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1.
Int Health ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIB) is an inexpensive practice but has a substantial potential to reduce neonatal morbidity. Therefore, this study investigated the maternal and child-related factors associated with EIB and makes recommendations that could help improve the practice in Chad. METHODS: We used data from the children's recode file of the 2014-2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 3991 women ages 15-49 y who had last-born children in the 2 y preceding the survey were included in our study. The outcome variable for the study was EIB. Both descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (binary logistic regression) analyses were carried out. All results of the binary logistic analyses are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We found the prevalence of EIB in Chad to be 23.8%. In terms of maternal factors, the likelihood of EIB was high among non-working women (aOR 1.37 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.59]), the richest wealth quintile women (aOR 1.37 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.79]) and non-media-exposed women (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.24 to 2.02]) compared with working women, the poorest wealth quintile women and media-exposed women, respectively. EIB was lower among children whose mothers had one to three antenatal care visits (ANC; aOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.61 to 0.87]) and four or more ANC visits (aOR 0.80 [95% CI 0.66 to 0.97]) compared with those who had no ANC visits. With the child factors, EIB was higher among mothers of children who were smaller than average size at birth compared with those of larger than average birth size (aOR 1.47 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.74]). Mothers of children of fifth-order or more births compared with those of first-order births (aOR 1.51 [95% CI 1.07 to 2.12]) and those who were delivered through vaginal birth compared with those delivered through caesarean section (aOR 4.71 [95% CI 1.36 to 16.24]) were more likely to practice EIB. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and child-related factors play roles in EIB in Chad. Hence, it is important to consider these factors in maternal and neonatal health interventions. Such initiatives, including training of outreach health workers, health education, counselling sessions and awareness-raising activities on breastfeeding geared towards EIB should be undertaken. These should take into consideration the employment status, wealth quintile, exposure to mass media, size of the baby at birth, ANC visits, parity and delivery method.

2.
Int Health ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the association between maternal healthcare service utilisation and circumcision of daughters in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional study design that draws on analysis of pooled data from current demographic and health surveys conducted between 2010 and 2019 in 12 countries in SSA. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression models were employed. RESULTS: Mothers who had four or more antenatal care visits were less likely to circumcise their daughters compared with those who had zero to three visits. Mothers who delivered at a health facility were less likely to circumcise their daughters than those who delivered at home. With the covariates, circumcision of daughters increased with increasing maternal age but decreased with increasing wealth quintile and level of education. Girls born to married women and women who had been circumcised were more likely to be circumcised. CONCLUSIONS: This study established an association between maternal healthcare service utilisation and circumcision of girls from birth to age 14 y in SSA. The findings highlight the need to strengthen policies that promote maternal healthcare service utilisation (antenatal care and health facility delivery) by integrating female genital mutilation (FGM) information and education in countries studied.

3.
SSM Popul Health ; 16: 100929, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660877

RESUMO

Interpersonal violence in adolescents has over the years grown into a serious public health problem that merits a robust intervention. This study, therefore, assessed the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal violence among in-school adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study involved a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted between 2012 and 2017 from eight sub-Saharan African countries. A total of 14,967 in-school adolescents aged 10-19 years were included in the pooled analysis. A multivariable binomial logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of interpersonal violence using the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of interpersonal violence among in-school adolescents in SSA was 53.7%. The odds of interpersonal violence were higher among adolescents who were bullied (aOR = 2.52, 95% CI = 2.23-2.85), had an injury (aOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 2.15-2.72), had suicidal attempts (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.16-1.70), were truant (aOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.33-1.72), used alcohol (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.06-2.11), and used tobacco (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.23-1.74). In-school adolescents with peer support, parents or guardians bonding, those whose parents or guardians respected their privacy, and those aged 15 years or older were less likely to experience interpersonal violence. These factors provide education directors and school heads/teachers with relevant information to guide the design of specific interventions such as parent-teacher meetings and programs, peer educator network system, face-to-face counseling sessions, Rational Emotive Behavioural Education (REBE) and substance use cessation therapy to prevent interpersonal violence, particularly physical fights and attacks in school settings. Also, students should be sensitized on the negative effects of interpersonal violence and those who have been exposed to it should be counselled. School rules should be strengthened and appropriate punishment given to students who engage in violence baheviours in schools in order to deter others from engaging in them.

4.
Int Health ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this article we report the prevalence and determinants of intended or wanted pregnancies among young women 15-24 y of age in selected sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used pooled data from current Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019 in 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The sample size comprised 14 257 young women (15-24 y of age). Multivariable binary logistic regression models were used to present the results as adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of intended pregnancies was 67.7%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Gambia (89.9%) and Namibia (37.7%), respectively. Intended pregnancy was lower among young women who had knowledge of modern contraceptives, those with a secondary/higher education and those with four or more births. Lower odds of intended pregnancy were observed among young women in the richer wealth quintile and those who lived in southern Africa. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce intended pregnancies in sub-Saharan African countries such as Gambia, Burkina Faso and Nigeria, there is a need for government and non-governmental organisations to recalibrate current and past interventions such as investment in increasing formal education for women and poverty alleviation programmes, as well as augmenting job creation, including skill-building. These interventions have to be sensitive to the cultural realities of each setting, especially with regards to early marriages and womanhood.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 431, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption constitutes a major public health problem as it has negative consequences on the health, social, psychological, and economic outcomes of individuals. Tertiary education presents students with unique challenges and some students resort to the use of alcohol in dealing with their problems. This study, therefore, sought to determine alcohol use, its effects, and associated factors among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipaility of Ghana. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 418 tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana using a two-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. A binary logistic regression modelling was used to determine the strength of the association between alcohol consumption and the explanatory variables. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Stata version 16.0 was used to perform the analysis. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption was 39.5%. Out of them, 49.1% were still using alcohol, translating to an overall prevalence of 19.4% among the tertiary students. Self-reported perceived effects attributed to alcohol consumption were loss of valuable items (60.6%), excessive vomiting (53.9%), stomach pains/upset (46.1%), accident (40.0%), unprotected sex (35.1%), risk of liver infection (16.4%), depressive feelings (27.3%), diarrhoea (24.2%), debt (15.2%), and petty theft (22.4%). In terms of factors associated with alcohol consumption, students aged 26 years and above were more likely to have consumed alcohol [AOR = 4.4, 95%CI = 1.74, 11.14] than those in 16-20 years group. Muslim students had lower odds of alcohol consumption compared to Christians [AOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]. It was also found that students who had peer influence [AOR = 3.7, 95%CI = 2.31, 5.82] and those who had academic adjustment problems [AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.01, 6.46] were more likely to consume alcohol. CONCLUSION: Lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana, with several physical, psychosocial and economic consequences. Alcohol-related education should be intensified in tertiary institutions and counseling units should be equipped with relevant assessment tools to assess and help students who are at risk and those who are already consuming alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudantes , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578895

