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1.
Sports Health ; : 19417381211038494, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Venn diagram consisting of percentage body mass loss, urine color, and thirst perception (weight, urine, thirst [WUT]) has been suggested as a practical method to assess hydration status. However, no study to date has examined relationships between WUT and urine hydration indices. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, and the WUT criteria. HYPOTHESIS: Urine specific gravity and urine osmolality indicate hypohydration when the WUT criteria demonstrate hypohydration (≥2 markers). STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 22 women (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 1 years; mass, 65.4 ± 12.6 kg) and 21 men (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 78.7 ± 14.6 kg) participated in this study. First morning body mass, urine color, urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, and thirst level were collected for 10 consecutive days in a free-living situation. Body mass loss >1%, urine color >5, and thirst level ≥5 were used as the dehydration thresholds. The number of markers that indicated dehydration levels were counted and categorized into either 3, 2, 1, or 0 WUT markers that indicated dehydration. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons was used to assess the differences in urine specific gravity and urine osmolality between the different number of WUT markers. RESULTS: Urine specific gravity in 3 WUT markers (mean ± SD [effect size], 1.021 ± 0.007 [0.57]; P = 0.025) and 2 WUT markers (1.019 ± 0.010 [0.31]; P = 0.026) was significantly higher than 1 WUT marker (1.016 ± 0.009). Urine mosmolality in 2 WUT markers (705 ± 253 mOsmol [0.43]; P = 0.018) was significantly higher than 1 WUT (597 ± 253 mOsmol). Meeting at least 2 WUT markers resulted in sensitivities of 0.652 (2 WUT criteria met) and 0.933 (3 WUT criteria met) to detect urine osmolality >700 mOsmol. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that when 3 WUT markers are met, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were greater than euhydration cutoff points. The WUT criterion is a useful tool to use in field settings to assess hydration status when first morning urine sample was used. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Athletes, coaches, sports scientists, and medical professionals can use WUT criteria to monitor dehydration with reduced cost and time.

2.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(11): 3076-3087, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiteam, multi-institution prospective studies of both women's and men's sports are essential for collectively investigating injury and primary to the generalization and individualization of injury prevention strategies. HYPOTHESIS: Characteristics of workload, sleep, and contextual factors will be associated with injury risk in collegiate soccer athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Injuries, workload, and sleep characteristics were recorded daily throughout a complete season for 256 athletes from 12 separate National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's and women's soccer teams. Workload and contextual factors were assessed via multilevel Poisson regression to capture differences in injury incidence rate ratio (IRR). Paired t test and multilevel logistic regressions were used to assess the relationship between sleep behavior and injury. RESULTS: Collegiate soccer athletes had lower rates of noncontact injury in the in-season (IRR, 0.42) and postseason (IRR, 0.48) compared with preseason, lower rates of injury in training (IRR, 0.64) compared with matches, and higher injury rates with only 1 day of rest in the previous week (IRR, 1.58) compared with >1 day. Injury rates peaked when training occurred 4 days before a match (IRR, 2.24) compared with a match. Injury rate increased exponentially with increases in the number of noncontact injuries incurred throughout the season (IRR, 2.23). Lower chronic loading, higher training monotony, and acute spikes and lulls in workload were associated with higher noncontact injury rates. Alterations in previous week sleep quality were associated with injury, while chronic sleep behavior and acute alterations (<7 days) in sleep behavior were not (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Athlete and schedule-specific contextual factors, combined with characteristics of workload and weekly sleep behavior, are significantly associated with injury in collegiate soccer. Multiteam prospective cohort studies involving objective and subjective monitoring allow for the identification of multiple injury risk factors in sports, which can be used to guide injury prevention strategies. Maintaining higher chronic workloads, lowering training monotony, minimizing acute spikes or lulls in workloads, managing workloads during preseason and for athletes with previous injury, integrating more rest and recovery during congested periods, and optimizing sleep quality are all practical considerations for reducing injury risk in collegiate soccer.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades
3.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303307

