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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 381, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient biofilm removal in the furcation area (FA) is a major challenge in the clinical practice of supportive periodontal therapy. The aim of the present experimental study was to simulate subgingival cleaning of the FA using a powered scaler (sonic scaler (AIR), ultrasonic scaler (US)) for conventional mechanical debridement versus two air polishing with nonabrasive powder (LAPA-1: glycine powder, LAPA-2: erythritol powder) and different nozzles for supra-/subgingival cleaning for each device. METHODS: Seven trained and calibrated operators with ≥ 2 years each of professional experience in treating periodontitis used the instruments to clean 3D-printed replicas of six molars with through-and-through FA (four 3-rooted and two 2-rooted teeth) in a manikin head. AIR and US were used in the control group; air polishing instruments were used in the test group. For reproducible evaluation, the test teeth were separated vertically into two or three parts, illuminated with ultraviolet light, photographed and evaluated planimetrically. Treatment time (TrT, in s) and relative cleaning efficacy (RCE, in %) were measured. RESULTS: Overall, 3-rooted molars (RCE in the entire FA, 23.19 ± 20.98%) could be cleaned significantly less effectively than 2-rooted molars (53.04 ± 28.45%, p < 0.001), regardless of the instrument used. In the cleaning of the entire FA, significantly higher RCE values were achieved with conventional mechanical debridement (AIR/US: 46.04 ± 25.96%/39.63 ± 22.02%; AIR vs. US: p > 0.05) than with air polishing (LAPA-1/LAPA-2: 34.06 ± 29.48%/17.09 ± 18.85%; LAPA-1 vs. LAPA-2: p < 0.001) regardless of whether a supra- or subgingival cleaning nozzle used (p < 0.001). Only LAPA-1 with a subgingival nozzle showed RCE values comparable to those of US (41.07 ± 28.95% vs. 39.63 ± 22.02%, p > 0.05). TrT was longest for US (299.40 ± 120.69 s) and shortest for LAPA-1 with a supragingival nozzle (129.67 ± 60.92 s, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: All of the examined instruments were effective to some degree in removing the simulated biofilm from the FA, but they differed substantially in cleaning efficacy. Only one air polishing device (LAPA-1) with a rigid subgingival nozzle was able to achieve RCE values similar to those of US. The current investigation confirmed that conventional mechanical debridement with powered scalers were most effective, but treatment took longer with these devices than air polishing.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Periodontite , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Humanos , Dente Molar , Pós
2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(1): 219-230, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whereas the key role of subgingival instrumentation in periodontal therapy is well known, the influence of operators' experience/training with different devices on treatment results is yet uncertain. Therefore, we assessed untrained undergraduate students, working on manikins, as to how effectively they learn to use curettes (GRA) and sonic scalers (AIR); hypothesizing that AIR will result in higher relative cleaning efficacy (RCE) than GRA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Before baseline evaluation (T0), 30 operators (9 males, 21 females) received a 2-h theoretical lesson for both instruments, followed by a 12-week period with a weekly digitized training program for 45 min. During three sessions (T1-T3), the operators had to instrument six equivalent test teeth with GRA and AIR. At T0-T3, treatment time, proportion of removed simulated biofilm (RCE-b), and hard deposits (RCE-d) were measured. RESULTS: At T0, RCE-b was in mean(SD) 64.18(25.74) % for GRA, 62.25(26.69) % for AIR; (p = 0.172) and RCE-d 85.48(12.32) %/ 65.71(15.27) % (p < 0.001). At T3, operators reached highest RCE-b in both groups (GRA/AIR 71.54(23.90) %/71.75(23.05)%; p = 0.864); RCE-d GRA/AIR: 84.68(16.84) %/77.85(13.98) %; p < 0.001). Both groups achieved shorter treatment times after training. At T3, using curettes was faster (GRA/AIR 16.67(3.31) min/19.80(4.52) min; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After systematic digitized training, untrained operators were able to clean 70% of the root surfaces with curettes and sonic scalers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It can be concluded that a systematic digitized and interactive training program in manikin heads is helpful in the training of root surface debridement.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Raiz Dentária , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Manequins , Aplainamento Radicular
