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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652750

RESUMO

In the scientific race to build up photoactive electron donor-acceptor systems with increasing efficiencies, little is known about the interplay of their building blocks when integrated into supramolecular nanoscale arrays, particularly in aqueous environments. Here, we describe an aqueous donor-acceptor ensemble whose emergence as a nanoscale material renders it remarkably stable and efficient. We have focused on a tetracationic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) featuring pyrenes, which shows an unprecedented mode of aggregation, driven by subtle cooperation between electrostatic and π-π interactions. Our studies demonstrate monocrystalline growth in solution and a symmetry-breaking intermolecular charge transfer between adjacent ZnPcs upon photoexcitation. Immobilizing a negatively charged fullerene (C 60 ) as electron acceptor onto the monocrystalline ZnPc assemblies was found to enhance the overall stability, and to suppress the energy-wasting charge recombination found in the absence of C 60 . Overall, the resulting artificial photosynthetic model system exhibits a high degree of preorganization, which facilitates efficient charge separation and subsequent charge transport.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(15): 5520-5529, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322560

RESUMO

A 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene (TCBD)-aniline moiety has been introduced, for the first time, at the axial position of two subphthalocyanines (SubPcs) peripherally substituted with hydrogen (H12SubPc) or fluorine atoms (F12SubPc). Single-crystal X-ray analysis of both SubPc-TCBD-aniline systems showed that each conjugate is a racemic mixture of two atropisomers resulting from the almost orthogonal geometry adopted by the axial TCBD unit, which were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Remarkably, the single-crystal X-ray structure of one atropisomer of each SubPc-TCBD-aniline conjugate has been solved, allowing to unambiguously assign the atropisomers' absolute configuration, something, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented in TCBD-based conjugates. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of both SubPc-TCBD-aniline racemates have been investigated using a wide range of electrochemical as well as steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Each of the two SubPc-TCBD-aniline conjugates presents a unique photophysical feature never observed before in SubPc chemistry. As a matter of fact, H12SubPc-TCBD-aniline showed significant ground-state charge transfer interactions between the H12SubPc macrocycle and the electron-withdrawing TCBD unit directly attached at its axial position. In contrast, F12SubPc-TCBD-aniline gave rise to an intense, broad emission, which red shifts upon increasing the solvent polarity and stems from an excited complex (i.e., an exciplex). Such an exciplex emission, which has also no precedent in TCBD chemistry, results from intramolecular interactions in the excited state between the electron-rich aniline and the F12SubPc π-surface, two molecular fragments kept in spatial proximity by the "unique" three-dimensional geometry adopted by the F12SubPc-TCBD-aniline. Complementary transient absorption studies were carried out on both SubPc-TCBD-aniline derivatives, showing the occurrence, in both cases, of photoinduced charge separation and corroborating the formation of the aforementioned intramolecular exciplex in terms of a radical ion pair stabilized through-space.

3.
Chemistry ; 23(26): 6357-6369, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256758

RESUMO

We report on a series of electron donor-acceptor conjugates incorporating a ZnII -porphyrin-based electron donor and a variety of non-conjugated rigid linkers connecting to push-pull chromophores as electron acceptors. The electron acceptors comprize multicyanobutadienes or extended tetracyanoquinodimethane analogues with first reduction potentials ranging from -1.67 to -0.23 V vs. Fc+ /Fc in CH2 Cl2 , which are accessible through a final-step cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization (CA-RE) reaction. Characterization of the conjugates includes electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, DFT calculations, and photophysical measurements in a range of solvents. The collected data allows for the construction of multiple Marcus curves that consider electron-acceptor strength, linker length, and solvent, with data points extending well into the inverted region. The enhancement of electron-vibration couplings, resulting from the rigid spacers and, in particular, multicyano-groups in the conformationally highly fixed push-pull acceptor chromophores affects the charge-recombination kinetics in the inverted region drastically.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(18): 5560-4, 2016 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010677