RESUMO

Worldwide, ten and a half million children under five die every year, with 98% of these deaths in low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Undernutrition is a serious public health problem in Ethiopia and children are the most affected segments of the population. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the socio-economic, demographic, health and environmental factors associated with undernutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. In this study, anthropometric data (height and weight) and other variables of 9461 children were measured. Descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression models were fitted. The descriptive results revealed that about 27.5% of the children aged between 6-59 months were undernourished. Place of residence, employment status of the mother, educational status of the mother, the mother's nutritional status, age of the child, birth order of children, source of drinking water, diarrhea and fever among children in the two weeks before the survey were the most important factors associated with undernutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. The findings indicate that it is useful to support health care and food security programs in rural areas to directly address food insecurity and undernutrition problems of the poor and exposed communities in rural parts of the country. The education sector must increase mothers' access to education in all areas to help identify the quality of healthcare and the required attention needed for their children. The health sector should increase their health education programs on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051583, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the divergent patterns, prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among parenting adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa using the Demographic and Health Survey datasets of 17 countries. DESIGN: We included a weighted sample of 9488 parenting adolescent girls in our analysis. Current contraceptive use was defined as the use of any methods to delay or avoid getting pregnant at the survey time. We reported the prevalence of any contraceptive use for all countries and used multilevel binary logistic regression analysis to examine the individual and contextual factors associated with contraceptive use. OUTCOME MEASURES: Contraceptive use. RESULTS: We found an overall contraceptive prevalence of 27.12% (CI 27.23% to 28.03%) among parenting adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from 70.0% (CI 61.76% to 77.16%) in South Africa to only 5.10% (CI 3.04% to 8.45%) in Chad. The prevalence of contraceptive use was lowest in West andCentral Africa, with most countries having less than 20% prevalence. Increasing age (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.46, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.65), being married (aOR=1.63, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.87), having a secondary or higher level of education (aOR=2.72, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.3.27), and media exposure (aOR=1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36), were associated with higher odds of contraceptive use in the pooled data but preference for a higher number of children (more than five children) (aOR=0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.72) was related to lower likelihood of use. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the country-level disaggregated results. CONCLUSION: African countries differ widely when it comes to contraceptive use among parenting adolescent girls, with only three countries having a relatively high prevalence of use. The governments of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those in West and Central Africa, should invest in expanding access to contraceptives for adolescent mothers to prevent repeat pregnancy and improve the overall well-being of parenting adolescent girls.

8.
J Biosoc Sci ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558397

RESUMO

Globally, HIV/AIDS remains a public health issue, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite the increased advocacy and dissemination of comprehensive HIV/AIDS information in SSA, it appears that little progress has been made to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the sub-region. This study, therefore, examined the association between comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and safer sex negotiation among adolescent girls and young women in SSA. Data were taken from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2010 and 2019 in 30 countries in SSA. The study sample comprised 37,364 adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24. A multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was done to test the hypothesis that there is a positive association between comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and safer sex negotiation. Adolescent girls and young women who had comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS were more likely to negotiate for safer sex compared with those who had no comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS (AOR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.22-1.41). At the country level, the positive association between comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS and safer sex negotiation was significant in Chad, Congo DR, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Ethiopia and Malawi. On the other hand, in Togo, adolescent girls and young women who had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were less likely to negotiate for safer sex. These findings can inform policies and programmes on the crucial role of comprehensive HIV/AIDS education and knowledge in increasing safer sex negotiation among adolescent girls and young women in SSA. The study recommends that Togo needs to address certain practices such as intimate partner violence against adolescent girls and young women, which prevent them from negotiating for safer sex, despite their higher knowledge on comprehensive HIV/AIDS. Lessons can be learnt from Chad, Congo DR, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Ethiopia and Malawi about the scale-up of programmes and interventions targeted at young women.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6696829, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589549

