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Quintessence Int ; 52(2): 176-186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433083


At present, the most important criterion for the size selection of interdental brushes is the PHD-value (passage hole diameter) according to the ISO standard for interdental brushes ISO 16409:2016. The PHD size range of commercially available products currently lies between 0.6 and 5.2 mm. With the exceptions of special situations, a range between 0.7 and 2.9 mm is sufficient for clinical routine. As most products have longer filaments nowadays, one brush can often be applied for two PHD intervals. Consequently, adequate patient counseling and the individual selection of the appropriate interdental brushes can generally be achieved with an assortment of 12 systematically arranged interdental brush sizes. An application example is the "Heidelberg set" described herein. It is crucial that the correct choice of size is based upon continuously rising PHD-values, and not upon parameters such as stem size, outer diameter of filaments, or similar, as these do not allow for a reliable conclusion regarding the interdental passage. The usage of ISO sizes is also not recommendable due to their insufficient size differentiation. (Quintessence Int 2021;52: 176-186; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b872241; Revised from an article originally published (in German) in Parodontologie 2020;31(1)37-49)


Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22215, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335144


The number of very old individuals, namely centenarians, is growing fast. In dentistry, the increasing number of older adults retaining natural teeth present new challenges for preventive and restorative dental care. However, there is a considerable lack of knowledge on the oral health status and needs in this exceptional age group. The aim of this population-based study was to identify the prevalence of oral diseases, therapeutic needs and functional capacity (evaluating centenarians' autonomy and their capabilities regarding treatment and oral hygiene) in centenarians. Subjects born before 1920 were recruited from population registries in South-Western Germany, providing information on dental health experiences, oral health behaviors and undergoing dental examination. 55 centenarians participated in the study (mean age ± SD = 101.2 ± 1.6, 83.6% females). Results were compared to epidemiological data on adults aged 75-100 years examined in the Fifth German Oral Health Study. Adherence to recommended dental behaviors and dental check-ups was lower in the centenarian population. Moreover, with the exception of a lower Root Caries Index, centenarians showed a higher caries experience, and presented with a mean DMFT of 25.2 ± 3.9, a DMFS of 111.0 ± 21.8, a root caries prevalence of 34.5% and a Restorative Index of 54.0%. Centenarians' functional capacity was also considerably lower. Non-existent or greatly reduced treatment capabilities and oral hygiene capabilities were registered in 63.7% and 43.6% of cases, respectively. Centenarians with a lower educational level (p = 0.018), in a care facility (p = 0.045) or in need of nursing care (p = 0.001) were more likely to have a low functional capacity. 98.2% of centenarians received help in their daily activities but only 12.7% in their oral hygiene. In conclusion, although most still have natural teeth, a decline of oral health can be perceived. As compliance with recommended behaviors is limited and most centenarians can no longer undergo dental treatment, the lack of assistance in daily oral health care is problematic.

J Clin Periodontol ; 47(10): 1170-1179, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748427


AIMS: To report the prevalence of periodontal and peri-implant diseases in centenarians in South-Western Germany, examine associations with sociodemographic factors and explore age-related trends. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible persons born before 1920 were identified from population registries in South-Western Germany. A total of 55 centenarians were visited at home or in nursing care facilities. Of them, 35 were dentate, 33 of which underwent periodontal examination. Implants in 2 edentulous patients were also registered. RESULTS: The mean number of teeth was 9.5 ± 7.1; centenarians in need of nursing care had considerably less teeth than others (8.5 versus. 17.0 teeth, p = .03). Mean probing depth was 2.7 ± 0.8mm; mean clinical attachment loss was 4.2 ± 1.7 mm. Severe tooth mobility (degree 2 or 3) and furcation involvement were present in approximately 3% of eligible teeth. According to CDC/AAP classification, 25.8% of centenarians had no or mild periodontitis, 54.8% of centenarians had moderate periodontitis, and only 19.4% were severely affected. Of 27 implants examined in 5 centenarians, 59.3% were classified as healthy, 29.6% had peri-implant mucositis, and 11.1% had peri-implantitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the predominance of moderately severe disease in centenarians. While there were high levels of moderate periodontitis and peri-implant mucositis, signs of severe periodontitis, severe furcation involvement, tooth mobility or peri-implantitis were less frequent.

Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 343-354, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618458


PURPOSE: Preventive dentistry aims to improve oral hygiene, including the use of interdental cleansing aids. Clear and simple classifications may positively impact patient communication and motivate oral health behaviour. To date, there is no comparative analysis of interdental brush classifications and sizes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2320 interdental brush samples by 24 manufacturers was examined regarding their passage hole diameter (PHD) according to the ISO standard for interdental brushes (ISO16409:2016), and their current classifications were evaluated. Inter- and intrarater reliability of the ISO size classification were determined based on 20 raters and 10 interdental brushes. The insertion force for these interdental brushes was analysed in vitro. RESULTS: Excellent intra- and interrater reliability was achieved (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.973) overall, although greater variance was observed for bigger brush sizes. Insertion forces varied depending on size and form of the brushes, amounting to 1.58 N (SD = 1.27 N) for cylindric and tapered brushes, and to 2.31 N (SD = 0.81 N) for waist-shaped brushes. The size range of commercially available products was 0.6-5.2 mm PHD, 90% presenting with a PHD ≤ 2.0 mm. Size intervals were unsystematic. The ISO size was indicated by 33% of all manufacturers, the exact PHD by 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the PHD is a reproducible instrument for most brushes currently on the market. In vitro, forces developed based on this classification are mostly moderate, thus unlikely to cause periodontal trauma. Given the discontinuous range and unclear labelling of available products, the development of a simplified classification system by usage of the PHD may benefit the practitioner and patient alike by contributing to improve oral hygiene behaviours.

Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escovação Dentária
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686073


As the reported data on oral health status among the migrants in Europe is fragmented, we systematically reviewed the published literature on the oral health status, behaviours and care utilisation among migrants residing in Europe. For this, we retrieved publications from PubMed and EMBASE, supplemented by manual citation screening and grey literature search on Google scholars. Two independent reviewers screened the studies, extracted data and critically appraised the publications. A total of 69 studies included showed higher dental caries among migrant children. But some studies on adolescents and adults reported similar or even better oral health among migrants compared to the host population, while other reported the opposite. Poor oral health behaviours were generally reported among the migrants and they frequently made use of emergency service utilisation compared to the host population. We shed light on the gaps in dental literature and make some recommendations for the future.

J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 9-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996532


There are many studies on the homebound and institutionalized elderly; however, few studies focus on centenarians and supercentenarians, i.e., people aged 100 and 110 years, respectively. Due to the demographic changes, the population of centenarians is set to increase more than that of other age groups. Therefore, this article aims to review the available literature regarding how oral health might display in this age group and highlight aspects necessitating further research. Oral health, oral health-related quality of life, saliva, and the oral microbiome were emphasized in this study. Most papers relevant to the research questions were excluded because the mean age of participants was <100 years. Only two papers were found on centenarians' oral health status and saliva and no studies were found focusing on the oral health-related quality of life or oral microbiome. The reviewed studies demonstrate that centenarians presented with good oral mucosal conditions, dental conditions, and general health. The present literature is insufficient to come to a definite conclusion regarding how aging affects the oral health of centenarians and supercentenarians. The limited available research indicates that centenarians display better oral health than other individuals in their respective birth cohorts.

Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Saliva
Gerodontology ; 36(2): 171-179, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821850


OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of patient self-reported oral health measures as used in a large multi-country survey for populations aged 50+. BACKGROUND: Information on people's oral health status is important for assessing oral health needs within populations. However, clinical examination is not always possible. Patient self-reported measures may provide an alternative when time and other resources are scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using oral health items from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), self-reported measures were collected from 186 patients receiving treatment at Heidelberg University Hospital. Self-reports were compared with subsequent clinical examinations. Analyses were conducted for patients of all age groups and separately for patients aged 50+ (analogous to the SHARE study population). Diagnostic accuracy, agreement and correlation of patient-reported information were examined using descriptive statistics and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Patient-reported presence or absence of a full tooth count was closely related to clinical measurement, both for all age groups (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 92%) and persons aged 50+ (sensitivity: 100% specificity: 94%). Bland-Altman plots indicate good agreement between patient- and clinical reports of the number of teeth at age 50+ (Concordance Correlation Coefficient = 0.95). Discriminatory power of patient-reporting was good regarding presence vs absence of artificial teeth, but less robust regarding partial vs full replacement of missing teeth. CONCLUSION: Patient self-evaluations provide reasonable estimates of clinical measures and appear sufficiently accurate for examining variations in the number of teeth, including among populations aged 50+. However, patient reports of the extent of replacement of missing teeth may not constitute reliable reflections of clinical conditions.

Saúde Bucal , Perda de Dente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários