Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125965, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492877

RESUMO

This study contributes toward developing measures for the disposal of radiocesium-contaminated sewage sludge ash (SSA). Here, we prepared two types of solidified bodies containing 30 wt% radiocesium-bearing SSA. The material used for the two solidified bodies were alkaline-reacted metakaolinite (geopolymer) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Cement has been used for solidification of low-level radioactive wastes, and geopolymer is a candidate of cement alternative materials. The characteristics of these solidified bodies were investigated by various aspects including mechanical strength, transformation of SSA components during solidification, and radiocesium confinement ability by leaching test. The compressive strength of geopolymer- and OPC-solidified bodies at 30 wt% SSA content was more than 40 MPa. After static leaching test at 60 °C, 137Cs was hardly leached out from the geopolymer-solidified bodies containing SSA at 30 wt% to ultrapure water (<0.1%), whereas more than 30% 137Cs was leached from the OPC-solidified bodies containing SSA at 30 wt% even though only ~9% of 137Cs in the SSA is soluble. These results strongly indicate that geopolymer is far superior to OPC for solidifying radiocesium-bearing SSA.

2.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(9): e2001988, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694289

RESUMO

Systems for "protein transduction," intracellular delivery of functional proteins, are needed to address deliverability challenges of protein therapeutics. However, in vivo protein transduction remains challenging because of instability in serum, extracellular protease digestion and rapid excretion from the bloodstream. Here, a magnetically guided in vivo protein transduction using magnetic nanogel chaperone (MC) composed of iron oxide nanoparticles and a polysaccharide nanogel, a protein carrier inspired by "catch and release" mechanisms of molecular chaperones is demonstrated. The MC system enables efficient delivery of anti-cancer proteins, saporin and RNaseA, into cultured tumor lines and inhibits cell proliferation, mainly via apoptosis. Magnetic in vivo protein transduction via intravenous whole body administration is demonstrated in a fibrosarcoma model. By in vivo optical imaging, MC accumulated in tumor tissues under magnetic field three times more than without irradiation. With subcutaneous injection, saporin is delivered by MC to the cytoplasm in magnetically targeted tissues. In an oral cancer model, MC-delivered magnetically targeted saporin decreased tumor volume without significant body weight changes and no regrowth of tumor at 3 months after complete regression. Protein transduction with MC shows promise for cancer therapeutics and, potentially, for regenerative medicine and other biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Magnetismo , Chaperonas Moleculares , Nanogéis
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27906-27915, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106394

RESUMO

Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the real-time characterization of sweat dynamics and sweat chemistry in the context of sports performance and healthcare diagnostics. This paper presents a collection of advances in biochemical sensors and microfluidic designs that support multimodal operation in the monitoring of physiological signatures directly correlated to physical and mental stresses. These wireless, battery-free, skin-interfaced devices combine lateral flow immunoassays for cortisol, fluorometric assays for glucose and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and digital tracking of skin galvanic responses. Systematic benchtop evaluations and field studies on human subjects highlight the key features of this platform for the continuous, noninvasive monitoring of biochemical and biophysical correlates of the stress state.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
Lab Chip ; 19(9): 1545-1555, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912557

RESUMO

The rich range of biomarkers in sweat and the ability to collect sweat in a non-invasive manner create interest in the use of this biofluid for assessments of health and physiological status, with potential applications that range from sports and fitness to clinical medicine. This paper introduces two important advances in recently reported classes of soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems for sweat capture and analysis: (1) a simple, broadly applicable means for collection of sweat that bypasses requirements for physical/mental exertion or pharmacological stimulation and (2) a set of enzymatic chemistries and colorimetric readout approaches for determining the concentrations of creatinine and urea in sweat, throughout ranges that are physiologically relevant. The results allow for routine, non-pharmacological capture of sweat for patient populations, such as infants and the elderly, that cannot be expected to sweat through exercise, and they create potential opportunities in the use of sweat for kidney disease screening/monitoring. Studies on human subjects demonstrate these essential capabilities, with quantitative comparisons to standard methods. The results expand the range of options available in microfluidic sampling and sensing of sweat for disease diagnostics and health monitoring.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/instrumentação , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Suor/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
5.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaav3294, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746477

