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2.
Heart Vessels ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044621

RESUMO

Coronary spasm is an established cause for angina pectoris. Ethnic differences have been suggested among Asian compared to Caucasian patients regarding prevalence, gender distribution, and angiographic patterns of coronary spasm. The aim of this study was to compare contemporary German and Japanese patients with coronary spasm. Between 2011 and 2015, 149 patients with resting angina and unobstructed coronary arteries with acetylcholine-induced epicardial spasm were enrolled in Stuttgart, Germany (n = 69) and Sendai, Japan (n = 80). All patients underwent intracoronary acetylcholine testing according to a standardized protocol. Comprehensive analysis included type of spasm (focal/diffuse), dose of acetylcholine leading to spasm, and frequency of multivessel spasm. Patients in this study were 61 ± 11 years old, predominantly female (54%), and had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (73 ± 9%). Diffuse spasm was the most prevalent type of spasm (85%) whereas focal spasm was found in the remaining 15% of patients. 31% of patients had multivessel spasm. Comparing the German with the Japanese patients, distribution of spasm type (focal/diffuse, p = 0.19) and frequency of multivessel spasm (p = 0.22) were comparable. Moreover, when Japanese patients were compared with German patients and diffuse spasm with focal spasm patients, respectively, no significant differences were observed regarding the acetylcholine dose required to induce spasm (p = 0.078 and p = 0.46, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse epicardial coronary spasm is the most frequent finding among German and Japanese patients with resting angina, unobstructed coronary arteries, and epicardial spasm on acetylcholine testing. Japanese and German patients share several similarities including comparable types of spasm and frequency of multivessel spasm.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(16): 1865-1876, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of a large cohort of patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronaries undergoing acetylcholine spasm testing. BACKGROUND: Coronary artery spasm can be found in up to 60% of patients with symptoms of myocardial ischemia despite unobstructed coronary arteries. METHODS: Consecutive symptomatic patients with unobstructed coronary arteries undergoing acetylcholine testing to detect epicardial or microvascular coronary spasm were prospectively enrolled. After a median follow-up period of 7.2 years (6.5 to 7.9 years), data regarding mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, repeat coronary angiography, recurrent symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in 736 patients (57% women, mean age 62 ± 12 years). RESULTS: In total, 55 deaths (7.5%), 8 nonfatal myocardial infarctions (1.4%), and 12 strokes (2.2%) occurred during the follow-up period. Recurrent symptoms were reported by 64% of patients, and repeat coronary angiography was performed in 12% of cases. Multivariate analysis revealed epicardial spasm as a predictor of nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio: 14.469; 95% confidence interval: 1.735 to 120.646) and repeat angiography (hazard ratio: 1.703; 95% confidence interval: 1.062 to 2.732), whereas patients with microvascular spasm more often had recurrent angina at follow-up (hazard ratio: 1.311; 95% confidence interval: 1.013 to 1.697). CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term follow-up study, the overall prognosis of patients with coronary spasm was favorable. Patients with epicardial spasm were at increased risk for myocardial infarction and repeat angiography, while microvascular spasm was associated with recurrent angina. Acetylcholine testing may help identify patients at increased risk for adverse cardiac events among this overall low-risk population.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e015351, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787653