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 346, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated whether a new digitized scaling training program (DTP: n = 30; supervisor-student-ratio 1:10) improves the performance of undergraduate dental student during a preclinical course in regard to two different instruments [sonic scalers (AIR) and Gracey curettes (GRA)] compared to a conventional training program (CTP: n = 19; supervisor-student-ratio 1:4). METHODS: All the participants received a two-hour lecture on both instruments, followed by a 12-week period with a weekly training program lasting 45 min (10 sessions); one group was supported by DTP. At the end of the training phase, all the participants performed the subgingival scaling of six equivalent test teeth using GRA and AIR. Treatment time, proportion of removed simulated biofilm (relative cleaning efficacy, RCE-b) and hard deposits (RCE-d) were recorded. By using a pseudonymized questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale, self-assessment of scaling effort, handling, root surface roughness/destruction and effectiveness were evaluated. In addition, personal data such as age, gender, handedness, regularity of playing computer games/consoles and previous dental/technical or medical education were elevated and correlated with cleaning efficacy. RESULTS: The DTP participants showed higher effectiveness in RCE-b compared to those who used the CTP with GRA (71.54% vs. 67.23%, p = 0.004) and AIR (71.75% vs. 62.63%, p ≤ 0.001), and the DTP students were faster with both instruments (p ≤ 0.001). For RCE-d, there was no significant difference between the DTP and CTP groups (GRA p = 0.471; AIR p = 0.158), whereas DTP showed better RCE-d results with GRA versus AIR (84.68% vs. 77.85%, p < 0.001). According to the questionnaire, no significant differences were detected between the training groups in terms of self-assessment, handling, treatment time, root surface roughness/destruction or effectiveness of the instruments. The CTP group favored AIR compared to GRA regarding the fatigue effect. The CTP and playing computer games/consoles regularly was correlated with lower RCE-b, whereas previous education in medicine/dentistry was correlated with higher RCE-b values. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the study, the DTP with a reduced supervision effort compared to the CTP resulted in higher effectiveness and lower instrumentation time for removing simulated biofilms.


Assuntos
Motivação , Estudantes de Odontologia , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Raiz Dentária
4.
J Dent ; 99: 103417, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess if long-term treatment costs in periodontitis patients differ between stage III vs. IV and grade B vs. C according to the 2018 classification of periodontal diseases. METHODS: A cohort of 231 periodontitis patients (followed over a mean of 18.4 years) was evaluated. Costs for active periodontal therapy (APT, including scaling and root planning, open flap debridement, root resections) and supportive periodontal therapy (SPT, including also restorative, endodontic, prosthetic and surgical treatment) were estimated from a mixed payer-perspective in Germany (in Euro 2020). Multi-dimensional staging and grading was applied. The impact of stage, grade, sex and age on total and annual costs was assessed. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total and annual treatment costs were 7154 (2554) Euro and 437 (222) Euro. Costs were generated during SPT (92 %) and by periodontal treatment (88 %) and decreased significantly with longer follow-up (p < 0.001). Total costs were 7120 (2692) Euro in stage III (n = 154) vs. 7221 (2271) Euro in stage IV (n = 77; p > 0.05), and 6256 (1605) Euro in grade B (n = 35) vs. 7314 (2660) Euro in grade C (n = 196; p < 0.001). Annual costs were 426 (219) Euro vs. 459 (228) Euro for stage III vs. stage IV (p > 0.05) and 308 (163) Euro vs. 460 (224) Euro for grade B vs. grade C (p < 0.001). Multivariable modelling found grade, but not stage, sex and age significantly associated with costs. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, and in patients with severe periodontitis who were systematically treated long-term, grading, but not staging was associated with costs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment costs were higher in patients with more progressive periodontitis and were found to decrease during follow-up. Dentists need to consider costs during treatment planning and communication with patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Assistência Odontológica , Alemanha , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Periodontite/terapia
5.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(8): 952-961, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473059

RESUMO

AIM: This pilot study assessed the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after long-term periodontal therapy and explored OHRQoL differences along the 2018 Classification of Periodontal Diseases. METHODS: Sixty patients were examined before (T0) and after active periodontal therapy (APT/T1) and 32.0 ± 2.9 [range: 27-38] years of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT/T2). Periodontal diagnosis at T0 was assessed according to the 2018 Classification of Periodontal Diseases (stage 1/2/3/4: n = 1/3/44/13; grade n = A/B/C: 0/8/53). OHRQoL at T2 was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile-G14 (OHIP-G14). Patients' Eichner's classification, accumulated tooth loss and treatment outcomes (SSO criteria) were assessed at T2. Generalized linear modelling (GLM) assessed associations between different factors and OHrQoL. RESULTS: Mean OHIP-G14 sum score was 3.7 (SD 5.6). There was no statistically significant association between OHIP-G14 and gender, stage, SSO criteria and tooth loss. OHIP-G14 was significantly lower in older patients (-0.2[-0.3;0] per year, p = .008), non-smokers (-5.9[-9.9;-1.9] p = .003) and former smokers (-7.4[-11.6;-3.2]; p < .001) versus current smokers, patients with Eichner class A1-B2 versus C2 (p < .05), sufficient adherence during SPT (-2.3[-4.6;-0.1], p = .044) versus insufficient ones. Patients with grade B (4.4[1.3;7.4]; p < .005) showed higher OHIP-G14 than those with grade C. CONCLUSION: A number of aspects, grounded in the initial diagnosis, the adherence to SPT, the resulting dentition, socio-demographic and behavioural covariates, were associated with good OHrQoL.