RESUMO

Wearable sweat sensors rely either on electronics for electrochemical detection or on colorimetry for visual readout. Non-ideal form factors represent disadvantages of the former, while semiquantitative operation and narrow scope of measurable biomarkers characterize the latter. Here, we introduce a battery-free, wireless electronic sensing platform inspired by biofuel cells that integrates chronometric microfluidic platforms with embedded colorimetric assays. The resulting sensors combine advantages of electronic and microfluidic functionality in a platform that is significantly lighter, cheaper, and smaller than alternatives. A demonstration device simultaneously monitors sweat rate/loss, pH, lactate, glucose, and chloride. Systematic studies of the electronics, microfluidics, and integration schemes establish the key design considerations and performance attributes. Two-day human trials that compare concentrations of glucose and lactate in sweat and blood suggest a potential basis for noninvasive, semi-quantitative tracking of physiological status.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Colorimetria/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Cloretos/análise , Glucose/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/análise , Masculino
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212644, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794662

RESUMO

Miscanthus sinensis Andersson is a pioneer plant species that grows naturally at mining sites. Miscanthus sinensis can detoxify aluminium (Al) by producing phytosiderophores, such as chlorogenic acid, citric acid, and malic acid, and localizing Al in cell walls. Root-endophytic Chaetomium cupreum, which produces microbial siderophores, enhances Al tolerance in M. sinensis. However, we could not determine whether the siderophores produced by C. cupreum actually enhance Al tolerance in M. sinensis, because the microbial siderophores have not yet been identified in previous research. The purpose of this study was to clarify how C. cupreum chemically increases Al tolerance in M. sinensis under acidic mining site conditions, especially considering siderophores. Using instrumental analyses, the siderophore produced by C. cupreum was identified as oosporein. Comparison of the stability constant between Al and phytosiderophores and oosporein indicated that oosporein could detoxify Al similarly to chlorogenic acid, which shows higher stability constant than citric acid and malic acid. Inoculation test of C. cupreum onto M. sinensis in acidic mine soil showed that C. cupreum promoted seedling growth, and enhanced Al tolerance via inducing chlorogenic-acid production and producing oosporein. These results suggested that C. cupreum could chemically enhance Al tolerance and might promote growth via reducing excessive Al in cell walls, the main site of Al accumulation. In addition, the chemical enhancement of Al tolerance by C. cupreum might be important for M. sinensis to adapt to acidic mining sites.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Chaetomium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Poaceae , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/microbiologia
7.
Small ; 14(45): e1802876, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300469

RESUMO

Sweat excretion is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, environmental factors, and health status. Conventional means for measuring the properties of sweat yield accurate results but their requirements for sampling and analytics do not allow for use in the field. Emerging wearable devices offer significant advantages over existing approaches, but each has significant drawbacks associated with bulk and weight, inability to quantify volumetric sweat rate and loss, robustness, and/or inadequate accuracy in biochemical analysis. This paper presents a thin, miniaturized, skin-interfaced microfluidic technology that includes a reusable, battery-free electronics module for measuring sweat conductivity and rate in real-time using wireless power from and data communication to electronic devices with capabilities in near field communications (NFC), including most smartphones. The platform exploits ultrathin electrodes integrated within a collection of microchannels as interfaces to circuits that leverage NFC protocols. The resulting capabilities are complementary to those of previously reported colorimetric strategies. Systematic studies of these combined microfluidic/electronic systems, accurate correlations of measurements performed with them to those of laboratory standard instrumentation, and field tests on human subjects exercising and at rest establish the key operational features and their utility in sweat analytics.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Animais , Eletrólitos/química , Humanos , Pele/química , Suor/química
8.
Lab Chip ; 18(15): 2178-2186, 2018 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955754

RESUMO

The rich composition of solutes and metabolites in sweat and its relative ease of collection upon excretion from skin pores make this class of biofluid an attractive candidate for point of care analysis. Wearable technologies that combine electrochemical sensors with conventional or emerging semiconductor device technologies offer valuable capabilities in sweat sensing, but they are limited to assays that support amperometric, potentiometric, and colorimetric analyses. Here, we present a complementary approach that exploits fluorometric sensing modalities integrated into a soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic system which, when paired with a simple smartphone-based imaging module, allows for in situ measurement of important biomarkers in sweat. A network array of microchannels and a collection of microreservoirs pre-filled with fluorescent probes that selectively react with target analytes in sweat (e.g. probes), enable quantitative, rapid analysis. Field studies on human subjects demonstrate the ability to measure the concentrations of chloride, sodium and zinc in sweat, with accuracy that matches that of conventional laboratory techniques. The results highlight the versatility of advanced fluorescent-based imaging modalities in body-worn sweat microfluidics platforms, and they suggest some practical potential for these ideas.