RESUMO

Background There is scarce data about the long-term mortality as well as the prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis. We sought to investigate: (1) mortality and (2) prognostic value of LGEcardiovascular magnetic resonance (location, pattern, extent, and distribution) in a >10-year follow-up in patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis. Methods and Results Two-hundred three consecutive patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis and cardiovascular magnetic resonance were enrolled; 183 patients were eligible for standardized follow-up. The median follow-up was 10.1 years. End points were all-cause death, cardiac death, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We found substantial long-term mortality in patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis (39.3% all cause, 27.3% cardiac, and 10.9% SCD); 101 patients (55.2%) demonstrated LGE. The presence of LGE was associated with a more than a doubled risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% CI], 1.30-4.43), escalating to a HR of 3.00 (95% CI, 1.41-6.42) for cardiac death, and a HR of 14.79 (95% CI, 1.95-112.00) for SCD; all P≤0.009. Specifically, midwall, (antero-) septal LGE, and extent of LGE were highly associated with death, all P<0.001. Septal LGE was the best independent predictor for SCD (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.38-15.24; P=0.01). Conclusions In patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis, the presence of midwall LGE in the (antero-) septal segments is associated with a higher rate of mortality (including SCD) compared with absent LGE or other LGE patterns, underlining the prognostic benefit of a distinct LGE analysis in these patients.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary angiography is often performed in patients with recurrent angina after successful coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in search of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, in many of these patients, no relevant stenosis can be detected. We speculate that coronary spasm may be associated with angina in these patients. METHODS: From 2307 patients with unobstructed coronaries who underwent intracoronary acetylcholine spasm provocation testing (ACh-test) between 2012 and 2016, 54 consecutive patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria were included in this cohort study: previous left internal thoracic artery (LITA) bypass on the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ongoing/recurrent angina pectoris, no significant (< 50%) coronary artery or bypass stenosis. In all participants, the ACh-test was performed via the LITA bypass. RESULTS: In 14 patients (26%) the ACh-test elicited epicardial spasm of the LAD distal to the anastomosis (≥ 90% diameter reduction with reproduction of the patient's symptoms and ischemic ECG shifts). Microvascular spasm (reproduction of symptoms and ischemic ECG-changes but no epicardial spasm) was seen in 30 patients (55%). The ACh-test was normal in the remaining 10 patients (19%). ACh-testing did not elicit any relevant vasoconstriction in the LITA bypasses in contrast to the LAD on quantitative coronary analyses (4.89 ± 7.36% vs. 52.43 ± 36.07%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Epicardial and microvascular coronary artery spasm are frequent findings in patients with ongoing or recurrent angina after CABG but no relevant stenosis. Vasoreactivity to acetylcholine is markedly different between LITA bypasses and native LAD arteries with vasoconstriction almost exclusively occurring in the LAD.

6.
J Biophotonics ; : e202000110, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589779

RESUMO

The tensile strength of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is mainly maintained by collagen cross-links. Loss of collagen cross-linking combined with other age-related degenerative processes contributes to tissue weakening, biomechanical failure, disc herniation and pain. Exogenous collagen cross-linking has been identified as an effective therapeutic approach for restoring IVD tensile strength. The current state-of-the-art method to assess the extent of collagen cross-linking in tissues requires destructive procedures and high-performance liquid chromatography. In this study, we investigated the utility of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy as a nondestructive analytical strategy to rapidly evaluate the extent of UV-light-activated riboflavin (B2)-induced collagen cross-linking in bovine IVD samples. Thirty-five fresh bovine-tail IVD samples were equally divided into five treatment groups: (a) untreated, (b) cell culture medium Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium only, (c) B2 only, (d) UV-light only and (e) UV-light-B2. A total of 674 measurements have been acquired, and were analyzed via partial least squares discriminant analysis. This classification scheme unambiguously identified individual classes with a sensitivity >91% and specificity >92%. The obtained results demonstrate that IR-ATR spectroscopy reliably differentiates between different treatment categories, and promises an excellent tool for potential in vivo, nondestructive and real-time assessment of exogenous IVD cross-linking.

7.
Artif Intell Med ; 105: 101849, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505421

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be an invaluable component of pathogenesis research in osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the detection of a meniscal lesion from magnetic resonance (MR) images is always challenging for both clinicians and researchers, because the surrounding tissues lead to similar signals within MR measurements, thus being difficult to discriminate. Moreover, the size and shape of osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic menisci vary to a large extent between individuals of same features, e.g. height, weight, age, etc. An effective way to visualize the entire volume of knee menisci is to segment the menisci voxels from the MR images, which is also useful to evaluate particular properties quantitatively. However, segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming task, and requires adequate training for being done properly. With the advancement of both MRI technology and computer methods, researchers have developed several algorithms to automate the task of meniscus segmentation of the individual knee during the last two decades. The objective of this systematic review was to present available fully automatic and semi-automatic segmentation methods of the knee meniscus published in different scientific articles according to the PRISMA statement. This review should provide a vivid description of the scientific advancements to clinicians and researchers in this field to help developing novel automated methods for clinical applications.

8.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872620932422, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary spasm is an established cause for myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries, and can be diagnosed using intracoronary acetylcholine testing. However, it has been questioned whether such testing is feasible and safe in the acute phase. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of coronary spasm and the safety of the acetylcholine test in patients with myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries compared to patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronaries. METHODS: One hundred and eighty selected patients (52% women, mean age 62±13 years) with either myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries (n=80) or stable angina and unobstructed coronaries (n=100) were enrolled from 2007-2018. All patients underwent the acetylcholine test according to a standardised protocol immediately after diagnostic angiography. Apart from assessment of clinical, demographic and risk factor data, side effects and complications during the acetylcholine test were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, epicardial spasm was found in 26% with a higher prevalence among the myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries compared to the stable angina patients (35% vs 19%, p=0.017). Microvascular spasm was found in 42% with a higher prevalence among the stable patients compared to the myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries cohort (53% vs 29%, p=0.0014). There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of side effects (16% vs 14%, p=0.674) or complications (1% vs 2.5%, p=0.438) between the two groups. None of the patients experienced irreversible complications. CONCLUSION: Coronary spasm is a frequent cause for myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries. Spasm provocation testing using acetylcholine is feasible in such patients in the acute phase. The complication rate during acetylcholine testing in myocardial infarction with unobstructed coronary arteries patients is low and comparable to patients with stable angina.