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heat acclimation (HA) on thirst levels, sweat rate, and percentage of body mass loss (%BML), and changes in fluid intake factors throughout HA induction. Twenty-eight male endurance athletes (mean ± SD; age, 35 ± 12 years; body mass, 73.0 ± 8.9 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 57.4 ± 6.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed 60 min of exercise in a euhydrated state at 58.9 ± 2.3% velocity of maximal oxygen consumption in the heat (ambient temperature, 35.0 ± 1.3 °C; relative humidity, 48.0 ± 1.3%) prior to and following HA where thirst levels, sweat rate, and %BML were measured. Then, participants performed 5 days of HA while held at hyperthermia (38.50-39.75 °C) for 60 min with fluid provided ad libitum. Sweat volume, %BML, thirst levels, and fluid intake were measured for each session. Thirst levels were significantly lower following HA (pre, 4 ± 1; post, 3 ± 1, p < .001). Sweat rate (pre, 1.76 ± 0.42 L/hr; post, 2.00 ± 0.60 L/hr, p = .039) and %BML (pre, 2.66 ± 0.53%; post, 2.98 ± 0.83%, p = .049) were significantly greater following HA. During HA, thirst levels decreased (Day 1, 4 ± 1; Day 2, 3 ± 2; Day 3, 3 ± 2; Day 4, 3 ± 1; Day 5, 3 ± 1; p < .001). However, sweat volume (Day 1, 2.34 ± 0.67 L; Day 2, 2.49 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 2.67 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 2.74 ± 0.61 L; Day 5, 2.74 ± 0.91 L; p = .010) and fluid intake (Day 1, 1.20 ± 0.45 L; Day 2, 1.52 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 1.69 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 1.65 ± 0.58 L; Day 5, 1.74 ± 0.51 L; p < .001) increased. In conclusion, thirst levels were lower following HA even though sweat rate and %BML were higher. Thirst levels decreased while sweat volume and fluid intake increased during HA induction. Thus, HA should be one of the factors to consider when planning hydration strategies.

4.
Sports Health ; 13(5): 463-470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While increased face mask use has helped reduce COVID-19 transmission, there have been concerns about its influence on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat, but consistent, evidence-based recommendations are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: No physiological differences would exist during low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat between trials with and without face masks, but perceptual sensations could vary. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. METHODS: Twelve physically active participants (8 male, 4 female; age = 24 ± 3 years) completed 4 face mask trials and 1 control trial (no mask) in the heat (32.3°C ± 0.04°C; 54.4% ± 0.7% relative humidity [RH]). The protocol was 60 minutes of walking and jogging between 35% and 60% of relative VO2max. Rectal temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), temperature and humidity inside and outside of the face mask (Tmicro_in, Tmicro_out, RHmicro_in, RHmicro_out) and perceptual variables (rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thirst sensation, fatigue level, and overall breathing discomfort) were monitored throughout all trials. RESULTS: Mean Trec and HR increased at 30- and 60-minute time points compared with 0-minute time points, but no difference existed between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05). Mean Tmicro_in, RHmicro_in, and humidity difference inside and outside of the face mask (ΔRHmicro) were significantly different between face mask trials (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in perceptual variables between face mask trials and control trials (P > 0.05), except overall breathing discomfort (P < 0.01). Higher RHmicro_in, RPE, and thermal sensation significantly predicted higher overall breathing discomfort (r2 = 0.418; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Face mask use during 60 minutes of low-to-moderate exercise intensity in the heat did not significantly affect Trec or HR. Although face mask use may affect overall breathing discomfort due to the changes in the face mask microenvironment, face mask use itself did not cause an increase in whole body thermal stress. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Face mask use is feasible and safe during exercise in the heat, at low-to-moderate exercise intensities, for physically active, healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Corrida Moderada/fisiologia , Máscaras , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensação Térmica , Trabalho Respiratório , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(8): 723-728, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydration status and ice-water dousing on physiological and performance parameters. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover. METHODS: Twelve athletes (mean[M] ±â€¯standard deviation[SD]; age, 20 ±â€¯1 years; height, 174 ±â€¯8 cm; body mass, 72.1 ±â€¯11.0 kg; VO2max 53.9 ±â€¯7.3 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) completed four trials (euhydrated without dousing, hypohydrated without dousing, euhydrated with dousing, and hypohydrated with dousing), which involved intermittent treadmill running (five 15-minute bouts) in the heat (M ±â€¯SD; ambient temperature, 34.7 ±â€¯2.1 °C; relative humidity, 46 ±â€¯3%; wet-bulb globe temperature, 28.0 ±â€¯0.4 °C). Participants also completed four cognitive, power, agility, reaction time, and repeated sprint performance tests throughout each trial. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Trec) were measured continuously. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to assess differences between physiological and performance variables. Alpha was set at ≤0.05, a priori. Data are reported as mean difference ±â€¯standard error (MD ±â€¯SE). RESULTS: HR was significantly lower in euhydrated trials compared to hypohydrated trials, irrespective of dousing (8 ±â€¯2 bpm; p = 0.001). Dousing did not significantly impact HR (p = 0.455) and there was no interaction between hydration and dousing (p = 0.893). Trec was significantly lower in euhydrated trials compared to hypohydrated trials (0.39 ±â€¯0.05 °C, p < 0.001), with no effect from dousing alone (p = 0.113) or the interaction of hydration and dousing (p = 0.848). Dousing resulted in improved sprint performance (11 ±â€¯3 belt rotations, p = 0.007), while hydration status did not (p = 0.235). CONCLUSIONS: Athletes should aim to maintain euhydration during exercise in the heat for improved physiological function and cooling with ice-water dousing elicits additional performance benefits.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Crioterapia , Hidratação , Frequência Cardíaca , Temperatura Alta , Futebol/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Crioterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Umidade , Gelo , Tempo de Reação , Futebol/lesões , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064102

