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1.
Sports Health ; 12(3): 234-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep and mood are critical factors that contribute to health and wellness and are of particular interest to collegiate athletes who are juggling high physical, academic, and social demands. The aim of this study was to examine how psychological measures, player status, and sex-related factors were associated with perceived sleep quality. HYPOTHESIS: Higher levels of global sleep dysfunction will be related to poor mood and increased anxiety, and there will be differences in sleep dysfunction in male compared with female athletes as well as regarding playing status. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: During the 2016 through 2018 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) seasons, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Profile of Mood States, and Sports Anxiety Scale-2 questionnaires were administered to 230 soccer athletes at 6 separate time points throughout each season. RESULTS: PSQI results yielded scores ≥5 in 54% of observations. Increased sleep dysfunction was significantly related to decreased vigor and increased tension, depression, anger, fatigue, somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption, although effect sizes (ES) were trivial (ES, -0.03 to 0.15). The odds ratio (OR) of reporting global sleep dysfunction increased by 8%, 9%, and 25% for every 1-unit increase in tension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; P = 0.015), fatigue (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16; P = 0.002), and concentration disruption (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = 0.002), respectively. The odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction were 55% lower for males than females (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Global sleep dysfunction was prevalent in NCAA soccer players and was related to negative mental health outcomes. Female participants experienced increased odds of reporting global sleep dysfunction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Regular monitoring allows for a greater understanding of the interrelatedness between sleep and mental health in athletes.


Assuntos
Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Ira , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sport Rehabil ; : 1-4, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910392

RESUMO

Clinical Scenario: Exercise in the heat can lead to performance decrements and increase the risk of heat illness. Heat acclimation refers to the systematic and gradual increase in exercise in a controlled, laboratory environment. Increased duration and intensity of exercise in the heat positively affects physiological responses, such as higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature. Many heat acclimation studies have examined the hydration status of the subjects exercising in the heat. Some of the physiological responses that are desired to elicit heat acclimation (ie, higher heart rate and internal body temperature) are exacerbated in a dehydrated state. Thus, euhydration (optimal hydration) and dehydration trials during heat acclimation induction have been conducted to determine if there are additional benefits to dehydrated exercise trials on physiological adaptations. However, there is still much debate over hydration status and its effect on heat acclimation. Clinical Question: Does dehydration affect the adaptations of plasma volume, heart rate, internal body temperature, skin temperature, and sweat rate during the induction phase of heat acclimation? Summary of Findings: There were no observed differences in plasma volume, internal body temperature, and skin temperature following heat acclimation in this critically appraised topic. One study found an increase in sweat rate and another study indicated greater changes in heart rate following heat acclimation with dehydration. Aside from these findings, all 4 trials did not observe statistically significant differences in euhydrated and dehydrated heat acclimation trials. Clinical Bottom Line: There is minimal evidence to suggest that hydration status affects heat acclimation induction. In the studies that met the inclusion criteria, there were no differences in plasma volume concentrations, internal body temperature, and skin temperature. Strength of Recommendation: Based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Scale, Level 2 evidence exists.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(2): 374-381, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524781

RESUMO

Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Adams, WM, Arent, SM, Jain, R, Miller, SJ, Walker, AJ, and Casa, DJ. Contextual factors influencing external and internal training loads in collegiate men's soccer. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 374-381, 2020-This study investigated factors influencing training loads (TL) in collegiate men's soccer. Total distance, high-speed running distance (>14.4 km·h), high-intensity heart-rate zone duration (HI HRZ, >70% heart rate relative to maximum), and session rating of perceived exertion were assessed daily from 107 male soccer players competing for 5 National Collegiate Athletics Association Division I teams. Differences between athlete role (starter and reserve), position (defender, midfielder, and forward), season phase (preseason, in-season, and postseason), days relative to match (MD-1 to MD-5+), days between matches (<4, 4-5, >5 days), previous match outcome (win, loss, and draw), and upcoming opponent relative ranking (weaker, trivial, and stronger) were examined. Mean differences (MD) and effect sizes (ESs) with 90% confidence intervals were reported. There were trivial and insignificant differences by player role, position, or upcoming opponent strength, and small-moderate increases in preseason TL compared with in-season (ES [range] = 0.4-0.9). TLs were lower for MD-1 and higher for MD-5+ (ES [range] = 0.4-1.3) when compared with MD-2-4. External loads (ES = -0.40 ± 0.20) were less after wins compared with losses. TLs are increased in the preseason, when training sessions occur greater than 5 days from a match and after losses. Contextualizing factors affecting TLs has implications for developing workload prescription and recovery strategies.

