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1.
Front Oncol ; 10: 575909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216838

RESUMO

Background: Acute skin toxicity is a common and usually transient side-effect of breast radiotherapy although, if sufficiently severe, it can affect breast cosmesis, aftercare costs and the patient's quality-of-life. The aim of this study was to develop predictive models for acute skin toxicity using published risk factors and externally validate the models in patients recruited into the prospective multi-center REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side-effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) study. Methods: Patient and treatment-related risk factors significantly associated with acute breast radiation toxicity on multivariate analysis were identified in the literature. These predictors were used to develop risk models for acute erythema and acute desquamation (skin loss) in three Radiogenomics Consortium cohorts of patients treated by breast-conserving surgery and whole breast external beam radiotherapy (n = 2,031). The models were externally validated in the REQUITE breast cancer cohort (n = 2,057). Results: The final risk model for acute erythema included BMI, breast size, hypo-fractionation, boost, tamoxifen use and smoking status. This model was validated in REQUITE with moderate discrimination (AUC 0.65), calibration and agreement between predicted and observed toxicity (Brier score 0.17). The risk model for acute desquamation, excluding the predictor tamoxifen use, failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. Conclusions: While most published prediction research in the field has focused on model development, this study reports successful external validation of a predictive model using clinical risk factors for acute erythema following radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. This model retained discriminatory power but will benefit from further re-calibration. A similar model to predict acute desquamation failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. Future improvements and more accurate predictions are expected through the addition of genetic markers and application of other modeling and machine learning techniques.

2.
Front Oncol ; 10: 541281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178576

RESUMO

Background: REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) is an international prospective cohort study. The purpose of this project was to analyse a cohort of patients recruited into REQUITE using a deep learning algorithm to identify patient-specific features associated with the development of toxicity, and test the approach by attempting to validate previously published genetic risk factors. Methods: The study involved REQUITE prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy who had complete 2-year follow-up. We used five separate late toxicity endpoints: ≥grade 1 late rectal bleeding, ≥grade 2 urinary frequency, ≥grade 1 haematuria, ≥ grade 2 nocturia, ≥ grade 1 decreased urinary stream. Forty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already reported in the literature to be associated with the toxicity endpoints were included in the analysis. No SNP had been studied before in the REQUITE cohort. Deep Sparse AutoEncoders (DSAE) were trained to recognize features (SNPs) identifying patients with no toxicity and tested on a different independent mixed population including patients without and with toxicity. Results: One thousand, four hundred and one patients were included, and toxicity rates were: rectal bleeding 11.7%, urinary frequency 4%, haematuria 5.5%, nocturia 7.8%, decreased urinary stream 17.1%. Twenty-four of the 43 SNPs that were associated with the toxicity endpoints were validated as identifying patients with toxicity. Twenty of the 24 SNPs were associated with the same toxicity endpoint as reported in the literature: 9 SNPs for urinary symptoms and 11 SNPs for overall toxicity. The other 4 SNPs were associated with a different endpoint. Conclusion: Deep learning algorithms can validate SNPs associated with toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The method should be studied further to identify polygenic SNP risk signatures for radiotherapy toxicity. The signatures could then be included in integrated normal tissue complication probability models and tested for their ability to personalize radiotherapy treatment planning.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751332