RESUMO

Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg-1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg-1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Desidratação/urina , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Sede/fisiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924138

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of heat acclimatization (HAz) followed by heat acclimation (HA) on physiological adaptations. 25 male endurance athletes (age 36 ± 12 y, height 178.8 ± 6.39 cm, body mass 73.03 ± 8.97 kg, and VO2peak 57.5 ± 7.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed HAz and HA. HAz was 3 months of self-directed summer training. In the laboratory, a 5-day HA prescribed exercise to target a hyperthermic zone (HZHA) of Trec between 38.50 and 39.75 °C for 60 min. Exercise trials were 60 min of running (59% ± 2% VO2peak) in an environmental chamber (wet bulb globe temperature 29.53 ± 0.63 °C) and administered at: baseline, post-HAz, and post-HAz+HA. Measured variables included internal body temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), and sweat rate (SR). Repeated measure ANOVAs and post hoc comparisons were used to assess statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences. Trec was lower post-HAz+HA (38.03 ± 0.39 °C) than post-HAz (38.25 ± 0.42 °C, p = 0.009) and baseline (38.29 ± 0.37 °C, p = 0.005). There were no differences between baseline and post-HAz (p = 0.479) in Trec. HR was lower post-HAz (143 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.002) and post-HAz+HA (134 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.001) than baseline (138 ± 14 bpm). HR was lower post-HAz+HA than post-HAz (p = 0.013). SR was higher post-HAz+HA (1.93 ± 0.47 L·h-1) than post-HAz (1.76 ± 0.43 L·h-1, p = 0.027). Combination HAz and HA increased physiological outcomes above HAz. This method can be used to improve performance and safety in addition to HAz alone.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Atletas , Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1326-1330, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677462

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sekiguchi, Y, Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Walker, AJ, Arent, SM, Adams, WM, Anderson, T, and Casa, DJ. The relationships between perceived wellness of, sleep of, and acute: chronic training load on National Collegiate Athletics Association division I male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1326-1330, 2021-The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between perceived wellness, sleep, and acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR) throughout a collegiate men's soccer season. Sixty male collegiate soccer players (mean[M] ± SD; age, 21±2 year; body mass, 77.6 ± 6.5 kg; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; body fat%, 9.9 ± 3.9% ; and V̇o2max, 53.1 ± 5.0 ml·kg-1·min-1) participated in this study. During each session, players used a heart rate and global positioning satellite-enabled chest strap to measure training impulse and ACWR. The ACWR values were trichotomized at the individual level giving an equal number of observations within each ACWR category of low, moderate, and high ACWR (M ± SD; low, 0.658 ± 0.23; moderate, 0.92 ± 0.15; and high, 1.17 ± 0.16). Stress, fatigue, and soreness levels were collected using 1-10 Likert scales and sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Stress, fatigue, soreness levels, and sleep quality were transformed to corresponding z-scores at the individual level. Fatigue levels were significantly higher when ACWR was high compared with low (mean difference [95% confidence intervals], effect size, p-value; 0.31 [0.21, 0.42], 0.29, p < 0.001) and moderate (0.14 [0.03, 0.24], 0.13, p = 0.01). Fatigue levels were also significantly higher when the ACWR was moderate compared with low (0.18 [0.07, 0.28], 0.16, p = 0.001). Soreness levels were significantly higher when the ACWR was high compared with low (0.25 [0.14, 0.36], 0.23, p < 0.001). Stress levels were significantly greater when the ACWR was high compared with low (0.19, [0.08, 0.29], 0.18, p < 0.001) and compared with moderate (0.15, [0.05, 0.25], 0.14, p = 0.004). There were no differences in sleep duration or sleep quality in different ACWR. The ACWR may be a useful tool to achieve an appropriate balance between training and recovery to manage daily fatigue and soreness levels in athletes.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(4): 1103-1109, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289866