4.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827444

RESUMO

Heat acclimation (HA) is the process of intentional and consistent exercise in the heat that results in positive physiological adaptations, which can improve exercise performance both in the heat and thermoneutral conditions. Previous research has indicated the many performance benefits of HA, however, a meta-analysis examining the magnitude of different types of performance improvement is absent. Additionally, there are several methodological discrepancies in the literature that could lead to increased variability in performance improvement following HA and no previous study has examined the impact of moderators on performance improvement following HA. Therefore, the aim of this study was two-fold; (1) to perform a meta-analysis to examine the magnitude of changes in performance following HA in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion, time trial, mean power, and peak power tests; (2) to determine the impact of moderators on results of these performance tests. Thirty-five studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria with 23 studies that assessed VO2max (n = 204), 24 studies that assessed time to exhaustion (n = 232), 10 studies that performed time trials (n = 101), 7 studies that assessed mean power (n = 67), and 10 papers that assessed peak power (n = 88). Data are reported as Hedge's g effect size (ES), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Statistical significance was set to p < 0.05, a priori. The magnitude of change following HA was analyzed, with time to exhaustion demonstrating the largest performance enhancement (ES [95% CI], 0.86 [0.71, 1.01]), followed by time trial (0.49 [0.26, 0.71]), mean power (0.37 [0.05, 0.68]), VO2max (0.30 [0.07, 0.53]), and peak power (0.29 [0.09, 0.48]) (p < 0.05). When all of the covariates were analyzed as individual models, induction method, fitness level, heat index in time to exhaustion (coefficient [95% CI]; induction method, -0.69 [-1.01, -0.37], p < 0.001; fitness level, 0.04 [0.02, 0.06], p < 0.001; heat index, 0.04 [0.02, 0.07], p < 0.0001) and induction length in mean power (coefficient [95% CI]; induction length 0.15 [0.05, 0.25], p = 0.002) significantly impacted the magnitude of change. Sport scientists and researchers can use the findings from this meta-analysis to customize HA induction. For time to exhaustion improvements, HA implementation should focus on induction method and baseline fitness, while the training and recovery balance could lead to optimal time trial performance.

5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453937

RESUMO

Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Arent, S, Armwald, B, Pullara, JM, West, CA, and Casa, DJ. Seasonal accumulated workloads in collegiate men's soccer: a comparison of starters and reserves. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this investigation was to quantify and compare player's season total-, match-, and training-accumulated workload by player status characteristics (i.e., starter vs. reserve) in American collegiate men's soccer. Global positioning system (GPS) and heart rate (HR)-derived workloads were analyzed from 82 collegiate male soccer athletes from 5 separate teams over the 2016 and 2017 seasons. Differences in total physical and physiological workloads (i.e., total distance, accelerations, and weighted HR-zone training impulse [TRIMP] score) as well as workloads over a range of intensity zones were examined using multilevel mixed models, with mean difference (MD) and effect size (ES) reported. Starters accumulated substantially more total distance (MD = 82 km, ES = 1.23), TRIMP (MD = 2,210 au, ES = 0.63), and total accelerations (MD = 6,324 n, ES = 0.66) over the season. Total accumulated distance in all velocity zones (ES [range] = 0.87-1.08), all accelerations zones (ES [range] = 0.54-0.74), and time spent at 70-90% HRmax (ES [range] = 0.60-1.12) was also greater for starters. Reserves accumulated substantially more total distance (MD = 20 km, ES = 0.43) and TRIMP (MD = 1,683 au, ES = 0.79) during training. Although reserves show elevated physical and physiological loads during training compared with starters, there is an imbalance in overall workloads between player roles, with starters incurring substantially more match and total seasonal workloads. These results indicate managing player workloads in soccer requires attention to potential imbalances between players receiving variable match times. Coaches and practitioners in collegiate men's soccer may consider implementing strategies to reduce discrepancies in loading between starters and reserves. Individualized monitoring of training and match workloads may assist in the implementation of more balanced load management programs.

6.
J Sleep Res ; 28(6): e12836, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843295

RESUMO

Even though sleep has been shown to be influenced by athletes' training status, the association with resting heart rate and heart rate variability remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in and relationships between resting heart rate, heart rate variability and sleep characteristics across a female collegiate cross-country season. Ten NCAA Division I collegiate female cross-country athletes (mean ± SD; age, 19 ± 1 year; height, 167.6 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 57.7 ± 10.2 kg; VO2max , 53.3 ± 5.9 ml kg-1  min-1 ) participated in this study. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and the percentage of time in slow wave sleep were captured using a wrist-worn multisensor sleep device throughout the 2016 competitive cross-country season (12 weeks). Linear mixed-effects models and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess differences between each week. Pearson product moment correlations were used to investigate relationships between variables. Resting heart rate at the end of the season, specifically during weeks 10-12 (mean ± SE; week 10, 48 ± 2; week 11, 48 ± 3; week 12, 48 ± 3), showed a practically meaningful increase compared to the beginning of the season, weeks 2-4 (week 2, 44 ± 2; week 3, 45 ± 2; week 4, 44 ± 2). Higher resting heart rate (r = 0.55) and lower heart rate variability (r = -0.62) were largely associated with an increase in percentage of time spent in slow wave sleep. These data suggest that when physiological state was impaired, meaning the physiological restorative demand was higher, the percentage of time in slow wave sleep was increased to ensure recovery. Thus, it is important to implement sleep hygiene strategies to promote adequate slow wave sleep when the body needs physiological restoration.