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Endod ; 44(9): 1436-1441, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Manufacturers offer single-file instrumentation systems with matching gutta-percha (GP) cones to simplify root canal preparation and obturation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether file diameters and tapers match with corresponding cone diameters and tapers (precision) as well as industry standards (accuracy). METHODS: Twenty files and corresponding GP cones from each size of F360 (#25, #35, #45, #55 with .04 taper) and Reciproc (#25, #40, #50 with variable tapers) instruments were examined by using optical microscopy (×32) to determine their diameter and taper. Precision was evaluated by using one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05) with Scheffé post hoc tests and t tests with Bonferroni correction. Accuracy was calculated by subtracting the nominal values from the measured values of all files and GP cones, and mean diameter and taper differences were compared by using one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05) and Scheffé post hoc test for pairwise comparison. RESULTS: For F360, the majority of file and cone diameters were within the tolerance levels, but most of the file diameters were significantly larger than GP cone diameters (P < .05), but the majority of all measured values were within the tolerance levels. For Reciproc, file and cone diameters at D1 and D3 mostly approached the nominal values. At the coronal end, file diameters #25 and #50 were significantly smaller than cone diameters (P < .05). For both instrumentation systems, almost all file and cone tapers matched with the preset tolerance ranges. For Reciproc, significant differences between file and GP cone demonstrated either smaller cone or smaller file diameters and tapers, depending on the size. Most of the measured values were within the acceptable range, but diameters at the coronal end exhibited the highest percent difference from the nominal values. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the call for standardization, variability in diameter and taper dimensions between single-file instrumentation systems and their corresponding GP cones can be expected.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Guta-Percha/normas , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/normas , Obturação do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Ligas , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia
8.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 12(4): 431-439, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) aims to increase consumption of fresh produce among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants while supporting local farmers. Area stakeholders are addressing the existing barriers to FMNP use that keep participation low. OBJECTIVES: Increase FMNP check redemption by participants in a Pittsburgh WIC office. METHODS: Quasiexperimental design including cooking demonstrations, tours of FMs, and community garden visits. Program participation and check redemption rates were tracked. RESULTS: The redemption rate of FMNP checks among research participants and nonparticipants was 46.5% and 39.0% (P < .001), respectively. Lessons learned point to needed changes on the local, state, and federal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to the use of WIC FMNP checks were consistent with the literature. Allowing mobile markets to accept FMNP checks may address barriers to FM shopping while supporting the local farmer. Our stakeholder group continues to recommend multilevel policy changes to improve the redemption rate.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Dieta , Fazendeiros , Assistência Alimentar/organização & administração , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Frutas , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
9.
Diabetes Educ ; 42(3): 281-90, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction was maintained following a lifestyle intervention. METHODS: Five hundred fifty-five individuals without diabetes from 8 rural communities were screened for BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity (86.1% female, 95.1% white, 55.8% obese). Communities and eligible participants (n = 493; mean age, 51 years, 87.6% female, 94.1% Caucasian) were assigned to 4 study groups: face-to-face, DVD, Internet, and self-selection (SS) (n = 101). Self-selection participants chose the intervention modality (60% face-to-face, 40% Internet, 0% DVD). Outcomes included weight change and risk factor reduction at 18 months. RESULTS: All groups achieved maintenance of 5% weight loss in over half of participants. Self-selection participants had the largest proportion maintain (89.5%). Similarly, nearly 75% of participants sustained risk factor reduction. After multivariate adjustment, participants in SS were 2.3 times more likely to maintain 5% weight loss compared to the other groups, but not risk factor reduction. CONCLUSION: Despite the modality, lifestyle intervention was effective at maintaining weight loss and risk reduction. However, SS participants were twice as likely to sustain improvements compared to other groups. The importance of patient-centered decision making in health care is paramount.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
11.