RESUMO

Background: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a minimum of eight antenatal care (ANC) visits for positive pregnancy outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of noncompliance with 8+ ANCvisits and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of eight countries in SSA. A pooled sample of 63,266 pregnant women aged 15-49 years who had given birth to children within 5 years prior to the surveys was included in this study. To examine the factors associated with noncompliance with ANC 8+ visits, multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the results were reported using odds radios at 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The pooled prevalence of noncompliance with ANC 8+ visits was 92.3% (95% CI: 91.1%-93.3%) with the highest and lowest prevalence in Zambia (98.7%, 95% CI: 98.3%-99.1%) and Libya (73.4%, 95% CI: 70.4%-76.2%), respectively. With the individual level factors, women's age (44-49 years-aOR = 0.33, 9% CI: 0.14-0.78), health insurance registration, (yes-aOR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.98), and economic status (richest-aOR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.49) were negatively associated with noncompliance with 8+ ANC visits, while parity (five or more children-aOR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.12-2.52) was positively associated with noncompliance with 8+ ANC visit. With the community level factors, community level literacy was negatively associated with noncompliance with 8+ ANC visit (high-aOR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). Conclusion: About eight out of ten pregnant women did not comply with the WHO's recommended minimum of eight ANC visits for positive pregnancy outcomes in SSA. Empowering the economic status of women , enhancing health insurance and education coverage, and giving more attention to young pregnant women and those with more children are crucial for improving the coverage of ANC 8+ visits in the region.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the years, sanitation programs over the world have focused more on household sanitation, with limited attention towards the disposal of children's stools. This lack of attention could be due to the misconception that children's stools are harmless. The current study examined the individual and contextual predictors of safe disposal of children's faeces among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: The study used secondary data involving 128,096 mother-child pairs of under-five children from the current Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 15 sub-Saharan African countries from 2015 to 2018. Multilevel logistic analysis was used to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with the practice of safe disposal of children's faeces. We presented the results as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at a statistical significance of p< 0.05. RESULTS: The results show that 58.73% (57.79-59.68) of childbearing women in the 15 countries in SSA included in our study safely disposed off their children's stools. This varied from as high as 85.90% (84.57-87.14) in Rwanda to as low as 26.38% (24.01-28.91) in Chad. At the individual level, the practice of safe disposal of children's stools was more likely to occur among children aged 1, compared to those aged 0 [aOR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.68-1.80] and those with diarrhoea compared to those without diarrhoea [aOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13-1.21]. Mothers with primary level of education [aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.30-1.5], those aged 35-39 [aOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.12-1.28], and those exposed to radio [aOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.20-1.27] were more likely to practice safe disposal of children's stools. Conversely, the odds of safe disposal of children's stool were lower among mothers who were married [aOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.69-0.80] and those who belonged to the Traditional African Religion [aOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.51-0.80]. With the contextual factors, women with improved water [aOR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.10-1.16] and improved toilet facility [aOR = 5.75 95% CI: 5.55-5.95] had higher odds of safe disposal of children's stool. On the other hand, mothers who lived in households with 5 or more children [aOR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.93], those in rural areas [aOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.82-0.89], and those who lived in Central Africa [aOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.18-0.21] were less likely to practice safe disposal of children's stools. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that between- and within-country contextual variations and commonalities need to be acknowledged in designing interventions to enhance safe disposal of children's faeces. Audio-visual education on safe faecal disposal among rural women and large households can help enhance safe disposal. In light of the strong association between safe stool disposal and improved latrine use in SSA, governments need to develop feasible and cost-effective strategies to increase the number of households with access to improved toilet facilities.