Assuntos
Fluorometria/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Imagem Molecular/instrumentação , Pele/química , Smartphone , Suor/química , Cloretos/análise , Humanos , Sódio/análise , Zinco/análise
9.
Small ; 14(12): e1703334, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394467

RESUMO

This paper introduces super absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric sensing reagents as enabling components of soft, skin-mounted microfluidic devices designed to capture, store, and chemically analyze sweat released from eccrine glands. The valving technology enables robust means for guiding the flow of sweat from an inlet location into a collection of isolated reservoirs, in a well-defined sequence. Analysis in these reservoirs involves a color responsive indicator of chloride concentration with a formulation tailored to offer stable operation with sensitivity optimized for the relevant physiological range. Evaluations on human subjects with comparisons against ex situ analysis illustrate the practical utility of these advances.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Polímeros/química , Suor/química , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2064, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522874

RESUMO

A calcium (Ca)-deficient hydroxyapatite was investigated for its potential to remove Sr2+ from environmentally relevant water. We conducted sorption tests on solutions containing magnesium ion (Mg2+) and calcium ion (Ca2+) as competing cations at a strontium ion (Sr2+) concentration of 0.05 mmol/L. The Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite maintained a high Sr2+ sorption ratio of above 80% in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ at the concentrations between 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L, whereas the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite showed a lower ratio even in the presence of small amounts of Mg2+ and Ca2+ (72% for Mg2+ and 51% for Ca2+ at 0.1 mmol/L). For solutions with various Sr2+ concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mmol/L, Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite exhibited a higher Sr2+ sorption ratio than stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The bonding states of Sr2+ on the Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite were evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The results indicated that there are specific sorption sites in Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite where Sr2+ is stably and preferentially immobilized.

11.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(46): 11996-12002, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934399

RESUMO

The detailed structure of a nanogel formed by self-association of cholesterol-bearing pullulans (CHPs) was determined by contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering. The decomposition of scattering intensities into partial scattering functions of each CHP nanogel component, i.e., pullulan, cholesterol, and the cross-term between the pullulan and the cholesterol, allows us to investigate the internal structure of the nanogel. The effective spherical radius of the skeleton formed by pullulan chains was found to be 8.1 ± 0.3 nm. In the CHP nanogel, there are about 19 cross-linking points where a cross-linking point is formed by aggregation of trimer cholesterol molecules, and the spatially inhomogeneous distribution of the cross-linking points in the nanogel can be represented by the mass fractal dimension of 2.6. The average radius of gyration of the partial chains can also be determined to be 1.7 ± 0.1 nm by analyzing the extracted cross-correlation between the cross-linker and the tethered polymer chain quantitatively, and the size agrees with the value assuming random distribution of the cross-linkers on the chains. As the result, the complex structure of the nanogels is coherently revealed at the nanoscopic level.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(47): 13453-7, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25157644

RESUMO

Neutron diffraction patterns for deuterated poly-N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA) hydrogels were measured from 10 to 300 K to investigate the structure and properties of water in the gels. Diffraction peaks observed below 250 K indicate the existence of ice in the hydrogels. Some diffraction peaks from the ice are at lower diffraction angles than those in ordinary hexagonal ice (Ih). These shifts in peaks indicate that the lattice constants of the a and c axes in the ice are about 0.29 and 0.3% higher than those in ice Ih, respectively. The results show that bulk low-density ice can exist in PDMAA hydrogels. The distortions in the lattice structure of ice imply significant interactions between water molecules and the surrounding polymer chains, which play an important role in the chemical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 140(4): 044909, 2014 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25669585

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanism of structural changes of water and polymer networks with drying and swelling, we measured the Raman spectra of a physically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel synthesized using the freezing-thawing method. The results show that the vibrational frequencies of the O-H and C-H stretching modes decrease with dehydration. The frequency shifts observed are attributed to reduction of free water inside the polymer network. The C-H bonds elongate as the water density decreases, and the average length of the O-H bonds increases with increasing proportion of bound water to the total amount of water. On the basis of the dependence of the frequency shifts on the PVA concentration of the original solution, it was found that the structure of the polymer network in the reswollen hydrogel becomes inhomogeneous due to shrinkage of the polymer network with drying. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of the cross-linking structure on the drying process, these results were compared with those of a chemically cross-linked PVA hydrogel synthesized using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The result shows that the vibrational frequency of the O-H stretching mode for the chemically cross-linked hydrogel increases with dehydration, whereas that of the C-H stretching mode decreases. The opposite trend observed in the O-H stretching mode between the physically and chemically cross-linked hydrogels is due to the difference in the shrinkage rate of the polymer network. Because the rate of shrinking is slow compared with that of dehydration in the chemically cross-linked hydrogel, water density in the polymer network decreases. For the physically cross-linked hydrogel, the polymer network structure can be easily shrunken, and the average strength of hydrogen bonds increases with dehydration. The results show that the structures of the polymer network and water change with the gel preparation process, cross-linking method, and drying and reswelling processes. The structure of the polymer network and the behavior of water accommodated in the network are important factors governing the chemical and physical properties of gel materials.

