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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234471, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153460

RESUMO

Abstract High doses of antibiotics used in hospitals can affect the microbial composition of sewers, selecting resistant bacteria. In this sense, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance profile and the multiresistant phenotype of bacteria isolated in sewage from a tertiary hospital in the interior São Paulo state, Brazil. For bacteria isolation, 10 µL of sewage samples were sown in selective culture media and the isolates were identified using VITEK-2 automatized system. The antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disk diffusion. High percentages of resistance were found for amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, vancomycin and the multidrug-resistant phenotype (MDR) was attributed to 60.7% of the isolates. Our results show bacteria classified as critical/high priority by WHO List of Priority Pathogens (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin and Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems) in hospital sewage. Therefore, the implementation of disinfection technologies for hospital sewage would reduce the bacterial load in the sewage that will reach urban wastewater treatment plants, minimizing superficial water contamination and bacterial resistance spread in the environment.


Resumo Altas doses de antibióticos utilizados em hospitais podem afetar a composição microbiana dos esgotos, selecionando bactérias resistentes. Nesse sentido, avaliamos o perfil de resistência a antibióticos e o fenótipo multirresistente de bactérias isoladas em esgoto de um hospital terciário no interior do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Para o isolamento de bactérias, foram semeados 10 µL das amostras de esgoto em meios de cultura seletivos e os isolados foram identificados usando o sistema automatizado VITEK-2. O teste de sensibilidade aos antibióticos foi realizado por disco-difusão em ágar. Elevadas porcentagens de resistência foram encontradas para amoxicilina, ampicilina, ceftazidima, clindamicina, vancomicina e o fenótipo multirresistente (MDR) foi atribuído a 60,7% dos isolados. Nossos resultados mostram bactérias classificadas como prioridade crítica/alta pela Lista de Patógenos Prioritários da OMS (Enterococcus e Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à vancomicina e Enterobacteriaceae resistentes aos carbapenêmicos) no esgoto hospitalar. Sendo assim, implementação de tecnologias de desinfecção do esgoto hospitalar reduziriam a carga bacteriana no esgoto que chegará às estações de tratamento de esgoto urbanas, minimizando a contaminação dos ecossistemas hídricos receptores e a disseminação da resistência bacteriana no ambiente.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681897

RESUMO

High doses of antibiotics used in hospitals can affect the microbial composition of sewers, selecting resistant bacteria. In this sense, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance profile and the multiresistant phenotype of bacteria isolated in sewage from a tertiary hospital in the interior São Paulo state, Brazil. For bacteria isolation, 10 µL of sewage samples were sown in selective culture media and the isolates were identified using VITEK-2 automatized system. The antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disk diffusion. High percentages of resistance were found for amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, vancomycin and the multidrug-resistant phenotype (MDR) was attributed to 60.7% of the isolates. Our results show bacteria classified as critical/high priority by WHO List of Priority Pathogens (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin and Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems) in hospital sewage. Therefore, the implementation of disinfection technologies for hospital sewage would reduce the bacterial load in the sewage that will reach urban wastewater treatment plants, minimizing superficial water contamination and bacterial resistance spread in the environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
J Parasitol ; 99(6): 1144-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23718640

RESUMO

Abstract : The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P < 0.05) and a trend of decreasing Cryptosporidium densities, without statistical significance. Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist that are favorable to population's exposure to diarrhea-causing agents.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/parasitologia , Esgotos/virologia , Adenoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adenoviridae/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/análise , Brasil , Cryptosporidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giardia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos , Rotavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rotavirus/imunologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/normas
4.
Transfus Med ; 22(2): 116-21, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22283663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of skin disinfection techniques is essential to avoid the transmission of infectious agents during blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of two methods of arm skin disinfection used in blood donors at a Hemotherapy Center in Brazil that represents an important centre for distributing haemocomponents to many cities in the country. METHODS: Two skin disinfection techniques in 50 blood donors were evaluated. For the first arm, 10% povidone-iodine/two-stage technique was used. On the opposite arm, 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate alcohol solution/one-stage technique was used. The swabs were seeded on three culture media: blood agar, mannitol salt agar and Mac Conkey agar. Automated bacterial classification based on biochemical tests/specific substrates was performed. Donor characteristics were collected using the computerised system of the Hemotherapy Center. RESULTS: We found that microbial reduction was significantly higher for 10% povidone-iodine technique (98.57-98.87%) when compared with 0.5% chlorhexidine technique (94.38-95.06%). The species Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Staphylococcus hominis showed resistance to both disinfection techniques. We did not find statistically significant relationships between donor characteristics and microbial reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Arm skin disinfection with 10% povidone-iodine produced better antimicrobial activity. We must acknowledge that 10% povidone-iodine technique has the limitation of being a two-stage method. However, prevention of adverse events due to bacterial contamination and transfusion reactions should be prioritised. Production of hypoallergenic and stronger antiseptics that allowed a safe one-stage disinfection technique should be encouraged in health systems, not only in Brazil but also around the world.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Braço , Doadores de Sangue , Desinfecção/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pele , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Environ Int ; 32(1): 52-7, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15990169

RESUMO

In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Eliminação de Resíduos , Saccharum/química , Brasil
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 53(1): 59-64, mar. 2003.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-356586

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), cooper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in the water of drinking fountains distributed in the Campus of the University of São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Thirty random samples were collected in different parts of the Campus that were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. According to WHO's Drinking Water Guidelines; lead, cadmium and zinc were found in concentrations higher than those recommended in 40 per cent, 20 per cent and 13 per cent of the samples, respectively. The results were analyzed considering nutritional and toxicological aspects related to the presence of essential and toxic elements for the human being. Reviewing the regulatory limits established in ten countries of America, authors focus in the necessity to find a consensus in the establishment of the higher levels of heavy metals in potable water. The tolerable daily intake, have to be the basis to assure the prevention of diseases associated with a long-term ingestion of these elements through foods.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água/análise , Água/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Concentração Máxima Permitida
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