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sekiguchi, Y, Huggins, RA, Curtis, RM, Benjamin, CL, Adams, WM, Looney, DP, West, CA, and Casa, DJ. Relationship between heart rate variability and acute:chronic load ratio throughout a season in NCAA D1 men's soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 35(4): 1103-1109, 2021-The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR)-based training load (TL) metrics and (b) to examine relationships across various A:C ratio-based TL metrics. Heart rate variability in 23 male college soccer players (mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 80.3 ± 5.8 kg; height, 181.9 ± 6.5 cm; %body fat, 11.9 ± 2.0%; and V̇o2max, 51.9 ± 5.0 ml·kg-1·min-1) was measured at 5 time points: week(W)1, W3, W7, W12, and W14 during the 2015 NCAA men's soccer season. Heart rate variability was calculated from beat to beat intervals using a heart rate monitor. Players donned a global position satellite-enabled device that measured the following TL metrics: session time (ST), Player Load (PL), PL·min-1, and total distance (TD). Acute:chronic workload ratio was calculated for each TL metric: ACWR-based ST (ACWRST), ACWR-based PL (ACWRPL), ACWR-based PL·min-1 (ACWRPLM), and ACWR-based TD (ACWRTD): ACWR = week average TLs/mo average (30 ± 1 days) TLs. Relationships between HRV and ACWR-based each TL metric were evaluated using mixed effects models. Tukey pairwise comparisons were used to examine differences between types of ACWR-based TL metrics. An increase in ACWRST significantly reduced HRV throughout a season (-7.4 ± 3.6 m·s-1; p = 0.04). There were significant differences between ACWRPLM and ACWRST, ACWRPL and ACWRTD at W1, ACWRPLM and ACWRST at W3 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ACWRST, ACWRPL, and ACWRTD were significantly different from ACWRPLM. ACWRST was found to significantly predict HRV; higher ACWRST was significantly associated with lower HRV. Therefore, tracking of the ACWR using ST may help to optimize athlete's physiological state throughout a season.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
10.
Physiol Behav ; 229: 113211, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141048

RESUMO

Thirst motivates consumption of water necessary for optimal health and cognitive-physiological functions. Other than thirst, little is known about coexisting perceptions and moods that provide information to the brain and participate in body water homeostasis. The purpose of this investigation was to observe perceptions, somatic sensations, and moods during controlled changes of hydration status. During routine daily activities interspersed with laboratory visits, 18 healthy young men (age, 23±3 y; body mass, 80.13±10.61 kg) self-reported hourly ratings (visual analog scales, VAS) of 17 subjective perceptions, across two 24-h periods (ad libitum food and water intake while euhydrated; water restriction with dry food intake [WR]) and during a 30-min rehydration session (R30, 1.46±0.47 L water intake). At the end of WR, body mass loss reached 1.67 kg (2.12%). Distinct perceptions were identified during euhydration, WR and immediately after R30. Starting approximately 4 h after WR began (body mass loss of ∼0.5%), perceptual changes included progressively intensifying ratings of thirst, mouth dryness, desire for water, and pleasantness of drinking. In comparison, immediately after R30, participants reported a reversal of the perceptions observed during WR (above) plus cooler thermal sensation, increased satisfaction, and stomach fullness. These VAS ratings suggested that aversive moods contributed to drinking behavior and supported previously published animal studies. In conclusion, this investigation delineates previously unreported perceptions and their evolution (e.g., appearance, extinction, time course) that motivated drinking during WR and discouraged overdrinking after R30.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Água Corporal , Hidratação , Humanos , Masculino , Sede , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(11): 3070-3077, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105356