14.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 1(6): 722-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23184823

RESUMO

New hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels crosslinked with both nanogels and nanogel-coated liposome complexes are obtained by Michael addition of the acryloyl group of a cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) nanogel to the thiol group of pentaerythritol tetra(mercaptoethyl) polyoxyethylene. The nanogel-coated liposome complex is stably retained after gelation and the complexes are well dispersed in the hybrid gel. Microrheological measurements show that the strength and gelation time of the hybrid hydrogel can be controlled by changing the liposome:nanogel ratio. The hydrogel is gradually degraded by hydrolysis under physiological conditions. In this process, the nanogel is released first, followed by the nanogel-coated liposomes. Hybrid hydrogels that can incorporate various molecules into the nanogel and liposomes, and release them in a two-step controllable manner, represent a new functional scaffold capable of delivering multiple drugs, proteins or DNA.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Hidrogéis/química , Lipossomos/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Absorção , Difusão , Combinação de Medicamentos , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
J Chem Phys ; 134(4): 044905, 2011 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21280796

RESUMO

To investigate the structure and dynamics of water in mixed solutions including laponite clay particles and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), we measured the Raman spectra of the mixed solutions in the temperature range 283-313 K. The results show that the vibrational energies of the O-H stretching modes in the mixed solutions depend on the water content and temperature. The energy shifts of the O-H stretching modes are attributed to changes in the water structure. By applying a structural model of bulk water to the spectra in the O-H stretching region, the local structures of water in the solutions were analyzed. The result shows that the formation probability of hydrogen bonds in the solutions decreases as the water content decreases. Laponite and PEO have effects to disrupt the network structure of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Further, it was found that laponite and PEO cause increase in the strength of hydrogen bonds of surrounding water,although the strength of the hydrogen bonds increases with the order water-laponite < water-water < water-PEO. It is concluded that water in laponite-PEO mixed solutions has a less-networked structure with strong hydrogen bonds compared with bulk water.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(10): 3419-25, 2010 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20170195

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the temperature dependence of structural changes of bound water in dried glassy poly-N,N,-dimethylacrylamide in the temperature range 286.1-329.7 K. The results show that the frequency of the O-H stretching mode of the bound water that is present in the dried glassy polymer shifts to the higher side with increasing temperature. The rate changes at around 310 K, while that for the bulk water is constant in the temperature range studied. The rates of change of the frequencies for the C=O stretching mode and CH(3) rocking mode also change at around 310 K. These results indicate a significant change in the interaction between the bound water and polymer chains at 310 K. Temperature dependence of the local structure of the bound water was analyzed by applying a structural model of bulk water to the spectra of the O-H stretching region. The result shows that the density of a tetragonal water structure consisting of four hydrogen bonds increases with increasing temperature below 310 K and begins to decrease at temperatures above 310 K. Further, estimates of the water content indicate that the evaporation rate of the bound water significantly changes at around 310 K. These results suggest that the bound water present in the dried glassy polymer can be classified as being in two states. At temperatures below 310 K, the water that forms a shell layer around the polymer chains evaporates, while at temperatures above 310 K the water that is bound to polar groups of polymer chains begins to evaporate. The structural changes of bound water might have important implications for the interpretation of properties of hydrated polymer systems, including both biological and synthetic polymers.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 130(3): 034501, 2009 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19173525

RESUMO

Raman spectra of poly-N,N,-dimethylacrylamide hydrogel were measured in order to investigate the mechanism of the structural changes in water and the polymer network during dehydration. The results show that the vibrational energies of the C=O and the O-H stretching modes increase with the extent of dehydration, whereas that of the CH(3) rocking mode decreases. The energy shifts observed in the C=O stretching and CH(3) rocking modes indicate that the polymer network shrinks with the dehydration and undergoes a glass transition at some point. The energy shifts of the O-H stretching modes are attributed to changes in the water structure with the structural change of the polymer network. By applying a structural model of bulk water to the spectra of the O-H stretching region, the local water structures in the gel and the dried glassy polymer were analyzed. The result shows that a tetragonal water structure consisting of four hydrogen bonds increases in the residual water of the dried glassy polymer, suggesting that the residual water forms a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. The local water structure in a polymer might have important implications for the interpretation of properties of localized water, for instance, water in a mineral crack.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...