RESUMO

An individual's inherited genetic variation may contribute to the 'angiogenic switch', which is essential for blood supply and tumor growth of microscopic and macroscopic tumors. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes potentially predispose to colorectal cancer (CRC) or affect the survival of CRC patients. We investigated the association of 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 angiogenesis-related genes with CRC risk and survival of CRC patients in 1754 CRC cases and 1781 healthy controls within DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening), a German population-based case-control study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression to test for genetic associations with CRC risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for survival. Multiple testing was adjusted for by a false discovery rate. No variant was associated with CRC risk. Variants in EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 were significantly associated with overall survival. The association of the EFNB2 tagging SNP rs9520090 (p < 0.0001) was confirmed in two validation datasets (p-values: 0.01 and 0.05). The associations of the tagging SNPs rs6040062 in JAG1 (p-value 0.0003) and rs2241145 in MMP2 (p-value 0.0005) showed the same direction of association with overall survival in the first and second validation sets, respectively, although they did not reach significance (p-values: 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 are known for their functional role in angiogenesis and the present study points to novel evidence for the impact of angiogenesis-related genetic variants on the CRC outcome.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 936-941, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the ability to supplement existing epidemiologic/etiologic studies with data on treatment and clinical outcomes by linking to publicly available cancer registry and administrative databases. METHODS: Medical records were retrieved and abstracted for cases enrolled in a Los Angeles County case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Cases were linked to the Los Angeles County cancer registry (CSP), the California state hospitalization discharge database (OSHPD), and the SEER-Medicare database. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of cancer treatment in linked databases, compared with medical record abstraction. RESULTS: We successfully retrieved medical records for 918 of 1,004 participating NHL cases and abstracted treatment for 698. We linked 59% of cases (96% of cases >65 years old) to SEER-Medicare and 96% to OSHPD. Chemotherapy was the most common treatment and best captured, with the highest sensitivity in SEER-Medicare (80%) and CSP (74%); combining all three data sources together increased sensitivity (92%), at reduced specificity (56%). Sensitivity for radiotherapy was moderate: 77% with aggregated data. Sensitivity of BMT was low in the CSP (42%), but high for the administrative databases, especially OSHPD (98%). Sensitivity for surgery reached 83% when considering all three datasets in aggregate, but PPV was 60%. In general, sensitivity and PPV for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma were low. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy was accurately captured by all data sources. Hospitalization data yielded the highest performance values for BMTs. Performance measures for radiotherapy and surgery were moderate. IMPACT: Various administrative databases can supplement epidemiologic studies, depending on treatment type and NHL subtype of interest.

6.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(3): 324-339, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539290

RESUMO

Purpose: To summarize existing knowledge and to understand individual response to radiation exposure, the MELODI Association together with CONCERT European Joint Programme has organized a workshop in March 2018 on radiation sensitivity and susceptibility.Methods: The workshop reviewed the current evidence on this matter, to inform the MELODI Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), to determine social and scientific needs and to come up with recommendations for suitable and feasible future research initiatives to be taken for the benefit of an improved medical diagnosis and treatment as well as for radiation protection.Results: The present paper gives an overview of the current evidence in this field, including potential effect modifiers such as age, gender, genetic profile, and health status of the exposed population, based on clinical and epidemiological observations.Conclusion: The authors conclude with the following recommendations for the way forward in radiation research: (a) there is need for large (prospective) cohort studies; (b) build upon existing radiation research cohorts; (c) use data from well-defined cohorts with good exposure assessment and biological material already collected; (d) focus on study quality with standardized data collection and reporting; (e) improve statistical analysis; (f) cooperation between radiobiology and epidemiology; and (g) take consequences of radiosensitivity and radiosusceptibility into account.


Assuntos
Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Proteção Radiológica , Tolerância a Radiação , Animais , Congressos como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Camundongos , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radiobiologia , Radiometria , Risco
7.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 59-67, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n = 4409) and PAXgene tubes (n = 3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ≥2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(2): 562-572, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) has been suggested as a predictive assay for adverse late reactions after radiotherapy. Thus, low RILA values of T-lymphocyte subpopulations have been associated with increased risk for various endpoints at 2 to 3 years of follow-up. The purpose was to test if such associations persist for specific endpoints (subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia) in breast cancer patients with at least 10 years of follow-up.Experimental Design: Two hundred and seventy-two female patients who had received breast-conserving therapy within the German ISE study were included (median follow-up: 11.6 years). Radiotherapy-induced side effects were scored according to the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic (LENT-SOMA) classification system. RILA in the CD4+, CD8+, and natural killer (NK) subpopulations from peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. Multivariate predictive modeling was performed including relevant clinical risk factors. RESULTS: Low CD4+ RILA was associated with increased risk for both fibrosis (P = 0.011) and telangiectasia (P < 0.001). For fibrosis, the association was stronger outside the surgical area (Fibout; P = 0.004) than within (Fibin; P = 0.17). Predictive multivariate modeling including clinical risk factors yielded OR of 3.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.58) for any fibrosis and 8.60 (2.71-27.3) for telangiectasia. Addition of CD4+ RILA to the clinical variables improved discrimination (c statistics) from 0.62 to 0.68 for any fibrosis, 0.62 to 0.66 for Fibin, 0.61 to 0.69 for Fibout, and from 0.65 to 0.76 for telangiectasia. CD8+ and NK RILA were not significantly associated with radiotherapy-related late reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide first evidence that low CD4+ RILA is associated with increased subcutaneous fibrosis and telangiectasia even after 10 years. This supports the potential usefulness for predicting individual clinical risk.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos da radiação , Telangiectasia/etiologia , Telangiectasia/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Fibrose , Seguimentos , Humanos , Curva ROC , Lesões por Radiação
9.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845757

RESUMO

Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is a key pathway essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, and repair. This pathway is a critical target for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is predominantly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. A comprehensive assessment of polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes and their association with prognosis has not yet been performed. Within 1,739 CRC cases aged ≥30 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2007 (DACHS study), we investigated 397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 candidates in 48 FOCM-related genes for associations with overall- (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using multiple Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, stage, grade, BMI, and alcohol). We investigated effect modification by 5-FU-based chemotherapy and assessed pathway-specific effects. Correction for multiple testing was performed using false discovery rates (FDR). After a median follow-up time of 5.0 years, 585 patients were deceased. For one candidate SNP in MTHFR and two in TYMS, we observed significant inverse associations with OS (MTHFR: rs1801133, C677T: HRhet  = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97; TYMS: rs1001761: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99 and rs2847149: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). After FDR correction, one polymorphism in paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs3917538) was significantly associated with OS (HRhet  = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.53; HRhzv  = 2.02, 95% CI:1.46-2.80; HRlogAdd  = 1.31, pFDR  = 0.01). Adjusted pathway analyses showed significant associations for pyrimidine biosynthesis (P = 0.04) and fluorouracil drug metabolism (P < 0.01) with significant gene-chemotherapy interactions, including PON1 rs3917538. This study supports the concept that FOCM-related genes could be associated with CRC survival and may modify effects of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in genes in pyrimidine and fluorouracil metabolism, which are relevant targets for therapeutic response and prognosis in CRC. These results require confirmation in additional clinical studies.

