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2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(24): 4208-4218, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691802

RESUMO

While much work has been done in associating differentially methylated positions (DMPs) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) across different populations, not much attention has been placed on identifying its possible functional consequences. We explored methylation changes in the peripheral blood of Filipinos with T2D and identified 177 associated DMPs. Most of these DMPs were associated with genes involved in metabolism, inflammation and the cell cycle. Three of these DMPs map to the TXNIP gene body, replicating previous findings from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of T2D. The TXNIP downmethylation coincided with increased transcription at the 3' UTR, H3K36me3 histone markings and Sp1 binding, suggesting spurious transcription initiation at the TXNIP 3' UTR as a functional consequence of T2D methylation changes. We also explored potential epigenetic determinants to increased incidence of T2D in Filipino immigrants in the USA and found three DMPs associated with the interaction of T2D and immigration. Two of these DMPs were located near MAP2K7 and PRMT1, which may point towards dysregulated stress response and inflammation as a contributing factor to T2D among Filipino immigrants.

3.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 101-111, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many aspects of transfusion medicine are affected by genetics. Current single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are limited in the number of targets that can be interrogated and cannot detect all variation of interest. We designed a transfusion medicine array (TM-Array) for study of both common and rare transfusion-relevant variations in genetically diverse donor and recipient populations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The array was designed by conducting extensive bioinformatics mining and consulting experts to identify genes and genetic variation related to a wide range of transfusion medicine clinical relevant and research-related topics. Copy number polymorphisms were added in the alpha globin, beta globin, and Rh gene clusters. RESULTS: The final array contains approximately 879,000 SNP and copy number polymorphism markers. Over 99% of SNPs were called reliably. Technical replication showed the array to be robust and reproducible, with an error rate less than 0.03%. The array also had a very low Mendelian error rate (average parent-child trio accuracy of 0.9997). Blood group results were in concordance with serology testing results, and the array accurately identifies rare variants (minor allele frequency of 0.5%). The array achieved high genome-wide imputation coverage for African-American (97.5%), Hispanic (96.1%), East Asian (94.6%), and white (96.1%) genomes at a minor allele frequency of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: A custom array for transfusion medicine research has been designed and evaluated. It gives wide coverage and accurate identification of rare SNPs in diverse populations. The TM-Array will be useful for future genetic studies in the diverse fields of transfusion medicine research.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Medicina Transfusional/métodos , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biologia Computacional , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(1): 77-83, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene-expression profiles have been reported to distinguish between patients with and without active tuberculosis (TB), but no prior study has been conducted in the context of TB screening. METHODS: We included all the patients (n = 40) with culture-confirmed TB and time-matched controls (n = 80) enrolled between July 2013 and April 2015 in a TB screening study among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kampala, Uganda. We randomly split the patients into training (n = 80) and test (n = 40) datasets. We used the training dataset to derive candidate signatures that consisted of 1 to 5 differentially-expressed transcripts (P ≤ .10) and compared the performance of our candidate signatures with 4 published TB gene-expression signatures, both on the independent test dataset and in 2 external datasets. RESULTS: We identified a novel, 5-transcript signature that met the accuracy thresholds recommended for a TB screening test. On the independent test dataset, our signature had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.98), with sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 75%. None of the 4 published TB signatures achieved desired accuracy thresholds. Our novel signature performed well in external datasets from both high (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88) and low (0.81, 95% CI 0.77-0.85) TB burden settings. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the first gene-expression signature for TB screening. Our signature has the potential to be translated into a point-of-care test to facilitate systematic TB screening among PLHIV and other high-risk populations.

6.
Transfusion ; 58(2): 402-412, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alloimmunization through blood transfusion, transplantation, or circulating fetal cells during pregnancy is a significant concern. Some exposed individuals make alloantibodies while others do not, implying variation in genetic risk factors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS) of 9,427,497 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify genetic variants for HLA alloimmunization in previously pregnant blood donors with (n = 752) and without (n = 753) HLA Class I or II alloantibodies. RESULTS: A SNP in the neurexophilin 2 (NXPH2) gene surpassed genome-wide significance (p = 2.06 × 10-8 ), with multiple adjacent markers p < 10-6 , for women with anti-Class I alloantibodies only. Little is currently known about the function of NXPH2, although gene family members have been shown to impact immunity. SNPs in the E2F7 gene, a transcription factor related to cell cycle control and cellular proliferation, also approached genomewide significance (p = 2.5 × 10-7 ). CONCLUSION: Further work to extend the GWAS approach and to characterize variants in NXPH2 and E2F7 in the context of alloantibody formation is warranted.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Fator de Transcrição E2F7/genética , Transfusão Feto-Materna/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicoproteínas/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Isoanticorpos , Gravidez
7.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181935, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742125

RESUMO

The Khon Mueang represent the major group of people present in today's northern Thailand. While linguistic and genetic data seem to support a shared ancestry between Khon Mueang and other Tai-Kadai speaking people, the possibility of an admixed origin with contribution from local Mon-Khmer population could not be ruled out. Previous studies conducted on northern Thai people did not provide a definitive answer and, in addition, have largely overlooked the distribution of paternal lineages in the area. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of Y paternal lineages in northern Thailand and to explicitly model the origin of the Khon Mueang population. We obtained and analysed new Y chromosomal haplogroup data from more than 500 northern Thai individuals including Khon Mueang, Mon-Khmer and Tai-Kadai. We also explicitly simulated different demographic scenarios, developed to explain the Khon Mueang origin, employing an ABC simulation framework on both mitochondrial and Y microsatellites data. Our results highlighted a similar haplogroup composition of Khon Mueang and Tai-Kadai populations in northern Thailand, with shared high frequencies of haplogroups O-PK4, O-M117 and O-M111. Our ABC simulations also favoured a model in which the ancestors of modern Khon Mueang originated recently after a split from the other Tai-Kadai populations. Our different analyses concluded that the ancestors of Khon Mueang are likely to have originated from the same source of the other Tai-Kadai groups in southern China, with subsequent admixture events involving native Mon-Khmer speakers restricted to some specific populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Tailândia
8.
J Infect Dis ; 215(3): 387-395, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003350

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 7 million people in Latin American areas of endemicity. About 30% of infected patients will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocarditis. Further studies are necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease progression. Transcriptome analysis has been increasingly used to identify molecular changes associated with disease outcomes. We thus assessed the whole-blood transcriptome of patients with Chagas disease. Microarray analysis was performed on blood samples from 150 subjects, of whom 30 were uninfected control patients and 120 had Chagas disease (1 group had asymptomatic disease, and 2 groups had CCC with either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]). Each Chagas disease group displayed distinct gene expression and functional pathway profiles. The most different expression patterns were between CCC groups with a preserved or reduced LVEF. A more stringent analysis indicated that 27 differentially expressed genes, particularly those related to natural killer (NK)/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, separated the 2 groups. NK/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity could play a role in determining Chagas disease progression. Understanding genes associated with disease may lead to improved insight into CCC pathogenesis and the identification of prognostic factors for CCC progression.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Disfunção Ventricular/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(10): 2070-2081, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911676

RESUMO

To gain insight into potential regulatory mechanisms through which the effects of variants at four established type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility loci (CDKAL1, CDKN2A-B, IGF2BP2 and KCNQ1) are mediated, we undertook transancestral fine-mapping in 22 086 cases and 42 539 controls of East Asian, European, South Asian, African American and Mexican American descent. Through high-density imputation and conditional analyses, we identified seven distinct association signals at these four loci, each with allelic effects on T2D susceptibility that were homogenous across ancestry groups. By leveraging differences in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations, and increased sample size, we localised the variants most likely to drive each distinct association signal. We demonstrated that integration of these genetic fine-mapping data with genomic annotation can highlight potential causal regulatory elements in T2D-relevant tissues. These analyses provide insight into the mechanisms through which T2D association signals are mediated, and suggest future routes to understanding the biology of specific disease susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6916, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25903422

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with complex genetics and different degrees of prevalence across ethnic populations. Here we present the largest trans-ethnic genome-wide meta-analysis (GWMA) of psoriasis in 15,369 cases and 19,517 controls of Caucasian and Chinese ancestries. We identify four novel associations at LOC144817, COG6, RUNX1 and TP63, as well as three novel secondary associations within IFIH1 and IL12B. Fine-mapping analysis of MHC region demonstrates an important role for all three HLA class I genes and a complex and heterogeneous pattern of HLA associations between Caucasian and Chinese populations. Further, trans-ethnic comparison suggests population-specific effect or allelic heterogeneity for 11 loci. These population-specific effects contribute significantly to the ethnic diversity of psoriasis prevalence. This study not only provides novel biological insights into the involvement of immune and keratinocyte development mechanism, but also demonstrates a complex and heterogeneous genetic architecture of psoriasis susceptibility across ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Psoríase/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
11.
Ann Hum Genet ; 79(2): 108-21, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590861

RESUMO

This study analyzes the autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) variation and the presence of Y chromosomal haplogroups from 44 individuals of the Kayah or Red Karen (KA) in Northern Thailand. The results based on autosomal STRs indicated that the KA exhibited closer genetic relatedness to populations from adjacent regions in Southeast Asia (SEA) than populations from Northeast Asia (NEA) and Tibet. Moreover, an admixed origin of the KA forming three population groups was observed: NEA, Southern China, and Northern Thailand. The NEA populations made a minor genetic contribution to the KA, while the rest came from populations speaking Sino-Tibetan (ST) languages from Southern China and Tai-Kadai (TK) speaking groups from Northern Thailand. The presence of six paternal haplogroups, composed of dual haplogroups prevalent in NEA (NO, N, and D1) and SEA (O2 and O3) as well as the intermediate genetic position of the KA between the SEA and NEA also indicated an admixed origin of male KA lineages. Our genetic results thus agree with findings in linguistics that Karenic languages are ST languages that became heavily influenced by TK during their southward spread. A result of the Mongol invasions during the 13th century A.D. is one possible explanation for genetic contribution of NEA to the KA.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Médica , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Tailândia
12.
PLoS Genet ; 11(1): e1004876, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25625282

RESUMO

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Insulina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Exoma/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Índice Glicêmico/genética , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Glucagon/genética
13.
Diabetes ; 64(1): 291-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25187374

RESUMO

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. So far, most indentified genome-wide association loci for FPG were derived from populations with European ancestry, with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 nondiabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Glicemia/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , Extremo Oriente , Jejum , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
14.
J Med Virol ; 86(10): 1661-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24978929

RESUMO

Acute liver failure is a severe, but rare, outcome of hepatitis A virus infection. Unusual presentations of prevalent infections have often been attributed to pathogen-specific immune deficits that exhibit Mendelian inheritance. Genome-wide resequencing of unrelated cases has proven to be a powerful approach for identifying highly penetrant risk alleles that underlie such syndromes. Rare mutations likely to affect protein expression or function can be identified from sequence data, and their association with a similarly rare phenotype rests on their existence in multiple affected individuals. A rare or novel sequence variant that is enriched to a significant degree in a genetically diverse cohort suggests a candidate susceptibility allele. Whole genome sequencing of ten individuals from ethnically diverse backgrounds with HAV-associated acute liver failure was performed. A set of rational filtering criteria was used to identify genetic variants that are rare in the population, but enriched in this cohort. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, and deletions were considered and autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and polygenic models were applied. Analysis of the protein-coding exome identified no single gene with putatively deleterious mutations shared by multiple individuals, arguing against a simple Mendelian model of inheritance. A number of rare variants were significantly enriched in this cohort, consistent with a complex and genetically heterogeneous trait. Several of the variants identified in this genome-wide study lie within genes important to hepatic pathophysiology and are candidate susceptibility alleles for hepatitis A virus infection.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/genética , Falência Hepática/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatite A/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e87762, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24520337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic factors in type 2 diabetes (T2D), mostly among individuals of European ancestry. We tested whether previously identified T2D-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replicate and whether SNPs in regions near known T2D SNPs were associated with T2D within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: 2338 cases and 2339 T2D controls from the Singapore Chinese Health Study were genotyped for 507,509 SNPs. Imputation extended the genotyped SNPs to 7,514,461 with high estimated certainty (r(2)>0.8). Replication of known index SNP associations in T2D was attempted. Risk scores were computed as the sum of index risk alleles. SNPs in regions ± 100 kb around each index were tested for associations with T2D in conditional fine-mapping analysis. RESULTS: Of 69 index SNPs, 20 were genotyped directly and genotypes at 35 others were well imputed. Among the 55 SNPs with data, disease associations were replicated (at p<0.05) for 15 SNPs, while 32 more were directionally consistent with previous reports. Risk score was a significant predictor with a 2.03 fold higher risk CI (1.69-2.44) of T2D comparing the highest to lowest quintile of risk allele burden (p = 5.72 × 10(-14)). Two improved SNPs around index rs10923931 and 5 new candidate SNPs around indices rs10965250 and rs1111875 passed simple Bonferroni corrections for significance in conditional analysis. Nonetheless, only a small fraction (2.3% on the disease liability scale) of T2D burden in Singapore is explained by these SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: While diabetes risk in Singapore Chinese involves genetic variants, most disease risk remains unexplained. Further genetic work is ongoing in the Singapore Chinese population to identify unique common variants not already seen in earlier studies. However rapid increases in T2D risk have occurred in recent decades in this population, indicating that dynamic environmental influences and possibly gene by environment interactions complicate the genetic architecture of this disease.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Singapura
16.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e79629, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24324551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of Chagas cardiac disease in T. cruzi-infected persons suggests that human genetic variation may be an important determinant of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To perform a GWAS using a well-characterized cohort to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with cardiac outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was developed by the NHLBI REDS-II program in Brazil. Samples were collected from 499 T. cruzi seropositive blood donors who had donated between 1996 and 2002, and 101 patients with clinically diagnosed Chagas cardiomyopathy. In 2008-2010, all subjects underwent a complete medical examination. After genotype calling, quality control filtering with exclusion of 20 cases, and imputation of 1,000 genomes variants; association analysis was performed for 7 cardiac and parasite related traits, adjusting for population stratification. RESULTS: The cohort showed a wide range of African, European, and modest Native American admixture proportions, consistent with the recent history of Brazil. No SNPs were found to be highly (P<10(-8)) associated with cardiomyopathy. The two mostly highly associated SNPs for cardiomyopathy (rs4149018 and rs12582717; P-values <10(-6)) are located on Chromosome 12p12.2 in the SLCO1B1 gene, a solute carrier family member. We identified 44 additional genic SNPs associated with six traits at P-value <10(-6): Ejection Fraction, PR, QRS, QT intervals, antibody levels by EIA, and parasitemia by PCR. CONCLUSION: This GWAS identified suggestive SNPs that may impact the risk of progression to cardiomyopathy. Although this Chagas cohort is the largest examined by GWAS to date, (580 subjects), moderate sample size may explain in part the limited number of significant SNP variants. Enlarging the current sample through expanded cohorts and meta-analyses, and targeted studies of candidate genes, will be required to confirm and extend the results reported here. Future studies should also include exposed seronegative controls to investigate genetic associations with susceptibility or resistance to T. cruzi infection and non-Chagas cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e54232, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23393555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes. METHODS: A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results from six cohorts of 19,411 Caucasians. The primary analysis included individuals without diabetes and secondary analyses were stratified by hypertension status. We also singled out the results from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with diabetes and hypertension, the two most common causes of retinopathy. RESULTS: No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the primary analysis or the secondary analysis of participants with hypertension. SNP, rs12155400, in the histone deacetylase 9 gene (HDAC9) on chromosome 7, was associated with retinopathy in analysis of participants without hypertension, -1.3±0.23 (beta ± standard error), p = 6.6×10(-9). Evidence suggests this was a false positive finding. The minor allele frequency was low (∼2%), the quality of the imputation was moderate (r(2) ∼0.7), and no other common variants in the HDAC9 gene were associated with the outcome. SNPs found to be associated with diabetes and hypertension in other GWAS were not associated with retinopathy in persons without diabetes or in subgroups with or without hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes showed little evidence of genetic associations. Further studies are needed to identify genes associated with these signs in order to help unravel novel pathways and determinants of microvascular diseases.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 7(9): e45839, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23029268

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains the leading cause of mortality from a single infectious agent. Each year around 9 million individuals newly develop active TB disease, and over 2 billion individuals are latently infected with M.tb worldwide, thus being at risk of developing TB reactivation disease later in life. The underlying mechanisms and pathways of protection against TB in humans, as well as the dynamics of the host response to M.tb infection, are incompletely understood. We carried out whole-genome expression profiling on a cohort of TB patients longitudinally sampled along 3 time-points: during active infection, during treatment, and after completion of curative treatment. We identified molecular signatures involving the upregulation of type-1 interferon (α/ß) mediated signaling and chronic inflammation during active TB disease in an Indonesian population, in line with results from two recent studies in ethnically and epidemiologically different populations in Europe and South Africa. Expression profiles were captured in neutrophil-depleted blood samples, indicating a major contribution of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Expression of type-1 interferon (α/ß) genes mediated was also upregulated in the lungs of M.tb infected mice and in infected human macrophages. In patients, the regulated gene expression-signature normalized during treatment, including the type-1 interferon mediated signaling and a concurrent opposite regulation of interferon-gamma. Further analysis revealed IL15RA, UBE2L6 and GBP4 as molecules involved in the type-I interferon response in all three experimental models. Our data is highly suggestive that the innate immune type-I interferon signaling cascade could be used as a quantitative tool for monitoring active TB disease, and provide evidence that components of the patient's blood gene expression signature bear similarities to the pulmonary and macrophage response to mycobacterial infection.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Indonésia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
20.
Nat Genet ; 44(8): 904-9, 2012 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22797727

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Rim/fisiologia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue
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