RESUMO

Huggins, RA, Giersch, GEW, Belval, LN, Benjamin, CL, Curtis, RM, Sekiguchi, Y, Peltonen, J, and Casa, DJ. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance and velocity during linear and team sport simulated movements. J Strength Cond Res 34(11): 3070-3077, 2020-This experimental study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of shirt-mounted 10-Hz global positioning system (GPS) units (Polar Team Pro) for measuring total distance (TD), constant velocity (VelC), and instantaneous velocity (VelI) during linear running and a team sport simulation circuit (TSSC). Fifteen male soccer athletes completed linear tasks (40 and 100 m) at various velocities: walk (W) (4.8-7.9 km·h), jog (J) (8.0-12.7 km·h), run (R) (12.9-19.9 km·h), and sprint (S) (>20.0 km·h) and a 120-m TSSC. Global positioning system validity and reliability for TD, VelC, and VelI were compared with criterion measures using 2 methods (a and b) of GPS raw data extraction. When measuring TD for the Polar Team Pro device, validity and reliability measures were <5% error at all velocities during the 40-m (with the exception of the S [%CV = 8.03]) and 100-m linear trial (both extraction methods) and TSSC. The GPS mean difference (±SD) for TD during the TSSC using extraction methods (a) and (b) was 0.2 ± 1.2 and 2.2 ± 2.2 m, respectively. The validity of the device in measuring VelC was significantly different (p < 0.05) at all velocities during the 40 m (exception W) and the 100 m, with effect sizes ranging from trivial to small (exception of 100 m S). VelI was similar (p > 0.05) at all velocities, except for the W (p = 0.001). The reliability of the device when measuring VelC during the 40 and 100 m was <5% CV; however, during the 100 m, VelI ranged from 1.4 to 12.9%. Despite trivial to large effect sizes for validity of TD, this device demonstrated good reliability <5% CV during linear and TSSC movements. Similarly, effect sizes ranged from trivial to large for VelC, and yet VelI reliability was good for VelC, but good to poor for VelI.


Assuntos
Atletas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/normas , Futebol/fisiologia , Esportes de Equipe , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947575

RESUMO

Huggins, RA, Giersch, GEW, Belval, LN, Benjamin, CL, Curtis, RM, Sekiguchi, Y, Peltonen, J, and Casa, DJ. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance and velocity during linear and team sport simulated movements. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This experimental study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of shirt-mounted 10-Hz global positioning system (GPS) units (Polar Team Pro) for measuring total distance (TD), constant velocity (VelC), and instantaneous velocity (VelI) during linear running and a team sport simulation circuit (TSSC). Fifteen male soccer athletes completed linear tasks (40 and 100 m) at various velocities: walk (W) (4.8-7.9 km·h), jog (J) (8.0-12.7 km·h), run (R) (12.9-19.9 km·h), and sprint (S) (>20.0 km·h) and a 120-m TSSC. Global positioning system validity and reliability for TD, VelC, and VelI were compared with criterion measures using 2 methods (a and b) of GPS raw data extraction. When measuring TD for the Polar Team Pro device, validity and reliability measures were <5% error at all velocities during the 40-m (with the exception of the S [%CV = 8.03]) and 100-m linear trial (both extraction methods) and TSSC. The GPS mean difference (±SD) for TD during the TSSC using extraction methods (a) and (b) was 0.2 ± 1.2 and 2.2 ± 2.2 m, respectively. The validity of the device in measuring VelC was significantly different (p < 0.05) at all velocities during the 40 m (exception W) and the 100 m, with effect sizes ranging from trivial to small (exception of 100 m S). VelI was similar (p > 0.05) at all velocities, except for the W (p = 0.001). The reliability of the device when measuring VelC during the 40 and 100 m was <5% CV; however, during the 100 m, VelI ranged from 1.4 to 12.9%. Despite trivial to large effect sizes for validity of TD, this device demonstrated good reliability <5% CV during linear and TSSC movements. Similarly, effect sizes ranged from trivial to large for VelC, and yet VelI reliability was good for VelC, but good to poor for VelI.

13.
Sports Health ; 12(3): 234-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep and mood are critical factors that contribute to health and wellness and are of particular interest to collegiate athletes who are juggling high physical, academic, and social demands. The aim of this study was to examine how psychological measures, player status, and sex-related factors were associated with perceived sleep quality. HYPOTHESIS: Higher levels of global sleep dysfunction will be related to poor mood and increased anxiety, and there will be differences in sleep dysfunction in male compared with female athletes as well as regarding playing status. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: During the 2016 through 2018 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) seasons, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Profile of Mood States, and Sports Anxiety Scale-2 questionnaires were administered to 230 soccer athletes at 6 separate time points throughout each season. RESULTS: PSQI results yielded scores ≥5 in 54% of observations. Increased sleep dysfunction was significantly related to decreased vigor and increased tension, depression, anger, fatigue, somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption, although effect sizes (ES) were trivial (ES, -0.03 to 0.15). The odds ratio (OR) of reporting global sleep dysfunction increased by 8%, 9%, and 25% for every 1-unit increase in tension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; P = 0.015), fatigue (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16; P = 0.002), and concentration disruption (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = 0.002), respectively. The odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction were 55% lower for males than females (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Global sleep dysfunction was prevalent in NCAA soccer players and was related to negative mental health outcomes. Female participants experienced increased odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Regular monitoring allows for a greater understanding of the interrelatedness between sleep and mental health in athletes.