RESUMO

A cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization reaction between tetracyanoethylene and two zinc phthalocyanines (Zn(II) Pcs) bearing one or four anilino-substituted alkynes has been used to install a strong, electron-accepting tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene (TCBD) between the electron-rich Zn(II) Pc and aniline moieties. A combination of photophysical, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical investigations with the Zn(II) Pc-TCBD-aniline conjugates, which present panchromatic absorptions in the visible region extending all the way to the near infrared, show that the formal replacement of the triple bond by TCBD has a dramatic effect on their ground- and excited-state features. In particular, the formation of extremely intense, ground-state charge-transfer interactions between Zn(II) Pc and the electron-accepting TCBD were observed, something unprecedented not only in Pc chemistry but also in TCBD-based porphyrinoid systems.

5.
Chemistry ; 21(52): 19028-40, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593778

RESUMO

Zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc) have been attached to the peri-position of a perylenemonoimide (PMI) and a perylenemonoanhydride (PMA), affording electron donor-acceptor conjugates 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, a perylene-monoimide-monoanhydride (PMIMA) has been connected to a ZnPc through its imido position to yield the ZnPc-PMIMA conjugate 10. The three conjugates have been studied for photoinduced electron transfer. For ZnPc-PMIMA 10, electron transfer occurs upon both ZnPc and PMIMA excitation, giving rise to a long-lived (340 ps) charge-separated state. For ZnPc-PMI 1 and ZnPc-PMA 2, stabilization of the radical ion pair states by using polar media is necessary. In THF, photoexcitation of either ZnPc or PMI/PMA produces charge-separated states with lifetimes of 375 and 163 ps, respectively.

6.
Adv Mater ; 26(10): 1482-93, 2014 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24532250

RESUMO

The past 25 years have served as a test bed for exploring the chemistry and physics, in general, and the electron transfer chemistry, in particular, of low-dimensional carbon. Nevertheless, the new realm started with the advent of fullerenes, followed in chronological order by carbon nanotubes, and, more recently, by graphene. The major thrust of this Review article is to historically recap the versatility of fullerenes regarding the design, the synthesis, and the tests as an electroactive building block in photosynthetic reaction mimics, photovoltaics, and catalysis.

7.
Chemistry ; 19(43): 14506-14, 2013 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24038280

RESUMO

In a novel electron-donor-acceptor conjugate, phthalocyanine (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI) are connected through a trans-platinum(II) diacetylide linker to yield Pc-Pt-PDI 1. In the ground state, the presence of Pt(II) disrupts the electronic communication between the two electroactive components, as revealed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrochemical studies. The photophysical behavior of 1 is compared with that of the corresponding Pc-PDI electron-donor-acceptor conjugate 2 in terms of charge separation and charge recombination. The insertion of Pt(II) between Pc and PDI impacts the results in a longer-lived Pc(.) (+) /PDI(.) (-) radical ion-pair state. In addition, the intermediately formed Pc triplet excited state is formed with higher quantum yields in 1 than in 2.


Assuntos
Imidas/química , Indóis/química , Metaloporfirinas/síntese química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/síntese química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Platina/química , Elétrons , Íons/química , Isomerismo , Metaloporfirinas/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Perileno/síntese química , Perileno/química
8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 42(20): 8049-105, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23832123

RESUMO

The remarkable properties of both phthalocyanines and porphyrins as individual building blocks have motivated the synthesis and study of homo- and heterobinuclear conjugates as light-harvesting systems. These planar chromophores share important electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry and interesting photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer abilities. In addition, some of these properties can be tuned by the introduction of different peripheral substituents and metal centres. In this review, we present relevant synthetic strategies for the preparation of covalent and supramolecular, homo- and heterobinuclear systems based on phthalocyanine and porphyrin chromophores, leading to a variety of architectures. In such systems, the degree of electronic interaction between the components is highly dependent on the electronic features of the two macrocycles, their linkage, and the molecular topology of the ensemble. In addition, incorporation of electroactive units into these binuclear systems has been pursued, affording multicomponent, donor-acceptor conjugates. In-depth photophysical characterization of the ground- and excited-state features of many of these homo- and heterobinuclear phthalocyanine and/or porphyrin ensembles has also been presented. Particular attention has been paid to understand the fundamental dynamics of the energy transfer and charge separation processes of these systems. This review intends to offer a general overview of the preparation of this class of compounds and the study of their photophysical properties which clearly show their potentiality as model compounds of light-harvesting complexes.