7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(6): 624-628, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the roles that training load and environmental conditions have on fluid balance during a collegiate men's soccer preseason. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: Twenty-eight male collegiate soccer players (mean±SD; age, 20±1.7y; body mass (BM), 79.9±7.3kg; height, 180.9±6.8cm; body fat, 12.7±3.1%; VO2max, 50.7±4.3ml·kg-1·min-1) participated in this study. Prior to (PRE) and following (POST) each team session, BM, percent BM loss (%BML) and hydration status was measured. Participants donned a heart rate and GPS enabled monitor to measure training load. For all team activities, ambient temperature (TAMB) and relative humidity (RH) were obtained from the nearest local weather station. Participants consumed 500mL of water as part of the team-based hydration strategy before and after training session. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify the variables that predicted %BML. Significance was set a-priori p<0.05. RESULTS: Total distance covered predicted %BML during all preseason activities (r2=0.253, p<0.001), with TAMB and RH further adding to the model (r2=0.302, p<0.001). %BML never exceeded 2% of BM during any one session and daily variation in BM was <1% from baseline measures. Urine specific gravity was greater than 1.020 on 12/15days and UCOL was above 4 on 13/15days, indicating a state of hypohydration. CONCLUSIONS: Total distance covered was the best predictor for the extent of body water losses during a collegiate preseason. While the team-based hydration strategy during preseason was successful in minimizing fluid losses during activity, participants arrived hypohydrated 80% of the time, necessitating a greater focus on daily fluid needs.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Ingestão de Líquidos , Futebol/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Atletas , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289866

RESUMO

Sekiguchi, Y, Huggins, RA, Curtis, RM, Benjamin, CL, Adams, WM, Looney, DP, West, CA, and Casa, DJ. Relationship between heart rate variability and acute:chronic load ratio throughout a season in NCAA D1 men's soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR)-based training load (TL) metrics and (b) to examine relationships across various A:C ratio-based TL metrics. Heart rate variability in 23 male college soccer players (mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 80.3 ± 5.8 kg; height, 181.9 ± 6.5 cm; %body fat, 11.9 ± 2.0%; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, 51.9 ± 5.0 ml·kg·min) was measured at 5 time points: week(W)1, W3, W7, W12, and W14 during the 2015 NCAA men's soccer season. Heart rate variability was calculated from beat to beat intervals using a heart rate monitor. Players donned a global position satellite-enabled device that measured the following TL metrics: session time (ST), Player Load (PL), PL·min, and total distance (TD). Acute:chronic workload ratio was calculated for each TL metric: ACWR-based ST (ACWRST), ACWR-based PL (ACWRPL), ACWR-based PL·min (ACWRPLM), and ACWR-based TD (ACWRTD): ACWR = week average TLs/mo average (30 ± 1 days) TLs. Relationships between HRV and ACWR-based each TL metric were evaluated using mixed effects models. Tukey pairwise comparisons were used to examine differences between types of ACWR-based TL metrics. An increase in ACWRST significantly reduced HRV throughout a season (-7.4 ± 3.6 m·s; p = 0.04). There were significant differences between ACWRPLM and ACWRST, ACWRPL and ACWRTD at W1, ACWRPLM and ACWRST at W3 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ACWRST, ACWRPL, and ACWRTD were significantly different from ACWRPLM. ACWRST was found to significantly predict HRV; higher ACWRST was significantly associated with lower HRV. Therefore, tracking of the ACWR using ST may help to optimize athlete's physiological state throughout a season.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(8): 1697-1703, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (weight, 72 ± 9 kg; body fat, 14% ± 6%; peak oxygen uptake, 59.4 ± 6 mL·kg·min) exercised for 2 h on a cycle ergometer at 55% peak oxygen uptake, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity), with a nasogastric tube under euhydrated-non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated-non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL of water every 5 min (300 mL·h). In the EUH-NT trial, sweat losses were fully replaced by water via the nasogastric tube (calculated from the familiarization trial). After the 2 h of steady state, the subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial at 4% grade. RESULTS: Body mass loss for the EUH-NT and DEH-NT after the 2 h was -0.2% ± 0.6% and -2.2% ± 0.4%, whereas after the 5-km time trial, it was -0.7% ± 0.5% and 2.9% ± 0.4%, respectively. Thirst (35 ± 30 vs 42 ± 31 mm) and stomach fullness (46 ± 21 vs 35 ± 20 mm) did not differ at the end of the 2 h of steady state between EUH-NT and DEH-NT trials (P > 0.05). Subjects cycled faster during the 5-km time trial in the EUH-NT trial compared with the DEH-NT trial (23.2 ± 1.5 vs 22.3 ± 1.8 km·h, P < 0.05), by producing higher-power output (295 ± 29 vs 276 ± 29 W, P < 0.05). During the 5-km time trial, core temperature was higher in the DEH-NT trial (39.2°C ± 0.7°C) compared with the EUH-NT trial (38.8°C ± 0.2°C; P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that hypohydration decreased cycling performance and impaired thermoregulation independently of thirst, while the subjects were unaware of their hydration status.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sede , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Percepção , Método Simples-Cego
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