The proportion of patients complaining of residual pain in this study was similar to that in previous findings. Multiple predictors of residual pain after THA and TKA have been previously described, and several studies evaluated the influence of psychological factors on the outcome of joint arthroplasty; however, only four studies investigated the role of personality traits in the outcome of THA and TKA patients, and a unique study out of these investigations demonstrated the effect of personality on persisting pain. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that personality traits and anxiety predict residual pain; thus, pre-operative evaluation of these factors could be helpful in identifying patients at risk for residual pain.

13.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 19: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165907

RESUMO

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most burdensome mental disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 2.4%, with a prevalence of 0.6% for bipolar type I and 0.4% for bipolar type II. Several interventions have been developed to implement the treatment strategy of bipolar disorder, including the Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). This intervention has been specifically developed to manage patients' stressful life events, improve the disruptions of social and circadian rhythms and increase adherence to medications. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy of IPSRT on affective and anxiety psychopathology, social functioning, response to pharmacological treatment and affective morbidity index (AMI) in BD patients. Methods: BD patients were consecutively recruited at the Mood Disorder Unit of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" and randomly assigned to the experimental group receiving the IPSRT or to the Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. Patients were assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months with several validated assessment tools and with the affective morbidity index. Results: At the end of the intervention, compared to controls, patients from the experimental group reported a significant improvement in anxious depressive and manic symptomatology, global functioning; and response to mood stabilizers. Patients in the IPSRT group reported a reduction at the AMI score. Conclusions: IPSRT has been confirmed to be effective in improving the clinical symptomology of BD patients and in improving the affective morbidity index. Further studies with longer follow-up are needed in order to assess the stability of the results.Trial registration The study was approved by the local ethical review board (N001567/28.01.2018).

14.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 24(2): 201-207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134336

RESUMO

Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess possible modifications of cognitive performance among schizophrenia patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) of second generation anti-psychotics (SGAs). Our hypothesis is that the shift from the oral formulation to the LAI formulation of SGAs drugs improves the cognitive performance. The secondary objective was to carry out a head to head comparison of two different SGA-LAI treatments [i.e., 1-month Paliperidone Palmitate (PP1M), monthly Aripiprazole (Ari-LAI)] in our study with an independent and real-world setting.Methods: The sample comprised 32 participants who were consecutively recruited over 12 months. Seventeen patients treated with Ari-LAI and 10 treated with PP1M completed psychopathological, neuropsychological and functional assessments. Group differences were explored through chi-squared and t-tests, as appropriate. GLM Repeated Measures were used to study variations of cognitive performance along 12 months and to test differences between drugs.Results: We found an effect of time on the outcomes investigated but this did not depend on the type of LAI used.Conclusions: In comparison with the previous oral treatment with SGAs, patients showed a significant improvement in neurocognitive function after 12 months of treatment with SGA-LAI. Furthermore, there were no differences between the SGA-LAI regimens.Key pointsThe main purpose of this study was to assess possible modification of cognitive performance of patients with Schizophrenia treated with second generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics (SGA-LAIs).The secondary objective was to carry out a head to head comparison of two different SGA-LAIs: Paliperidone Palmitate 1-Month (PP1M) and Aripiprazole Monthly (Ari-LAI).Patients showed a significant improvement in neurocognitive function after 12 months of treatment with SGA-LAI.There were no differences between the SGA-LAI regimens.From a practical point of view, switching to LAI formulation seems to produce further social and cognitive improvements in patients who had already benefitted from oral SGA therapy.

15.
Eat Weight Disord ; 25(5): 1183-1189, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study examined the predictive value of early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains on the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: Seventy obese patients seeking treatment for weight loss were recruited and allocated to either group 1 (obese) or group 2 (BED-obese) according to clinical diagnosis. Both groups underwent psychometric assessment for EMS (according to the latest four-factor model), eating and general psychopathologies. Logistic regression analysis was performed on significant variables and BED diagnosis. RESULTS: In addition to showing higher values on all clinical variables, BED-obese patients exhibited significantly higher scores for all four schema domains. Regression analysis revealed a 12-fold increase in risk of BED with 'Impaired Autonomy and Performance'. Depression did not account for a higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired Autonomy and Performance is associated with BED in a sample of obese patients. Schema therapy should be considered a potential psychotherapy strategy in the treatment of BED. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control study.