11.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 186, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggest that many slum dwellers in low- and middle-income countries have the most difficulty accessing family planning (FP) services, there are limited workable interventions/models for reaching slum communities with FP services. This review aimed to identify existing interventions and service delivery models for providing FP services in slums, and as well examine potential impact of such interventions and service delivery models in low- and middle-income settings. METHODS: We searched and retrieved relevant published studies on the topic from 2000 to 2020 from e-journals, health sources and six electronic databases (MEDLINE, Global Health, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science). Grey and relevant unpublished literature (e.g., technical reports) were also included. For inclusion, studies should have been published in a low- and middle-income country between 2000 and 2020. All study designs were included. Review articles, protocols or opinion pieces were excluded. Search results were screened for eligible articles and reports using a pre-defined criterion. Descriptive statistics and narrative syntheses were produced to summarize and report findings. RESULTS: The search of the e-journals, health sources and six electronic databases including grey literature and other unpublished materials produced 1,260 results. Following screening for title relevance, abstract and full text, nine eligible studies/reports remained. Six different types of FP service delivery models were identified: voucher schemes; married adolescent girls' club interventions; Willows home-based counselling and referral programme; static clinic and satellite clinics; franchised family planning clinics; and urban reproductive health initiatives. The urban reproductive health initiatives were the most dominant FP service delivery model targeting urban slums. As regards the impact of the service delivery models identified, the review showed that the identified interventions led to improved targeting of poor urban populations, improved efficiency in delivery of family planning service, high uptake or utilization of services, and improved quality of family planning services. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides important insights into existing family planning service delivery models and their potential impact in improving access to FP services in poor urban slums. Further studies exploring the quality of care and associated sexual and reproductive health outcomes as a result of the uptake of these service delivery models are essential. Given that the studies were reported from only 9 countries, further studies are needed to advance knowledge on this topic in other low-middle income countries where slum populations continue to rise.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Áreas de Pobreza , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts to promote condom use, sexually active people in sub-Sahara Africa still engage in risky sexual behaviours, with condom use relatively low. With this high vulnerability of these persons to HIV and sexually transmitted infections, research related to exposure to family planning messages to help curb this trend remains sparse. This study examined how exposure to family planning messages in the midst of some socio-demographic factors is associated with consistent condom use among sexually active never married men in Ghana. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. Only never married men (15-64 years) who have had sexual experience in the last 12 months were included in the analysis (N = 971). Frequencies, percentages, chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results of the binary logistic regression analysis were presented using crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). RESULTS: The results showed that only 26.15% of sexually active never married men in Ghana consistently used condom during sex. Men who were exposed to family planning messages were 51% more likely use condom consistently compared to those who are not exposed [aOR = 1.51, CI = 1.04-2.18]. In terms of the covariates, the likelihood of consistent condom use among men in Ghana was lower among those aged 35 years and above compared to those aged 15-24 [aOR = 0.46 CI = 0.21-0.99]. The odds of consistent condom use among men increased with level of education, with men with higher level of education having the highest odds of consistent condom use compared to those with no formal education [aOR = 9.98, CI = 2.05-48.46]. Men of the richest wealth quintile were more likely to use condom consistently compared to those of the poorest wealth quintile [aOR = 2.62, CI = 1.30-5.27]. Higher odds of consistent condom use was found among men who dwelled in the Central, Northern, and Upper East regions compared to those of the Western region. CONCLUSION: Our findings have established a strong association between exposure to family planning messages alongside age, educational level, wealth, and region of residence and consistent condom use. Men exposed to family planning messages were more likely to use condoms consistently. Designed programs should use intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities to improve sexually active men's interpersonal communication on family planning messages, especially on consistent condom use with their sexual partners.