Assuntos
Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Ira , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sport Rehabil ; 29(6): 847-850, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910392

RESUMO

Clinical Scenario: Exercise in the heat can lead to performance decrements and increase the risk of heat illness. Heat acclimation refers to the systematic and gradual increase in exercise in a controlled, laboratory environment. Increased duration and intensity of exercise in the heat positively affects physiological responses, such as higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature. Many heat acclimation studies have examined the hydration status of the subjects exercising in the heat. Some of the physiological responses that are desired to elicit heat acclimation (ie, higher heart rate and internal body temperature) are exacerbated in a dehydrated state. Thus, euhydration (optimal hydration) and dehydration trials during heat acclimation induction have been conducted to determine if there are additional benefits to dehydrated exercise trials on physiological adaptations. However, there is still much debate over hydration status and its effect on heat acclimation. Clinical Question: Does dehydration affect the adaptations of plasma volume, heart rate, internal body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat rate during the induction phase of heat acclimation? Summary of Findings: There were no observed differences in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature following heat acclimation in this critically appraised topic. One study found an increase in sweat rate and another study indicated greater changes in heart rate following heat acclimation with dehydration. Aside from these findings, all 4 trials did not observe statistically significant differences in euhydrated and dehydrated heat acclimation trials. Clinical Bottom Line: There is minimal evidence to suggest that hydration status affects heat acclimation induction. In the studies that met the inclusion criteria, there were no differences in plasma volume concentrations, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Scale, Level 2 evidence exists.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Atletas , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sudorese/fisiologia
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(2): 374-381, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524781

RESUMO

Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Adams, WM, Arent, SM, Jain, R, Miller, SJ, Walker, AJ, and Casa, DJ. Contextual factors influencing external and internal training loads in collegiate men's soccer. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 374-381, 2020-This study investigated factors influencing training loads (TL) in collegiate men's soccer. Total distance, high-speed running distance (>14.4 km·h), high-intensity heart-rate zone duration (HI HRZ, >70% heart rate relative to maximum), and session rating of perceived exertion were assessed daily from 107 male soccer players competing for 5 National Collegiate Athletics Association Division I teams. Differences between athlete role (starter and reserve), position (defender, midfielder, and forward), season phase (preseason, in-season, and postseason), days relative to match (MD-1 to MD-5+), days between matches (<4, 4-5, >5 days), previous match outcome (win, loss, and draw), and upcoming opponent relative ranking (weaker, trivial, and stronger) were examined. Mean differences (MD) and effect sizes (ESs) with 90% confidence intervals were reported. There were trivial and insignificant differences by player role, position, or upcoming opponent strength, and small-moderate increases in preseason TL compared with in-season (ES [range] = 0.4-0.9). TLs were lower for MD-1 and higher for MD-5+ (ES [range] = 0.4-1.3) when compared with MD-2-4. External loads (ES = -0.40 ± 0.20) were less after wins compared with losses. TLs are increased in the preseason, when training sessions occur greater than 5 days from a match and after losses. Contextualizing factors affecting TLs has implications for developing workload prescription and recovery strategies.