9.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(6): 530-537, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Abnormal COronary VAsomotion in patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries study, we showed that 62% of patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries had coronary spasm. In this study, we sought to assess the 5-year prognosis in these patients. METHODS: Data regarding the following endpoints were obtained: death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary event (=cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction), persistent angina and repeated coronary angiography. Quality of life was assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among patients with unobstructed coronary arteries there were three deaths (2.9%) and no non-fatal myocardial infarction. Among those with obstructive CAD 15 died (13.8%) and three had a non-fatal myocardial infarction (2.8%). Patients with obstructive CAD had a higher rate of all-cause death and coronary events compared to those without (P = 0.004). Persistent angina was more prevalent in patients with unobstructed coronaries (P = 0.042). Prognosis of patients with unobstructed coronaries regarding hard clinical events, persistent angina and repeated coronary angiography was independent of the presence of coronary spasm (all P > 0.05). However, spasm patients were more likely to take nitrate medication at follow-up (P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries have a favorable prognosis regarding mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction after 5 years compared to patients with obstructive CAD irrespective of the presence of coronary artery spasm. However, persistent angina remains a common issue in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries leading to a similar frequency of repeated invasive procedures as in patients with obstructive CAD.

11.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(11): 3488-3496, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to analyse which clinical, radiological and arthroscopic findings are able to predict the postoperative outcome after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the postoperative outcome after partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscal lesions. METHODS: A total of 91 patients with a follow-up period of 34.7 ± 11.4 months after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, radiological, and arthroscopic data were analysed at the time of follow-up. The multivariable linear regression analysis for postoperative outcome, based on the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET), included age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, presence of cartilage lesions, leg alignment, grade of radiographic osteoarthritis, location of meniscal lesions, meniscal extrusion, meniscal degeneration, presence of an anterior cruciate ligament tears as well as bone marrow lesions. RESULTS: WOMET and WOMAC scores showed a significant improvement of 45.0 ± 48.1 points (CI 34.9-55.1; p ≤ 0.0001) and 75.1 ± 69.3 points (CI 60.6-89.6; p = 0.001) within the follow-up period. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that poor preoperative WOMET scores (p = 0.001), presence of cartilage lesions at the medial femoral condylus (p = 0.001), meniscal degeneration (p = 0.008), the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament lesion (p = 0.005), and lateral meniscal tears (p = 0.039) were associated with worse postoperative outcomes. Patients with femoral bone marrow lesions had better outcome (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Poor preoperative WOMET scores, presence of cartilage lesions at the medial femoral condylus, meniscal degeneration, concomitant anterior cruciate ligament lesions as well as lateral meniscal tears are correlated with worse postoperative outcomes after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Patients with femoral bone marrow lesions femoral are more likely to gain benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in the middle term. Despite justified recent restrictions in indication, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy seems to effectively reduce pain and alleviate symptoms in carefully selected patients with degenerative meniscal tears. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 697-701, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967729

RESUMO

Barth syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical features including cardiac and skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, exercise intolerance, and growth delay. Most affected patients are diagnosed during childhood, and mortality is highest in the first years of life. As a consequence, Barth syndrome is often considered a paediatric disease. Here, we report a case where the diagnosis was established in a 39-year-old patient with left ventricular non-compaction and neutropenia. The clinical course of the patient presented here was relatively benign. This suggests that the prevalence of Barth syndrome in adults may be underestimated. Barth syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of male patients with cardiomyopathy and neutropenia.