13.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411347

RESUMO

AIM: This study examined trends in absolute and relative socio-economic, gender and geographical inequalities in the coverage of polio immunisation in Guinea, West Africa, from 1999 to 2016. METHODS: Data from the 1999, 2005 and 2012 Guinea Demographic and Health Survey and the 2016 Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were analysed using the World Health Organization's health equity assessment toolkit. We disaggregated polio immunisation coverage using five equity stratifiers: household economic status, maternal educational level, place of residence, child's gender and region. The four summary measures used were the difference, ratio, population attributable risk and population attributable fraction. A 95% confidence interval (CI) was constructed around point estimates to measure statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 4778 1-year-old children were included. Polio immunisation coverage in 1999, 2005, 2012 and 2016 were 43.4%, 50.7%, 51.2% and 38.6%, respectively. Socio-economic and geographical inequalities in polio immunisation favoured children with educated mothers who came from richer families living in urban areas. There were also differences in the eight regions over the 1999-2016 study period. CONCLUSION: Targeting children from disadvantaged subgroups must be prioritised to ensure equitable immunisation services that help to eradicate polio in Guinea.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor healthcare-seeking behaviour is a major contributing factor for increased morbidity and mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the individual and community level factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses among mothers of children under five in Chad. METHODS: The study utilized data from the 2014-2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 5,693 mothers who reported that their children under five had either fever accompanied by cough or diarrhea or both within the two weeks preceding the survey were included in this study. The outcome variable for the study was healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses. The data were analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Multilevel binary logistic regression model was employed due to the hierarchical nature of the dataset. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Out of the 5,693 mothers who reported that their children under five had either fever accompanied by cough, diarrhea or both at any time in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, 79.6% recalled having sought treatment for their children's illnesses. In terms of the individual level factors, mothers who faced financial barriers to healthcare access were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses, relative to those who faced no financial barrier (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99). Mothers who reported that distance to the health facility was a barrier were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses, compared to those who faced no geographical barrier to healthcare access (aOR = 79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.95). Mothers who were cohabiting were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses compared to married mothers (aOR = 0.62 95% CI = 0.47-0.83). Lower odds of healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses was noted among mothers who did not listen to radio at all, relative to those who listened to radio at least once a week (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55-0.91). Mothers who mentioned that their children were larger than average size at birth had a lesser likelihood of seeking childhood healthcare, compared to those whose children were of average size (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.95). We further noted that with the community level factors, mothers who lived in communities with medium literacy level were less likely to seek childhood healthcare than those in communities with high literacy (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-0.99). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that both individual (financial barriers to healthcare access, geographical barriers to healthcare access, marital status, frequency of listening to radio and size of children at birth) and community level factors (community level literacy) are associated with healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses in Chad. The government of Chad, through multi-sectoral partnership, should strengthen health systems by removing financial and geographical barriers to healthcare access. Moreover, the government should create favourable conditions to improve the status of mothers and foster their overall socio-economic wellbeing and literacy through employment and education. Other interventions should include community sensitization of cohabiting mothers and mothers with children whose size at birth is large to seek healthcare for their children when they are ill. This can be done using radio as means of information dissemination.

15.
Int Health ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are associated with high efficacy rates and continuity of use. Based on the foregoing, we sought to examine the prevalence and factors associated with LARC use among sexually active women in 26 countries in sub-Saharan Africa(SSA). METHODS: Secondary data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 26 countries in SSA between January 2010 and December 2019 were pooled and analysed. A total of 56 067 sexually active women 15-49 y of age met the inclusion criteria. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the association between selected factors and the use of LARCs in SSA. Results were presented as crude odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with statistical precision at <0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of LARC use was 21.73%, ranging from 1.94% in Namibia to 54.96% in Benin. Sexually active women with secondary or higher education (aOR 1.19 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08 to 1.32]), those cohabiting (aOR 1.25 [95% CI 1.06 to 1.47]) and those with four or more children (aOR 2.22 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.78]) were more likely to use LARCs compared with those without education, never married and with no biological child. CONCLUSIONS: The use of LARCs in the 26 countries in SSA was relatively low. Hence, the identified contributory factors of LARC use should be tackled with appropriate interventions. These include continuous campaigns on the efficacy of LARCs in reducing unintended pregnancy, maternal mortality and morbidity.

16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 84, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food handlers can play a vital role into reducing foodborne diseases by adopting appropriate food handling and sanitation practices in working plants. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with food safety knowledge and practices among meat handlers who work at butcher shops in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 meat handlers from January to March, 2021. Data were collected through in-person interviews using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts; socio-demographic characteristics, assessments of food safety knowledge, and food safety practices. A multiple logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with food safety knowledge and practices. RESULTS: Only 20% [95% confidence interval, (CI) 15.7-24.7] and 16.3% (95% CI 12.3-20.7) of the respondents demonstrated good levels of food safety knowledge and practices, respectively. The factors associated with good levels of food safety knowledge were: having a higher secondary education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.57, 95% CI 1.11-18.76], income above 25,000 BDT/month (AOR = 10.52, 95% CI 3.43-32.26), work experience of > 10 years (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI 1.92-45.09), ≥ 8 h per day of work (AOR = 6.14, 95% CI 2.69-13.10), employed on a daily basis (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.16-14.14), and having food safety training (AOR = 8.98 95% CI 2.16-37.32). Good food safety knowledge (AOR = 5.68, 95% CI 2.33-13.87) and working ≥ 8 h per day (AOR = 8.44, 95% CI 3.11-22.91) were significantly associated with a good level of food safety practice. CONCLUSIONS: Poor knowledge and practices regarding food safety were found among Bangladeshi meat handlers. Findings may help public health professionals and practitioners develop targeted strategies to improve food safety knowledge and practices among this population. Such strategies may include education and sensitization on good food safety practices.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Carne , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202752