Assuntos
Atletas , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 76 Suppl 1: 65-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dehydration is known to impair health, quality of daily life, and exercise performance [1]. While several methods are utilized to assess fluid balance, there is no gold standard to assess hydration status [2]. Cheuvront and Kenefick [3] suggested the use of a Venn diagram, which consists of % body mass weight (BML), urine color, and thirst level (WUT) to measure hydration status and fluid needs. However, no study to date has examined the relationship between the WUT criteria and hydration status measured by urine indices. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between urine-specific gravity (USG), urine osmolality (UOSM), and the WUT criteria. METHODS: Twenty-two females (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 1 year; weight, 65.4 ± 12.6 kg) and twenty-one males (age, 21 ± 1 year; body mass, 78.7 ± 14.6 kg) participated in this study. First-morning body mass, urine color, USG, UOSM, and thirst level were collected for 10 consecutive days. First 3 days were utilized to establish a euhydrated baseline body weight. %BML >1%, urine color >5, and thirst level ≥5 were used as the dehydration thresholds. The number of markers that indicated dehydration levels was summed when each variable met each threshold. One-way ANOVA with Tukey pairwise comparison was used to assess the differences in USG and UOSM, followed by a calculation of effect size (ES). RESULTS: Figure 1 indicates the differences of UOSM based on the WUT criteria. For UOSM, "2 markers indicated" (mean [M] ± SD [ES], 705 ± 253 mOsmol [0.43], p = 0.018) was significantly higher than "1 marker indicated" (M ± SD, 597 ± 253 mOsmol). Additionally, "zero marker indicated" (509 ± 249 mOsmol) was significantly lower than "3 markers indicated" (M ± SD [ES], 761 ± 250 mOsmol, [1.01], p = 0.02) and "2 markers indicated" ([ES], [0.78], p = 0.004). However, there was no statistical difference between "3 markers indicated" ([ES], [0.65], p = 0.13) and "1 marker indicated." For USG, "3 markers indicated" (M ± SD [ES], 1.021 ± 0.007 [0.57], p = 0.025) and "2 markers indicated" (M ± SD [ES], 1.019 ± 0.010 [0.31], p = 0.026) were significantly higher than "1 marker indicated" (M ± SD, 1.016 ± 0.009). Additionally, "zero marker indicated" (1.014 ± 0.005) was significantly lower than "3 markers indicated" ([ES], [1.21], p = 0.005) and "2 markers indicated" ([ES], [0.54], p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: When 3 markers indicated dehydration levels, UOSM and USG were greater than euhydrated cut points. When 2 markers indicated dehydration levels, USG was higher than the euhydrated cut point. Additionally, UOSM and USG were significantly lower when zero or 1 marker indicated dehydration levels. Thus, the WUT criteria are a useful tool to assess hydration status. Athletes, coaches, sports scientists, and medical professions can use this strategy in the field settings to optimize their performance and health without consuming money and time.

17.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827444

RESUMO

Heat acclimation (HA) is the process of intentional and consistent exercise in the heat that results in positive physiological adaptations, which can improve exercise performance both in the heat and thermoneutral conditions. Previous research has indicated the many performance benefits of HA, however, a meta-analysis examining the magnitude of different types of performance improvement is absent. Additionally, there are several methodological discrepancies in the literature that could lead to increased variability in performance improvement following HA and no previous study has examined the impact of moderators on performance improvement following HA. Therefore, the aim of this study was two-fold; (1) to perform a meta-analysis to examine the magnitude of changes in performance following HA in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion, time trial, mean power, and peak power tests; (2) to determine the impact of moderators on results of these performance tests. Thirty-five studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria with 23 studies that assessed VO2max (n = 204), 24 studies that assessed time to exhaustion (n = 232), 10 studies that performed time trials (n = 101), 7 studies that assessed mean power (n = 67), and 10 papers that assessed peak power (n = 88). Data are reported as Hedge's g effect size (ES), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Statistical significance was set to p < 0.05, a priori. The magnitude of change following HA was analyzed, with time to exhaustion demonstrating the largest performance enhancement (ES [95% CI], 0.86 [0.71, 1.01]), followed by time trial (0.49 [0.26, 0.71]), mean power (0.37 [0.05, 0.68]), VO2max (0.30 [0.07, 0.53]), and peak power (0.29 [0.09, 0.48]) (p < 0.05). When all of the covariates were analyzed as individual models, induction method, fitness level, heat index in time to exhaustion (coefficient [95% CI]; induction method, -0.69 [-1.01, -0.37], p < 0.001; fitness level, 0.04 [0.02, 0.06], p < 0.001; heat index, 0.04 [0.02, 0.07], p < 0.0001) and induction length in mean power (coefficient [95% CI]; induction length 0.15 [0.05, 0.25], p = 0.002) significantly impacted the magnitude of change. Sport scientists and researchers can use the findings from this meta-analysis to customize HA induction. For time to exhaustion improvements, HA implementation should focus on induction method and baseline fitness, while the training and recovery balance could lead to optimal time trial performance.