11.
Breast ; 38: 75-80, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of cohorts of breast cancer (BC) patients diagnosed before 1990 showed radiotherapy (RT) to be associated with increased cardiovascular (CVD) and lung cancer mortality many years after diagnosis. In the late 1990s, improvements in RT planning techniques reduced radiation doses to normal tissues. Recent studies did not consistently report higher RT-related mortality for CVD and second cancers. Aim of the study was to analyze specific causes of death after 3D-conformal RT in a recent BC cohort. METHODS: Stage I-III BC patients diagnosed 2001-2005 and enrolled in the population based MARIEplus study were followed-up for 11.9 years (median). Associations between adjuvant RT and cause-specific mortality were analyzed by using competing risks models, yielding subdistribution hazard ratios (SHR) for RT directly related to cumulative incidences. Models were adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics applying inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: Of the 2951 patients, 2439 (83.0%) received RT. No significant association of RT with lung cancer mortality (SHRIPTW 0.88, 0.35-2.12), other cancer mortality (SHRIPTW 1.04, 95% CI 0.62-1.73) or cardiac mortality was observed (SHRIPTW 1.57, 0.75-3.29). Mortality from lung and other diseases were significantly lower in irradiated women (SHRIPTW 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.90 and SHRIPTW 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.97, respectively). CONCLUSION: In line with recent studies, 3D-conformal RT did not significantly increase mortality from non-BC causes in the German MARIEplus cohort. Since long-term data are still sparse and event rates low in BC-cohorts, who received modern RT, investigation of possible late RT effects on mortality beyond 14 years of follow-up is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade
12.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 95(5): 1466-1476, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the main causes underlying the failure of prediction models for radiation therapy toxicity to replicate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were used from two German cohorts, Individual Radiation Sensitivity (ISE) (n=418) and Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE) (n=409), of breast cancer patients with similar characteristics and radiation therapy treatments. The toxicity endpoint chosen was telangiectasia. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression method was used to build a predictive model for a dichotomized endpoint (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer score 0, 1, or ≥2). Internal areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (inAUCs) were calculated by a naïve approach whereby the training data (ISE) were also used for calculating the AUC. Cross-validation was also applied to calculate the AUC within the same cohort, a second type of inAUC. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were calculated within ISE and MARIE separately. Models trained on one dataset (ISE) were applied to a test dataset (MARIE) and AUCs calculated (exAUCs). RESULTS: Internal AUCs from the naïve approach were generally larger than inAUCs from cross-validation owing to overfitting the training data. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were also generally larger than the exAUCs, reflecting heterogeneity in the predictors between cohorts. The best models with largest inAUCs from cross-validation within both cohorts had a number of common predictors: hypertension, normalized total boost, and presence of estrogen receptors. Surprisingly, the effect (coefficient in the prediction model) of hypertension on telangiectasia incidence was positive in ISE and negative in MARIE. Other predictors were also not common between the 2 cohorts, illustrating that overcoming overfitting does not solve the problem of replication failure of prediction models completely. CONCLUSIONS: Overfitting and cohort heterogeneity are the 2 main causes of replication failure of prediction models across cohorts. Cross-validation and similar techniques (eg, bootstrapping) cope with overfitting, but the development of validated predictive models for radiation therapy toxicity requires strategies that deal with cohort heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Telangiectasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prevalência , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Telangiectasia/diagnóstico
13.
Radiother Oncol ; 121(3): 431-439, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried out by the International Radiogenomics Consortium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis included 5456 patients from 17 different cohorts. 2759 patients were given radiotherapy for breast cancer and 2697 for prostate cancer. Eight toxicity scores (overall toxicity, acute toxicity, late toxicity, acute skin toxicity, acute rectal toxicity, telangiectasia, fibrosis and late rectal toxicity) were analyzed. Adjustments were made for treatment and patient related factors with potential impact on the risk of toxicity. RESULTS: For all endpoints except late rectal toxicity, a significantly increased risk of toxicity was found for carriers of the minor (Asn) allele with odds ratios of approximately 1.5 for acute toxicity and 1.2 for late toxicity. The results were consistent with a co-dominant pattern of inheritance. CONCLUSION: This study convincingly showed a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 Asn allele and increased risk of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10893, 2016 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26964756

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a fundamental part of cancer treatment but its use is limited by the onset of late adverse effects in the normal tissue, especially radiation-induced fibrosis. Since the molecular causes for fibrosis are largely unknown, we analyse if epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in fibrosis risk. DNA methylation profiling of dermal fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients prior to irradiation identifies differences associated with fibrosis. One region is characterized as a differentially methylated enhancer of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA). Decreased DNA methylation at this enhancer enables recruitment of the profibrotic transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and facilitates radiation-induced DGKA transcription in cells from patients later developing fibrosis. Conversely, inhibition of DGKA has pronounced effects on diacylglycerol-mediated lipid homeostasis and reduces profibrotic fibroblast activation. Collectively, DGKA is an epigenetically deregulated kinase involved in radiation response and may serve as a marker and therapeutic target for personalized radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Mama/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Cromatografia Líquida , Diacilglicerol Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/genética , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Pele/citologia , Transcriptoma
15.
Int J Cancer ; 138(12): 2993-3001, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835885