RESUMO

Injuries among adolescents pose significant public health problems. Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of adolescents' mortality and disability with the largest burden in low-and middle-income countries. Yet, there is paucity of data in Ghana on adolescent injuries. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of unintentional injuries among in-school adolescents in Ghana using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. Cross-sectional data on 2058 adolescents in junior and senior high schools who randomly participated in the 2012 Global School-Based Health Survey were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were performed to determine the prevalence of unintentional injuriesacross the background characteristics of in-school adolescents. Binary logistic regression was employed to determine the factors associated with unintentional injuries. The results were presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios at a 95% confidence interval. The prevalence of one or more serious injuries in the past 12 months was 57.0%. The most commonly reported type and cause of injuries were "I had a cut or stab wound" (15.2%) and "I fell" (13.1%), respectively. In the adjusted regression, in-school adolescents aged 14-16 (aOR = 1.60, CI = 1.12-2.28) were more likely to report one or more serious injuries compared to their counterparts aged 13 or younger. In-school adolescents who participated in physical education (aOR = 1.27, CI = 1.03-1.58) had higher odds of reporting one or more serious injuries. The odds of being injured was higher among adolescents who were truant at school compared to those who were not truant (aOR = 1.42, CI = 1.14-1.77) In-school adolescents who were bullied were more likely to report being injured one or multiple times compared to their counterparts who were not bullied (aOR = 2.16, CI = 1.75-2.65). In addition, the odds of being injured once or multiple times were higher among adolescents who were physically attacked (aOR = 2.21, CI = 1.78-2.75), those that engaged in physical fighting (aOR = 1.94, CI = 1.54-2.45), and those who reported high psychological distress (aOR = 2.00, CI = 1.52-2.63) compared to their counterparts who were not. Conversely, adolescents in senior high schools were 39% less likely to be injured once or multiple times compared to those in junior high schools (aOR = 0.61, CI = 0.47-0.79). A relatively high prevalence of unintentional injuries was found among in-school adolescents in the study. The numerous factors identified in this study could be integrated into health promotion and injury prevention activities to help reduce the occurrence of injuries among in-school adolescents. Moreover, students who are susceptible to unintended injuries such as older adolescents, victims of bullying, those who participate in physical education, those who are often involved in fights, truants, and those who have psychological distress should be sensitized to take measures that will reduce their level of susceptibility. First aid treatment services should also be made available in schools to treat victims of unintended injuries.


Assuntos
Bullying , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5529375, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239924

RESUMO

Background: Child marriage is a major public health problem globally, and the prevalence remains high in sub-Saharan African countries, including Mali. There is a dearth of evidence about factors associated with child marriage in Mali. Hence, this studyaimed at investigating the individual/household and community-level factors associated with child marriage among women in Mali. Methods: Using data from the 2018 Mali Demographic and Health Survey, analysis was done on 8,350 women aged 18-49 years. A Chi-square test was used to select candidate variables for the multilevel multivariable logistic regression models. Fixed effects results weree xpressed as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence intervals (CI). Stata version 14 software was used for the analysis. Results: The results showed that 58.2% (95% CI; 56.3%-60.0%) and 20.3% (95%; 19.0%-21.6%) of women aged 18-49 years were married before their 18th and 15th birthday, respectively. Educational status of women (higher education: aOR = 0.25, 95% CI; 0.14-0.44), their partner's/husband's educational status (higher education: aOR = 0.64, 95% CI; 0.47-0.87), women's occupation (professional, technical, or managerial: aOR = 0.50, 95% CI; 0.33-0.77), family size (five and above: aOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.03-1.30), and ethnicity (Senoufo/Minianka: aOR = 0.73, 95% CI; 0.58-0.92) were the identified individual/household level factors associated with child marriage, whereas region (Mopti: aOR = 0.27, 95% CI; 0.19-0.39) was the community level factor associated with child marriage. Conclusions: This study has revealed a high prevalence of child marriage in Mali. To reduce the magnitude of child marriage in Mali, enhancing policies and programs that promote education for both girls and boys, creating employment opportunities, improving the utilization of family planning services, and sensitizing girls and parents who live in regions such as Kayes on the negative effects of child marriage is essential. Moreover, working with community leaders so as to reduce child marriage in the Bambara ethnic communities would also be beneficial.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048724, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the joint effect of household cooking fuel type and urbanicity (rural-urban residency) on anaemia among children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: We analysed cross-sectional data of 123, 186 children under the age of five from 29 sub-Saharan African countries gathered between 2010 and 2019 by the Demographic and Health Survey programme. Bivariate (χ2 test of independence) and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine the effect of urbanicity-household cooking fuel type on childhood anaemia. Results were reported as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CIs at p<0.05. OUTCOME MEASURES: Anaemia status of children. RESULTS: More than half (64%) of children had anaemia. The percentage of children who suffered from anaemia was high in those born to mothers in Western Africa (75%) and low among those born in Southern Africa (54%). Children from rural households that depend on unclean cooking fuels (aOR=1.120; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.214) and rural households that depend on clean cooking fuels (aOR=1.256; 95% CI 1.080 to 1.460) were more likely to be anaemic as compared with children from urban households using clean cooking fuel. Child's age, sex of child, birth order, perceived birth size, age of mother, body mass index of mother, education, marital status, employment status, antenatal care, wealth quintile, household size, access to electricity, type of toilet facility, source of drinking water and geographic region had significant associations with childhood anaemia status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has established a joint effect of type of household cooking fuel and urbanicity on anaemia among children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore critical to promote the usage of clean cooking fuels among households and women in rural areas. These should be done taking into consideration the significant child, maternal, household, and contextual factors identified in this study.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Anemia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , África Austral , África Ocidental , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Criança , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 325, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been growing public and research interest in adolescents' experiences with various forms of bullying victimisation because of their psychological, emotional, and/ or physical consequences. The present study examined the prevalence of bullying victimisation and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) from 2010 to 2017 of eleven sub-Saharan African countries, a sample of 25,454 in-school adolescents was used for analysis. Statistical analyses included frequencies, percentages, Pearson chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying victimisation among the respondents was 38.8%. The prevalence was lowest in Mauritius (22.2%) and highest in Sierra Leone (54.6%). Adolescents who felt lonely [aOR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.53, 1.80], had history of anxiety [aOR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.41, 1.66], suicidal ideation [aOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.39], suicidal attempt [aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.72, 2.02], current users of marijuana [aOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.38, 1.84], and truants at [aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.52] were more likely to be victims of bullying. Conversely, adolescents who had peer support were less likely to be victims of bullying [aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.82]. Adolescents aged 15 years or older had lower odds of experiencing bullying victimization compared to their counterparts aged 14 years or younger [aOR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.78]. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that age, loneliness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and current use of marijuana are associated with increased risk of bullying victimisation. School-wide preventative interventions (e.g., positive behavioural strategies- Rational Emotive Behavioral Education, [REBE], peer educator network systems, face-face counseling sessions, substance use cessation therapy) are essential in promoting a positive school climate and reduce students' bullying victimisation behaviours.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
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