Assuntos
Indóis/química , Porfirinas/química , Indóis/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Processos Fotoquímicos , Porfirinas/síntese química
9.
Chemistry ; 18(44): 14008-16, 2012 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23018982

RESUMO

A "frozen" electron donor-acceptor array that bears porphyrin and fullerene units covalently linked through the ortho position of a phenyl ring and the nitrogen of a pyrrolidine ring, respectively, is reported. Electrochemical and photophysical features suggest that the chosen linkage supports both through-space and through-bond interactions. In particular, it has been found that the porphyrin singlet excited state decays within a few picoseconds by means of a photoinduced electron transfer to give the rapid formation of a long-lived charge-separated state. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show HOMO and LUMO to be localized on the electron-donating porphyrin and the electron-accepting fullerene moiety, respectively, at this level of theory. More specifically, semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) configuration interaction (CI) and unrestricted natural orbital (UNO)-CI methods shed light on the nature of the charge-transfer states and emphasize the importance of the close proximity of donor and acceptor for effective electron transfer.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(22): 8038-50, 2012 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22549252

RESUMO

We report on a comprehensive transient absorption study with ß,ß'-linked bis[tetraphenylporphyrinato-zinc(II)] and its corresponding monomer, covering the ultrafast dynamics from femtoseconds up to several microseconds. By exciting these porphyrins either to their first (S(1)) or second (S(2)) electronically excited states and by probing the subsequent dynamics, a multitude of reaction pathways have been identified. In the spectral region associated with the ground-state recovery of the bisporphyrin, transient absorption changes occur within the first few picoseconds, which are ascribable to excitonic interaction both in the S(2) (fs time-domain) and in the S(1) (ps time-domain) state. This is substantiated by complementary experiments with the monomeric porphyrin, in which the S(2) state exhibits a longer lifetime. In contrast to the picosecond dynamics the bisporphyrin and the monomer behave similarly on the nanosecond time-scale, that is nearly all excited molecules eventually reach a long-lived triplet excited state.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Metaloporfirinas/química , Dimerização , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Análise Espectral , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(17): 4336-44, 2010 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20407704

RESUMO

Monolayers and multilayers of cobalt octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP), cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) and the corresponding free-base porphyrins 2HOEP and 2HTPP on an Au(111) surface were investigated with X-ray and UV photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). For CoTPP and CoOEP monolayers, the XP spectra show a characteristic splitting of the Co 2p(3/2) signal, which suggests that only a fraction of the Co ions forms coordinative bonds to the Au(111) surface, while the others interact more weakly. This is a remarkable difference to previous results for CoOEP and CoTPP on Ag(111), where all Co ions in the monolayer were found to interact strongly and uniformly with the silver surface. Presumably, the lateral structural and electronic inhomogeneities of the reconstructed Au(111) surface are responsible for the more complex interaction behaviour on the gold surface. UP spectra of CoOEP and CoTPP monolayers show a new electronic state around 0.3 eV below the Fermi energy (E(F)), i.e., at lower binding energy than in the case of Ag(111), where a strong signal appeared at 0.6 eV below E(F). In contrast, the free-base porphyrins 2HOEP and 2HTPP show no additional valence states in the monolayer, indicating that the Co ion plays a central role in the electronic interaction between the metal complexes and the substrate. These results have important implications for metal/organic interfaces in organic electronics or photovoltaic devices based on pi-conjugated semiconducting metal complexes, because the character of the chemical bond at the interface determines important parameters such as charge injecting rates.

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