18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453937

RESUMO

Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Arent, S, Armwald, B, Pullara, JM, West, CA, and Casa, DJ. Seasonal accumulated workloads in collegiate men's soccer: a comparison of starters and reserves. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this investigation was to quantify and compare player's season total-, match-, and training-accumulated workload by player status characteristics (i.e., starter vs. reserve) in American collegiate men's soccer. Global positioning system (GPS) and heart rate (HR)-derived workloads were analyzed from 82 collegiate male soccer athletes from 5 separate teams over the 2016 and 2017 seasons. Differences in total physical and physiological workloads (i.e., total distance, accelerations, and weighted HR-zone training impulse [TRIMP] score) as well as workloads over a range of intensity zones were examined using multilevel mixed models, with mean difference (MD) and effect size (ES) reported. Starters accumulated substantially more total distance (MD = 82 km, ES = 1.23), TRIMP (MD = 2,210 au, ES = 0.63), and total accelerations (MD = 6,324 n, ES = 0.66) over the season. Total accumulated distance in all velocity zones (ES [range] = 0.87-1.08), all accelerations zones (ES [range] = 0.54-0.74), and time spent at 70-90% HRmax (ES [range] = 0.60-1.12) was also greater for starters. Reserves accumulated substantially more total distance (MD = 20 km, ES = 0.43) and TRIMP (MD = 1,683 au, ES = 0.79) during training. Although reserves show elevated physical and physiological loads during training compared with starters, there is an imbalance in overall workloads between player roles, with starters incurring substantially more match and total seasonal workloads. These results indicate managing player workloads in soccer requires attention to potential imbalances between players receiving variable match times. Coaches and practitioners in collegiate men's soccer may consider implementing strategies to reduce discrepancies in loading between starters and reserves. Individualized monitoring of training and match workloads may assist in the implementation of more balanced load management programs.

19.
J Sleep Res ; 28(6): e12836, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843295

RESUMO

Even though sleep has been shown to be influenced by athletes' training status, the association with resting heart rate and heart rate variability remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in and relationships between resting heart rate, heart rate variability and sleep characteristics across a female collegiate cross-country season. Ten NCAA Division I collegiate female cross-country athletes (mean ± SD; age, 19 ± 1 year; height, 167.6 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 57.7 ± 10.2 kg; VO2max , 53.3 ± 5.9 ml kg-1  min-1 ) participated in this study. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and the percentage of time in slow wave sleep were captured using a wrist-worn multisensor sleep device throughout the 2016 competitive cross-country season (12 weeks). Linear mixed-effects models and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess differences between each week. Pearson product moment correlations were used to investigate relationships between variables. Resting heart rate at the end of the season, specifically during weeks 10-12 (mean ± SE; week 10, 48 ± 2; week 11, 48 ± 3; week 12, 48 ± 3), showed a practically meaningful increase compared to the beginning of the season, weeks 2-4 (week 2, 44 ± 2; week 3, 45 ± 2; week 4, 44 ± 2). Higher resting heart rate (r = 0.55) and lower heart rate variability (r = -0.62) were largely associated with an increase in percentage of time spent in slow wave sleep. These data suggest that when physiological state was impaired, meaning the physiological restorative demand was higher, the percentage of time in slow wave sleep was increased to ensure recovery. Thus, it is important to implement sleep hygiene strategies to promote adequate slow wave sleep when the body needs physiological restoration.


Assuntos
Atletas , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Corrida/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(6): 624-628, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the roles that training load and environmental conditions have on fluid balance during a collegiate men's soccer preseason. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: Twenty-eight male collegiate soccer players (mean±SD; age, 20±1.7y; body mass (BM), 79.9±7.3kg; height, 180.9±6.8cm; body fat, 12.7±3.1%; VO2max, 50.7±4.3ml·kg-1·min-1) participated in this study. Prior to (PRE) and following (POST) each team session, BM, percent BM loss (%BML) and hydration status was measured. Participants donned a heart rate and GPS enabled monitor to measure training load. For all team activities, ambient temperature (TAMB) and relative humidity (RH) were obtained from the nearest local weather station. Participants consumed 500mL of water as part of the team-based hydration strategy before and after training session. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify the variables that predicted %BML. Significance was set a-priori p<0.05. RESULTS: Total distance covered predicted %BML during all preseason activities (r2=0.253, p<0.001), with TAMB and RH further adding to the model (r2=0.302, p<0.001). %BML never exceeded 2% of BM during any one session and daily variation in BM was <1% from baseline measures. Urine specific gravity was greater than 1.020 on 12/15days and UCOL was above 4 on 13/15days, indicating a state of hypohydration. CONCLUSIONS: Total distance covered was the best predictor for the extent of body water losses during a collegiate preseason. While the team-based hydration strategy during preseason was successful in minimizing fluid losses during activity, participants arrived hypohydrated 80% of the time, necessitating a greater focus on daily fluid needs.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Ingestão de Líquidos , Futebol/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Atletas , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
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