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin is frequently used as part of a chemotherapeutic regimen with 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). The cellular availability of oxaliplatin is dependent on metabolic and transporter enzymes. Variants in genes encoding these enzymes may cause variation in response to oxaliplatin and could be potential predictive markers. Therefore, we used a two-step procedure to comprehensively investigate 1,444 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these pathways for their potential as predictive markers for oxaliplatin treatment, using 623 stage II-IV CRC patients (of whom 201 patients received oxaliplatin) from a German prospective patient cohort treated with adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy. First, all genes were screened using the global test that evaluated SNP*oxaliplatin interaction terms per gene. Second, one model was created by backward elimination on all SNP*oxaliplatin interactions of the selected genes. The statistical procedure was evaluated using bootstrap analyses. Nine genes differentially associated with overall survival according to oxaliplatin treatment (unadjusted p values < 0.05) were selected. Model selection resulted in the inclusion of 14 SNPs from eight genes (six transporter genes, ABCA9, ABCB11, ABCC10, ATP1A1, ATP1B2, ATP8B3, and two metabolism genes GSTM5, GRHPR), which significantly improved model fit. Using bootstrap analysis we show an improvement of the prediction error of 3.7% in patients treated with oxaliplatin. Several variants in genes involved in metabolism and transport could thus be potential predictive markers for oxaliplatin treatment in CRC patients. If confirmed, inclusion of these variants in a predictive test could identify patients who are more likely to benefit from treatment with oxaliplatin.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 183(4): 325-34, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823437

RESUMO

We employed a semi-Markov multistate model for the simultaneous analysis of various endpoints describing the course of breast cancer. Results were compared with those from standard analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model. We included 3,012 patients with invasive breast cancer newly diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 who were recruited in Germany for a population-based study, the Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE Study), and prospectively followed up until the end of 2009. Locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis were included as intermediate states, and deaths from breast cancer, secondary cancer, and other causes were included as competing absorbing states. Tumor characteristics were significantly associated with all breast cancer-related endpoints. Nodal involvement was significantly related to local recurrence but more strongly related to distant metastases. Smoking was significantly associated with mortality from second cancers and other causes, whereas menopausal hormone use was significantly associated with reduced distant metastasis and death from causes other than cancer. The presence of cardiovascular disease at diagnosis was solely associated with mortality from other causes. Compared with separate Cox models, multistate models allow for dissection of prognostic factors and intermediate events in the analysis of cause-specific mortality and can yield new insights into disease progression and associated pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Cancer ; 138(9): 2098-108, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649645

RESUMO

Cohort studies of breast cancer (BC) patients, but not of disease-free women at inclusion, have found menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) to be associated with decreased BC specific mortality (BCM). Here, the German population-based MARIEplus BC cohort was analyzed to further elucidate associations of prediagnostic MHT with BCM (and modification by tumor characteristics), recurrence, and secondarily with other cause and overall mortality. Enrolled 2002-2005, incident invasive BC cases (N = 3,321) were followed up for a median of 6.1 years. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for tumor characteristics, mammography and lifestyle were applied. Compared with never users of MHT, current users at date of diagnosis had significantly lower BCM (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97) and risk of recurrence (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.82). The MHT related reduced BCM was confined to patients with low grade tumors (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.70; phet = 0.01) and not modified by estrogen receptor or nodal status. BCM decreased with MHT duration in current and increased in past users (phet = 0.015). Mortality due to causes other than BC and overall mortality were also reduced in current MHT users (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.81, HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.86, respectively). Favorable tumor characteristics and mammographic surveillance could not fully explain associations of current MHT use with BCM and recurrence risk. Thus, the study contributes to the evidence that prediagnostic MHT does not have a negative impact on prognosis after BC. The restriction of a reduced BCM to low grade tumors should be confirmed in independent studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 978, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. METHODS: We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p<0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. RESULTS: rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p=0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p=0.009; combined analysis p=0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency=0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR=1.42, 95% 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR=0.73, 95% CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(11)2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Estatura , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 92(5): 1084-1092, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26072091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. RESULTS: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (-0.08, 95% confidence interval -0.15 to -0.02, P=.016). CONCLUSIONS: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibrose/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X
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