Diabetes Care ; 36(2): 202-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22966092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the comparative effectiveness of three lifestyle intervention modalities in decreasing risk for diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-five individuals (86.1% female, 95.1% white, and 55.8% obese) from eight rural communities were screened for BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference >40 inches in men and >35 inches in women. Communities with their eligible participants (n = 493; mean age 51 years, 87.6% female, 94.1% Caucasian) were assigned to four Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) intervention groups: face to face (FF) (n = 119), DVD (n = 113), internet (INT) (n = 101), and self-selection (SS) (n = 101). SS participants chose the GLB modality. GLB is a comprehensive lifestyle behavior-change program. RESULTS: A marked decline was observed in weight after the intervention in all groups (FF -12.5 lbs, P = 0.01; DVD -12.2 lbs, P < 0.0001; INT -13.7 lbs, P < 0.0001; and SS -14 lbs, P < 0.0001). Participants in SS experienced the largest average weight loss. Weight loss was sustained in >90% of participants in each group at 6 months (FF 90.7%, DVD 90.9%, INT 92.1%, and SS 100%). All groups experienced improvements in the proportion of participants with CVD risk factors. The proportion of individuals with CVD risk factors remained steady between 3 and 6 months in all groups and never returned back to baseline. All associations remained after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the modality, the GLB intervention was effective at decreasing weight and improving CVD risk factor control. SS and FF participants experienced greater improvements in outcomes compared with other groups, establishing the importance of patient-centered decision making and a support network for successful behavior change.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
12.
Diabetes Educ ; 38(6): 798-804, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effect of a Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) program on weight, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in an urban, medically underserved community. METHODS: This study was a single-arm prospective intervention study that was designed to test the effectiveness of a community-based GLB intervention. In sum, 638 residents from 11 targeted neighborhoods were screened for body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and metabolic syndrome. Eligible individuals took part in a 12-week GLB intervention (n = 105) that addressed weight loss and physical activity. Subjects were followed for 24 months. RESULTS: The probability of being at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced by 25.7% over the long-term follow-up. Of the participants who lost at least 5% of their body weight following the intervention, 52.6% maintained the 5% weight loss at their last follow-up time, weighing about 20 lb less than they did at baseline. CONCLUSION: Risk reduction and weight loss maintenance are possible following a GLB intervention and have substantial potential for future public health impact.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Participação do Paciente , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Perda de Peso
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 7(5): A109, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20712936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a community-based, modified Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We developed a Markov decision model to compare costs and effectiveness of a modified DPP intervention with usual care during a 3-year period. Input parameters included costs and outcomes from 2 projects that implemented a community-based modified DPP for participants with metabolic syndrome, and from other sources. The model discounted future costs and benefits by 3% annually. RESULTS: At 12 months, usual care reduced relative risk of metabolic syndrome by 12.1%. A modified DPP intervention reduced relative risk by 16.2% and yielded life expectancy gains of 0.01 quality-adjusted life-years (3.67 days) at an incremental cost of $34.50 ($3,420 per quality-adjusted life-year gained). In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were sensitive to probabilities that risk factors would be reduced with or without a modified DPP and that patients would enroll in an intervention, undergo testing, and acquire diabetes with or without an intervention if they were risk-factor-positive. Results were also sensitive to utilities for risk-factor-positive patients. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the intervention cost less than $20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained in approximately 78% of model iterations. CONCLUSION: We consider the modified DPP delivered in community and primary care settings a sound investment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Cadeias de Markov , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Diabetes Care ; 31(4): 684-9, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18252904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if a community-based modified Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) intervention, for individuals with metabolic syndrome, was effective in decreasing risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an urban medically underserved community, and subsequently to determine if improvements in clinical outcomes could be sustained in the short term. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This nonrandomized prospective intervention study used a one-group design to test the effectiveness of a community-based GLB intervention. Residents from 11 targeted neighborhoods were screened for metabolic syndrome (n = 573) and took part in a 12-week GLB intervention (n = 88) that addressed safe weight loss and physical activity. RESULTS: A marked decline in weight (46.4% lost > or = 5% and 26.1% lost or = 7%) was observed in individuals after completion of the intervention. Of these subjects, 87.5% (n = 28) and 66.7% (n = 12) sustained the 5% and 7% reduction, respectively, at the 6-month reassessment. Over one-third of the population (43.5%, n = 30) experienced improvements in one or more component of metabolic syndrome, and 73.3% (n = 22) sustained this improvement at the 6-month reassessment. Additional improvements occurred in waist circumference (P < 0.009) and blood pressure levels (P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, race, mean number of GLB classes attended, and time. CONCLUSIONS: Adults in an urban medically underserved community can decrease their risk for type 2 diabetes and CVD through participation in a GLB intervention, and short-term sustainability is feasible. Future research will include long-term follow-up of these subjects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , População Urbana , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Desemprego
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