16.
J Ment Health ; 29(5): 524-531, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346226

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive impairment is considered a central feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and several rehabilitation treatments have been developed to try to improve cognitive deficits.Aims: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of integrated psychological therapy (IPT) compared with a standard treatment (TAU) in two groups of patients with SZ, using a comprehensive testing battery of clinical, cognitive, social cognition and functional outcome domains.Methods: Forty-one patients with SZ were assigned to IPT or TAU groups in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Psychopathological, neuropsychological, emotional and functional outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after 36 weeks of treatment.Results: The IPT group showed significant improvements than the TAU group regarding clinical and functional outcome variables. Moreover, the IPT group improved significantly in the cognitive domains and emotional functioning. Finally, linear regression has highlighted that the improvement of cognitive variables depends on having done the IPT treatment.Conclusions: IPT seems to be effective in improving clinical, neuropsychological, emotional and functional outcome in chronic SZ inpatients. Further studies would be desirable to deepen the effectiveness of IPT in the field of the psychiatric rehabilitation pointing to the possibility of recovery from mental illness.

17.
Eat Weight Disord ; 25(2): 373-377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research has demonstrated impaired executive functioning among Binge Eating Disorder (BED) patients that could be influenced by age and weight. We aim to compare decision-making, set-shifting and central coherence between BED-obese patients (BED-Ob), non-BED-obese patients (non-BED-Ob), and normal-weight healthy controls (NW-HC) without the influence of these variables. METHODS: Overall, 35 BED-Ob, 32 non-BED-Ob and 26 NW-HC participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task, the Trail Making Test and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. RESULTS: BED-Ob patients showed higher cognitive impairment compared to NW-HC on decision-making, set-shifting, visual attention and memory. CONCLUSIONS: BED-Ob patients have an impaired cognitive profile on decision-making, set-shifting, visual attention and memory but not impaired central coherence. As all groups were aged-matched and no significant differences between BED-Ob and non-BED-Ob participants were evident, our results demonstrate that this impairment is independent from weight/age, pointing out that it is BED itself to account for inefficiencies in cognitive functioning. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control study.

18.
J Clin Psychol ; 76(3): 539-548, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to (a) assess and compare personological traits and early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) of obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and (b) identify the variables associated with the binge severity. METHOD: One hundred women (55 BED-obese and 45 non-BED-obese) completed psychopathological and personological self-report questionnaires. A forward stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to assess variables associated with binge eating severity. RESULTS: Not only psychopathological but also personological differences were evident between BED and non-BED-obese women. BED severity was significantly associated with depressivity, emotional deprivation, and defectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary findings suggest that BED patients exhibit some EMSs that could be linked to the construct of emotional neglect and specific personological traits closely related to depressive dimensions, emotional lability, and impulsivity. In particular, binge severity is associated with the pervasiveness of depressogenic cognitive schemas, as well as those of emotional deprivation and defectiveness.

19.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e2, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in new factors contributing to the genesis of eating disorders (EDs). Research recently focused on the study of microbiota. Dysbiosis, associated with a specific genetic susceptibility, may contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder, and several putative mechanisms have already been identified. Diet seems to have an impact not only on modification of the gut microbiota, facilitating dysbiosis, but also on its recovery in patients with EDs. METHODS: This systematic review based on the PICO strategy searching into PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Library examined the literature on the role of altered microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of EDs. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included, mostly regarding AN. Alpha diversity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were lower in patients with AN, and affective symptoms and ED psychopathology seem related to changes in gut microbiota. Microbiota-derived proteins stimulated the autoimmune system, altering neuroendocrine control of mood and satiety in EDs. Microbial richness increased in AN after weight regain on fecal microbiota transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota homeostasis seems essential for a healthy communication network between gut and brain. Dysbiosis may promote intestinal inflammation, alter gut permeability, and trigger immune reactions in the hunger/satiety regulation center contributing to the pathophysiological development of EDs. A restored microbial balance may be a possible treatment target for EDs. A better and more in-depth characterization of gut microbiota and gut-brain crosstalk is required. Future studies may deepen the therapeutic and preventive role of microbiota in EDs.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684127

RESUMO

Food addiction (FA) has been associated with greater psychopathology in individuals with eating disorders (ED) and obesity (OBE). The current study aims to provide a better phenotypic characterization of the FA construct by conducting a clustering analysis of FA in both conditions (ED and OBE). The total sample was comprised of 234 participants that scored positive on the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. (YFAS-2) (119 bulimia nervosa (BN), 50 binge eating disorder (BED), 49 other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) and 16 OBE). All participants completed a comprehensive battery of questionnaires. Three clusters of FA participants were identified. Cluster 1 (dysfunctional) was characterized by the highest prevalence of OSFED and BN, the highest ED severity and psychopathology, and more dysfunctional personality traits. Cluster 2 (moderate) showed a high prevalence of BN and BED and moderate levels of ED psychopathology. Finally, cluster 3 (adaptive) was characterized by a high prevalence of OBE and BED, low levels of ED psychopathology, and more functional personality traits. In conclusion, this study identified three distinct clusters of ED-OBE patients with FA and provides some insight into a better phenotypic characterization of the FA construct when considering psychopathology, personality and ED pathology. Future studies should address whether these three food addiction categories are indicative of therapy outcome.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Dependência de Alimentos , Obesidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA