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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most common complications of central venous catheters (CVCs). The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of CLABSIs in tunneled CVCs and analyze their risk factors in a general pediatric population. METHODS: Children with a tunneled CVC inserted at the University Children's Hospital Zürich between January 2009 and December 2015 were eligible for the study. The influence of CVC dwell time on the risk of CLABSI was examined using life tables. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CLABSIs were analyzed using Cox regression for age and diagnosis with cluster robust standard errors. RESULTS: Fifty-five CLABSIs were observed in 193 patients with 284 tunneled CVCs. Overall, CVCs in children with gastrointestinal disorders and in children 2 to 5 years of age showed the highest incidence rates of 6.06 and 5.85 CLABSIs per 1,000 catheter days, respectively, during the first 90 days after placement. Gastrointestinal disease (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.19-6.90; P < .001) and age 2 to 5 years (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.45-4.22; P = .001) were identified as independent risk factors for CLABSI. In children without gastrointestinal disease, tunneled CVCs showed an increasing risk of CLABSI after a dwell time of 90 days. CONCLUSIONS: The need for tunneled CVCs requires the evaluation of targeted CLABSI prevention measures, especially in young children with underlying gastrointestinal disease.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

3.
BJU Int ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether detrusor overactivity (DO) is missed in a relevant percentage of patients if the urodynamic investigation (UDI) is stopped at a filling volume of 500 mL due to the fear of bladder overdistention, in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and high bladder capacity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 1598 patients with a bladder capacity of >500 mL in the bladder diary undergoing UDI due to lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) was prospectively investigated. UDI was performed according to Good Urodynamic Practices recommended by the International Continence Society. UDI was stopped at strong desire to void or in case of autonomic dysreflexia, vesico-uretero-renal reflux, bladder pain or discomfort. RESULTS: Of the 1598 patients (594 women, 1004 men), 1282 (80%) and 316 (20%) had neurogenic and non-neurogenic LUTD, respectively. Overall, DO was detected in 66% (1048/1598), in 71% (910/1282) with neurogenic and in 44% (138/316) with non-neurogenic LUTD. DO occurred in 16% (263/1598, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.7-18.4%) only at a bladder volume >500 mL. This phenomenon was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in patients with neurogenic (18% [236/1282], 95% CI 16.4-20.6%) compared with non-neurogenic (9% [27/316], 95% CI 5.9-12.1%) LUTD. CONCLUSIONS: In both neurological and non-neurological patients with high bladder capacity, we strongly recommend not to stop UDI at a bladder volume of 500 mL, as DO might be missed in a relevant percentage leading to inappropriate patient treatment.

4.
Lancet ; 393(10187): 2201-2212, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. This study assessed whether immediate preoperative treatment could result in reduced perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and improved outcome. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group controlled study, patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with anaemia (n=253; haemoglobin concentration (Hb) <120 g/L in women and Hb <130 g/L in men) or isolated iron deficiency (n=252; ferritin <100 mcg/L, no anaemia) were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with the use of a computer-generated range minimisation (allocation probability 0·8) to receive either placebo or combination treatment consisting of a slow infusion of 20 mg/kg ferric carboxymaltose, 40 000 U subcutaneous erythropoietin alpha, 1 mg subcutaneous vitamin B12, and 5 mg oral folic acid or placebo on the day before surgery. Primary outcome was the number of RBC transfusions during the first 7 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02031289. FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2014, and July 19, 2017, 1006 patients were enrolled; 505 with anaemia or isolated iron deficiency and 501 in the registry. The combination treatment significantly reduced RBC transfusions from a median of one unit in the placebo group (IQR 0-3) to zero units in the treatment group (0-2, during the first 7 days (odds ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·50-0·98] for each threshold of number of RBC transfusions, p=0·036) and until postoperative day 90 (p=0·018). Despite fewer RBC units transfused, patients in the treatment group had a higher haemoglobin concentration, higher reticulocyte count, and a higher reticulocyte haemoglobin content during the first 7 days (p≤0·001). Combined allogeneic transfusions were less in the treatment group (0 [IQR 0-2]) versus the placebo group (1 [0-3]) during the first 7 days (p=0·038) and until postoperative day 90 (p=0·019). 73 (30%) serious adverse events were reported in the treatment group group versus 79 (33%) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: An ultra-short-term combination treatment with intravenous iron, subcutaneous erythropoietin alpha, vitamin B12, and oral folic acid reduced RBC and total allogeneic blood product transfusions in patients with preoperative anaemia or isolated iron deficiency undergoing elective cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma and Swiss Foundation for Anaesthesia Research.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Maltose/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 495: 215-220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) becomes more prevalent with advancing age and is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular events and shortened life expectancy. We investigated the prognostic performance of cardiac and vascular biomarkers in a cohort of PAD patients. METHODS: A total of 95 PAD patients were enrolled (mean age 68 years, range 47 to 86 years, 73 males). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle brachial index (ABI), high sensitive cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 9.5 years, 44 patients died and 51 patients survived. Upon Kaplan-Meier survival analysis hs-TnT (P < .001) or NT-proBNP levels (P < .001) above the median but not cIMT above the median (P = .488) or ABI below the median (P < .436)were associated with reduced survival rate. Upon univariate cox regression and after adjustment for age, gender, prior cerebral artery disease, and diabetes mellitus only the association between hs-cTnT and mortality remained significant (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.33-2.79, P < .001). In receiver operating curve analysis hs-cTnT (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87, P < .001) NT-proBNP (AUC: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.84, P < .001) as well as hs-cTnT, and NT-proBNP combined (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.88, P < .001) were superior to cIMT (AUC: 0.64, 95%, CI: 0.53-0.76, P = .022) and ABI (AUC: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44-0.68, P = .313) in discriminating risk for mortality. CONCLUSION: hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP should be taken into account for prognosis of patients with PAD.

7.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(8): 997-1004, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery is a frequent problem that significantly prolongs hospital stay and increases perioperative costs. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of standardized coffee intake on postoperative bowel movement after elective laparoscopic colorectal resection. DESIGN: This is a prospective randomized controlled trial that was conducted between September 2014 and December 2016. SETTINGS: This study was performed in a public cantonal hospital in Switzerland with accreditation for colon and rectum cancer surgery. PATIENTS: Patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery were included. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned either to the intervention group receiving coffee or the control group receiving tea. A total of 150 mL of the respective beverage was drunk 3 times per day every postoperative day until discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was time to first bowel movement. Secondary end points included the use of laxative, insertion of a nasogastric tube, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned: 56 were allocated to the coffee group and 59 to the tea group. After coffee intake, the first bowel movement occurred after a median of 65.2 hours versus 74.1 hours in the control group (intention-to-treat analysis; p = 0.008). The HR for earlier first bowel movement after coffee intake was 1.67 (p = 0.009). In the per-protocol analysis, hospital stay was shorter in the coffee group (6 d in the coffee group vs 7 d in the tea group; p = 0.043). LIMITATIONS: The rate of protocol violation, mostly coffee consumption in the tea arm, was relatively high, even if patients were clearly instructed not to consume coffee if they were in the tea arm. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee intake after elective laparoscopic colorectal resection leads to faster recovery of bowel function. Therefore, coffee intake represents a simple and effective strategy to prevent postoperative ileus. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A955. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02469441.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 333-352, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773687

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

9.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 13(1): 105, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrosurgery is fundamental to the precise, fast and bloodless preparation of internal thoracic artery grafts in cardiac surgery. The PEAK PlasmaBlade is a monopolar electrosurgical device that uses pulsed radiofrequency energy to generate a plasma-mediated discharge along an insulated electrode, creating a cutting edge while the blade stays near body temperature. The aim of this study is to compare the histological samples, cardiac computed-tomography of graft patency, and clinical outcomes of patients after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with preparation of the internal thoracic arteries by a conventional electrosurgical device and the PlasmaBlade. METHODS: In twenty subjects one internal thoracic artery was prepared with PlasmaBlade and the other artery with a conventional electrosurgical device. Histological samples were evaluated for three factors for potential graft failure: endothelial damage, integrity of the vessel wall and adventitial hemorrhage. Five samples per artery were evaluated by a novel scoring method based on the exposed circumference of the histological sample ("0": 0%, "1": 1-25%, "2": 26-50%, "3": 51-75%, "4": ≥76% of the circumference). The Wilcoxon signed ranks test for mean scores within subjects was performed. Six-month-follow up by cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of graft patency was completed in 16 patients. RESULTS: Histological results demonstrated significantly less endothelial damage after PlasmaBlade (83% vs 60%, absolute: 75/90 vs. 53/89 samples with score "0-1", p = 0.04). PlasmaBlade samples demonstrated a tendency to better wall integrity (72% vs. 54%, absolute: 64/89 vs. 47/87 samples with score "0-1", p = 0.32). There were no differences in endothelial bleeding (PlasmaBlade 46% vs. electrosurgery 53%, absolute: 41/88 vs. 48/90 samples with score "0-1", p = 0.63). Computed tomography confirmed non-inferiority of the PlasmaBlade to conventional electrosurgery with a patency rate of 94%. CONCLUSION: Histologically, internal thoracic arteries harvested with PlasmaBlade demonstrate a more intact endothelial layer and a tendency to better wall integrity. Computed tomography of graft patency speaks for non-inferiority to conventional electrosurgery. PlasmaBlade may be preferable to conventional electrosurgery, if further follow-up confirms patency of internal thoracic arteries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03510026 , registered 4th April 2018 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Eletrocirurgia/métodos , Artéria Torácica Interna/cirurgia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Idoso , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrocirurgia/instrumentação , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Torácica Interna/patologia , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
10.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 53(9): 1114-1120, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is defined by liver inflammation and consecutive fibrotic damage caused by a deposition of fat in the liver. No licensed medical treatments exist and lifestyle modification is difficult to incorporate into everyday life. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a 48-week treatment with vitamin D3 in NASH patients. METHODS: Histologically determined NASH patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased 25-OH vitamin D level at baseline received vitamin D3 or placebo orally over a 48-week period. The primary endpoint of this study was the change in ALT from baseline to the end-of-treatment. Steatohepatitis was categorized according to the Steatosis, Activity and Fibrosis Score and disease activity was assessed using the NAFLD activity score. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels significantly increased only in the vitamin D3 group over the 48-week treatment phase indicating compliance. In contrast to placebo, patients in the vitamin D group had markedly decreased ALT levels after the end-of-treatment phase. A significant decrease during treatment with vitamin D was also observed for cytokeratin-18 fragments compared with placebo. The study was not powered to detect changes in histological score, hence only descriptive results for histopathological characteristics are available. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 2100 IE vitamin D q.d. over 48 weeks was well tolerated and led to a significant improvement of serum ALT levels in patients with hypovitaminosis D and histology-proven NASH as the primary endpoint together with a trend toward reduction of hepatic steatosis, which was not significant due to a small number of available biopsy specimens.

11.
Endocrine ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the volumetric changes that the pituitary gland (PG) undergoes during and after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to evaluate if unfolding and/or pruning are related to endocrinological outcome measures. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of data prospectively collected of a cohort of patients undergoing TSS for a pituitary adenoma with the adjunctive use of high field 3 Tesla intraoperative MRI. All patients underwent a full endocrinological workup preoperatively, as well as at 6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. A decrease in PG volume ≥15% between the intraoperative and 3-month, or between the 3-month and 12-month measurements, was considered early and late pruning, respectively. RESULTS: The PG unfolds significantly during TSS, and subsequently undergoes pruning up until 1 year postoperatively, in most cases returning to the preoperatively measured PG volume. A smaller baseline PG volume predicts intraoperative unfolding. Early pruning of the PG after surgery was associated with new functional deficits. Baseline pituitary compression also correlated to newly occurring deficits after surgery. A larger 1-year pituitary volume was associated with biochemical remission in secreting adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: The PG shows dynamic change during and after TSS for pituitary adenoma. Small baseline and 3-month PG volumes, as well as early pruning were independently associated with new deficits. Our findings warrant prospective validation in a larger cohort with higher statistical power.

12.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178268

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

13.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126310

RESUMO

Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) with the oral, non-absorbable antimicrobial substances gentamicin, vancomycin and amphotericin B was optionally used at our institution to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal tract derived infections in multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with subsequent autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT). The majority of patients received sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim as pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis. From 203 patients receiving their first HDCT/ASCT between 2009 and 2015, we compared retrospectively 90 patients receiving SDD to 113 patients not receiving SDD. The administration of SDD was associated with a reduction of bacterial infections after HDCT/ASCT (overall: 8% versus 24%, p = .002; gram-negative pathogens: 1% versus 11%, p = .006) and less use of systemic antibiotics (62% versus 77%, p = .022). Omission of SDD was an independent risk factor for developing neutropenic fever and bloodstream infections. SDD could be an option to reduce bacterial infections in patients undergoing HDCT/ASCT that needs to be tested in prospective trials.

14.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 6(1): 28, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sepsis, early outcome prediction would allow investigation of both adaptive mechanisms underlying survival and maladaptive mechanisms resulting in death. The aim of this study was to test whether early changes in heart rate monitored by telemetry could predict outcome in a long-term rat model of fecal peritonitis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were instrumented with a central venous line for administration of fluids, antibiotics and analgesics. A telemetry transmitter continuously collected electrocardiogram signals. Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of fecal slurry, and the animals were observed for 48 h. Additional animals underwent arterial cannulation at baseline (n = 9), 4 h (n = 16), or 24 h (n = 6) for physiology and laboratory measurements. RESULTS: 48-h mortality was 33% (8/24), with all deaths occurring between 4 and 22 h. Septic animals were characterized by lethargy, fever, tachycardia, positive blood cultures, and elevated cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF alpha) levels. An increase in heart rate ≥ 50 bpm during the first 4 h of sepsis predicted death with sensitivity and specificity of 88% (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term rat sepsis model, prognostication could be made early by telemetry-monitored changes in heart rate. This model enables the study of underlying mechanisms and the assessment of any differential effects of novel therapies in predicted survivors or non-survivors.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(8): 874-882, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers. METHODS: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions. RESULTS: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).

16.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 148: w14650, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing efficient healthcare is important for hospitals. Shorter and longer length of hospital stay (LOS) outliers influence financial results and reimbursement. The objective of this study was to identify independent diagnosis related group (DRG)-related risk factors for shorter and longer LOS outlier status. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a Swiss level 1 trauma centre between January 2012 and December 2014. The study included all patients with available information on LOS based on DRG. Many predictor variables were tested. The outcome variable was the DRG-based LOS. Logistic regression models were fitted for shorter and longer LOS outliers, with a significance level of <1%. RESULTS: A total of 8247 patients were analysed, of whom inliers were more frequent than shorter and longer LOS outliers (n = 5838 [70.8%] vs n = 1996 [24.2%] vs n = 413 [5.0%]). Predictors for shorter LOS outliers were death (odds ratio [OR] 4.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.27-7.31), concussion (OR 4.87, 95% CI 4.20-5.63) and psychiatric disease (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.46-2.34). Predictors for longer LOS outliers were age ≥65 years (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.31-2.30), number of diagnoses ≥5 (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52-2.81), comorbidity (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.28-2.40), number of surgical procedures (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.36-2.28), complication perioperatively (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.24-2.30), infection (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.57-4.49]), concussion (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.01) and urinary tract infection (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.61-3.41). CONCLUSION: This large study showed that LOS outliers, especially shorter LOS outliers, are relatively common. Patients who died, or had concussion or psychiatric disease were more commonly discharged early. Patients weremore often discharged late if they were aged ≥65 years, had more diagnoses, were comorbid, had more surgical procedures, complications perioperatively, infection, concussion and urinary tract infection. For hospitals, this can help raise awareness and lead to better management of specific diagnoses in order to avoid monetary deficits. For the public health sector, this information may be considered in future revisions of the DRG.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α-2 agonist with many desirable effects including analgesia, improvement of hemodynamic stability, and potential myocardial and renal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DEX on patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting with regard to less pain medication, earlier extubation, faster transfer to normal ward, and cardiac protection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2015, 464 patients receiving OPCAB were included for retrospective analysis. After propensity matching (1:1), two groups (DEX vs. propofol, n = 129) could be compared. Continuous and categorical variables were reported as mean ± standard deviation or percentages, and compared with the chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney's test, respectively. RESULTS: In the DEX group, less use of pain medication in the initial phase at intensive care unit was observed. During the first 2 hours, DEX patients received more nicomorphine (DEX 8 ± 3.2 mg vs. propofol 6 ± 4 mg, p < 0.001), while in the following 2 hours, the pain medication was significantly reduced (DEX 3.2 ± 2.8 mg vs. propofol 4.7 ± 3.3 mg, p < 0.001). Remifentanil was stopped considerably earlier (DEX 238 ± 209 minutes vs. propofol 353 ± 266 minutes, p < 0.001). DEX led to earlier extubation (DEX 208 ± 106 minutes vs. propofol 307 ± 230 minutes, p < 0.001) and less postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Early postoperative DEX application supports the fast-track strategy in patients after OPCAB through enabling rapid extubation, effective pain control, and reduced occurrence of new-onset AF. We are confident to give precedence to DEX over propofol as the new routine medication during postoperative patient transfer.

18.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 46(9): 1544-1549, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041991

RESUMO

Fractures of the orbital floor and medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Diagnostic methods and treatment options have improved over recent years, due to threedimensional image processing and the use of patient-specific implants. Nonetheless, the indications for orbital reconstructive surgery are still controversial. Previous authors have reported a linear correlation between post-traumatic increases in orbital volume and enophthalmos and diplopia. Post-traumatic increases in orbital volume are often considered to be predictive of long-term symptoms; therefore, it is commonly recommended that orbital volume increases be treated as an indication for early reconstructive surgery. However, the results of this study did not show any statistically significant long-term linear correlation between increased orbital volume and enophthalmos or diplopia, and the performance of orbital volume as a predictor of ocular symptoms was poor. Hence, we do not consider increased post-traumatic orbital volume to be particularly useful for predicting late enophthalmos or diplopia. However, a statistical correlation between fractures of the anterior and medial thirds of the orbital floor and double vision was found. As such, fractures of the middle and anterior third should be regarded as problematic, and surgical reconstruction should be considered in these cases.

19.
Int Neurourol J ; 22(2): 123-132, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to objectively characterize the effect of successful nerve sparing (NS) during radical prostatectomy (RP) on postoperative urinary continence (UC) using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-scores and a previously described Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score cutoff value (COV) for UC. Several notable studies on this topic present conflicting outcomes. This is largely due to a lack of clear definitions and consensus regarding preserved erectile function (EF) and UC. METHODS: This study is comprised of all patients who underwent RP at the Kantonsspital Baden, Switzerland, between 2004 and 2013. Patients completed self-assessment questionnaires for UC (EPIC) and EF (IIEF) pre- and postoperatively (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months; yearly thereafter). We used a previously described EPIC subscore COV, with "satisfactory continence" signified by a score >85. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses for "surgeon-" and "IIEF-defined" NS definitions. RESULTS: Of 236 men with a median age of 63 years (interquartile range [IQR], 59-66 years) and median follow-up time of 48 months (IQR, 30-78 months), 176 underwent unilateral (n=33) or bilateral (n=143) NS RP. Fifty-four underwent non-NS (NNS) RP. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified the following risk factors for UC: age, prostate volume, cancer risk group, and NS status. In surgeon-defined NS RP cases, multivariate analysis for regaining continence demonstrated no significant difference (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.25; P=0.3). With successful IIEF-defined NS RPs, regression analysis demonstrated no significant difference (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.59-1.35; P=0.58). Conclusions: In our population, analysis and comparison of surgeon- and IIEF-defined NS and NNS cohorts revealed that NS RP did not improve postoperative UC. The conservation of UC alone should not motivate surgeons or patients to pursue NS RP.

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