13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(4): 841-855, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904824

RESUMO

The coronary microcirculation plays a pivotal role in the regulation of coronary blood flow and cardiac metabolism. It can adapt to acute and chronic pathologic conditions such as coronary thrombosis or long-standing hypertension. Due to the fact that the coronary microcirculation cannot be visualized in human beings in vivo, its assessment remains challenging. Thus, the clinical importance of the coronary microcirculation is still often underestimated or even neglected. Depending on the clinical condition of the respective patient, several non-invasive (e.g. transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography assessing coronary flow velocity reserve, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and invasive methods (e.g. assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) and microvascular resistance (MVR) using adenosine, microvascular coronary spasm with acetylcholine) have been established for the assessment of coronary microvascular function. Individual patient characteristics, but certainly also local availability, methodical expertise and costs will influence which methods are being used for the diagnostic work-up (non-invasive and/or invasive assessment) in a patient with recurrent symptoms and suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction. Recently, the combined invasive assessment of coronary vasoconstrictor as well as vasodilator abnormalities has been titled interventional diagnostic procedure (IDP). It involves intracoronary acetylcholine testing for the detection of coronary spasm as well as CFR and MVR assessment in response to adenosine using a dedicated wire. Currently, the IDP represents the most comprehensive coronary vasomotor assessment. Studies using the IDP to better characterize the endotypes observed will hopefully facilitate development of tailored and effective treatments.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Microcirculação , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(3): 521-532, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728679

RESUMO

In this study, we sought to investigate the impact of baseline calibration, which is used in quantitative cardiac MRI perfusion analysis to correct for surface coil inhomogeneity and noise, on myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) and its contribution to previously reported paradoxical low MPRI < 1.0 in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. Semiquantitative perfusion analysis was performed in 20 patients with unobstructed coronary arteries undergoing stress/rest perfusion CMR and in ten patients undergoing paired rest perfusion CMR. The following baseline calibration settings were compared: (1) baseline division, (2) baseline subtraction and (3) no baseline calibration. In uncalibrated analysis, we observed ~ 20% segmental dispersion of signal intensity (SI)-over-time curves. Both baseline subtraction and baseline division reduced relative dispersion of t0-SI (p < 0.001), but only baseline division corrected for dispersion of peak-SI and maximum upslope also (p < 0.001). In the assessment of perfusion indices, however, baseline division resulted in paradoxical low MPRI (1.01 ± 0.23 vs. 1.63 ± 0.38, p < 0.001) and rest perfusion index (RPI 0.54 ± 0.07 vs. 0.94 ± 0.12, p < 0.001), respectively. This was due to a reversed ratio of blood-pool and myocardial baseline-SI before the second perfusion study caused by circulating contrast agent from the first injection. In conclusion, baseline division reliably corrects for inhomogeneity of the surface coil sensitivity profile facilitating comparisons of regional myocardial perfusion during hyperemia or at rest. However, in the assessment of MPRI, baseline division can lead to paradoxical low results (even MPRI < 1.0 in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries) potentially mimicking severely impaired perfusion reserve. Thus, in the assessment of MPRI we propose to waive baseline calibration.

15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(5): 539-548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(2): 246-254, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of patients with acute coronary syndrome have no culprit lesion. Coronary microvascular spasm is an alternative cause for such a clinical presentation. However, this has rarely been investigated systematically. The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of coronary microvascular spasm in patients with NSTEMI without culprit lesion (MINOCA) by intracoronary acetylcholine testing (ACH-test). METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, 940 patients with NSTEMI underwent coronary angiography and 125 (13%) had no culprit lesion (< 50% stenosis on visual assessment). Of the latter, 29 patients had other causes for the clinical presentation (e.g. tako-tsubo-syndrome or myocarditis). The remaining 96 patients were recruited for the study and underwent ACH-testing according to a standardized protocol. RESULTS: The ACH-test was normal in 40 (42%) and abnormal in the remaining 56 (58%) patients. Of the latter, 26 patients (46%) had epicardial spasm (epicardial narrowing ≥ 90%, reproduction of symptoms and ischemic ST-segment changes) and 30 (54%) microvascular spasm (ischemic ST-shifts and angina without epicardial vasoconstriction ≥ 90%). The peak high-sensitive troponin-T concentration was 113 (42-255) pg/ml. Patients with coronary spasm had more often a positive family history compared to those without and patients with epicardial compared to microvascular spasm were more often smokers. CONCLUSION: Coronary microvascular spasm is frequently found in patients with NSTEMI without culprit lesion and represents a likely cause of myocardial injury. ACH-testing is useful for detection of vasomotor disorders allowing tailored treatment with calcium antagonists and/or nitrates in addition to secondary prevention to improve symptoms and prognosis. Microvascular spasm in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction without culprit lesion (MINOCA) .

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612132

RESUMO

The in vitro determination of realistic loads acting in knee ligaments, articular cartilage, menisci and their attachments during daily activities require the creation of physiological muscle forces, ground reaction force and unconstrained kinematics. However, no in vitro test setup is currently available that is able to simulate such physiological loads during squatting and jump landing exercises. Therefore, a novel knee joint simulator allowing such physiological loads in combination with realistic, rapid movements is presented. To gain realistic joint positions and muscle forces serving as input parameters for the simulator, a combined in vivo motion analysis and inverse dynamics (MAID) study was undertaken with 11 volunteers performing squatting and jump landing exercises. Subsequently, an in vitro study using nine human knee joint specimens was conducted to prove the functionality of the simulator. To do so, slow squatting without muscle force simulation representing quasi-static loading conditions and slow squatting and jump landing with physiological muscle force simulation were carried out. During all tests ground reaction force, tibiofemoral contact pressure, and tibial rotation characteristics were simultaneously recorded. The simulated muscle forces obtained were in good correlation (0.48 ≤ R ≤ 0.92) with those from the in vivo MAID study. The resulting vertical ground reaction force showed a correlation of R = 0.93. On the basis of the target parameters of ground reaction force, tibiofemoral contact pressure and tibial rotation, it could be concluded that the knee joint load was loaded physiologically. Therefore, this is the first in vitro knee joint simulator allowing squatting and jump landing exercises in combination with physiological muscle forces that finally result in realistic ground reaction forces and physiological joint loading conditions.

19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 33, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine is used in stress perfusion cardiac imaging to reveal myocardial ischemia by its vasodilator effects. Caffeine is a competitive antagonist of adenosine. However, previous studies reported inconsistent results about the influence of caffeine on adenosine's vasodilator effect. This study assessed the impact of caffeine on the myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Moreover, we sought to evaluate if the splenic switch-off sign might be indicative of prior caffeine consumption. METHODS: Semiquantitative perfusion analysis was performed in 25 patients who underwent: 1) caffeine-naïve adenosine stress CMR demonstrating myocardial ischemia and, 2) repeat adenosine stress CMR after intake of caffeine. MPRI (global; remote and ischemic segments), and splenic perfusion ratio (SPR) were assessed and compared between both exams. RESULTS: Global MPRI after caffeine was lower vs. caffeine-naïve conditions (1.09 ± 0.19 vs. 1.24 ± 0.19; p <  0.01). MPRI in remote myocardium decreased by caffeine (1.24 ± 0.19 vs. 1.49 ± 0.19; p <  0.001) whereas MPRI in ischemic segments (0.89 ± 0.18 vs. 0.95 ± 0.23; p = 0.23) was similar, resulting in a lower MPRI ratio (=remote/ischemic segments) after caffeine consumption vs. caffeine-naïve conditions (1.41 ± 0.19 vs. 1.64 ± 0.35, p = 0.01). The SPR was unaffected by caffeine (SPR 0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.38 ± 0.18; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Caffeine consumption prior to adenosine stress CMR results in a lower global MPRI, which is driven by the decreased MPRI in remote myocardium and underlines the need of abstinence from caffeine. The splenic switch-off sign is not affected by prior caffeine intake.


Assuntos
Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Antagonistas de Receptores Purinérgicos P1/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas de Receptores Purinérgicos P1/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e012429, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181983

RESUMO

Background Acute complete occlusion of a coronary artery results in progressive ischemia, moving from the endocardium to the epicardium (ie, wavefront). Dependent on time to reperfusion and collateral flow, myocardial infarction ( MI ) will manifest, with transmural MI portending poor prognosis. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can detect MI with  high diagnostic accuracy. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with ST -segment-elevation MI with <12 hours of symptom onset. We sought to visualize time-dependent necrosis in a population with ST -segment-elevation MI by using late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (STEMI-SCAR project). Methods and Results ST -segment-elevation MI patients with single-vessel disease, complete occlusion with TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) score 0, absence of collateral flow (Rentrop score 0), and symptom onset <12 hours were consecutively enrolled. Using late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the area at risk and infarct size, myocardial salvage index, transmurality index, and transmurality grade (0-50%, 51-75%, 76-100%) were determined. In total, 164 patients (aged 54±11 years, 80% male) were included. A receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve: 0.81) indicating transmural necrosis revealed the best diagnostic cutoff for a symptom-to-balloon time of 121 minutes: patients with >121 minutes demonstrated increased infarct size, transmurality index, and transmurality grade (all P<0.01) and decreased myocardial salvage index ( P<0.001) versus patients with symptom-to-balloon times ≤121 minutes. Conclusions In MI with no residual antegrade and no collateral flow, immediate reperfusion is vital. A symptom-to-balloon time of >121 minutes causes a high grade of transmural necrosis. In this pure ST -segment-elevation MI population, time to reperfusion to salvage myocardium was less than suggested by current guidelines.

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