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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current equations for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that use serum creatinine or cystatin C incorporate age, sex, and race to estimate measured GFR. However, race in eGFR equations is a social and not a biologic construct. METHODS: We developed new eGFR equations without race using data from two development data sets: 10 studies (8254 participants, 31.5% Black) for serum creatinine and 13 studies (5352 participants, 39.7% Black) for both serum creatinine and cystatin C. In a validation data set of 12 studies (4050 participants, 14.3% Black), we compared the accuracy of new eGFR equations to measured GFR. We projected the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and GFR stages in a sample of U.S. adults, using current and new equations. RESULTS: In the validation data set, the current creatinine equation that uses age, sex, and race overestimated measured GFR in Blacks (median, 3.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.4) and to a lesser degree in non-Blacks (median, 0.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.9). When the adjustment for Black race was omitted from the current eGFR equation, measured GFR in Blacks was underestimated (median, 7.1 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 5.9 to 8.8). A new equation using age and sex and omitting race underestimated measured GFR in Blacks (median, 3.6 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.5) and overestimated measured GFR in non-Blacks (median, 3.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 3.4 to 4.4). For all equations, 85% or more of the eGFRs for Blacks and non-Blacks were within 30% of measured GFR. New creatinine-cystatin C equations without race were more accurate than new creatinine equations, with smaller differences between race groups. As compared with the current creatinine equation, the new creatinine equations, but not the new creatinine-cystatin C equations, increased population estimates of CKD prevalence among Blacks and yielded similar or lower prevalence among non-Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: New eGFR equations that incorporate creatinine and cystatin C but omit race are more accurate and led to smaller differences between Black participants and non-Black participants than new equations without race with either creatinine or cystatin C alone. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.).

2.
Clin Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is associated with incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the association of changes in hs-cTnT over time on incident AF has not been explored. HYPOTHESIS: Six-year increase in circulating hs-cTnT will be associated with increased risk of AF and will contribute to improved prediction of incident AF. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of 8431 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. hs-cTnT change was categorized at visit 2 and 4 as undetectable (<5 ng/L), detectable (≥5 ng/L, <14 ng/L), or elevated (≥14 ng/L). We used Cox regression to examine the association between the combination of hs-cTnT categories at two visits and incident AF. We also assessed the impact of adding absolute hs-cTnT change on risk discrimination for AF by C-statistics and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 16.5 years, 1629 incident AF cases were diagnosed. Among participants with undetectable hs-cTnT at visit 2, the multivariable HR of AF was 1.28 (95% CI 1.12-1.48) among those with detectable or elevated hs-cTnT at visit 4 compared to those in which hs-cTnT remained undetectable. Among those with detectable hs-cTnT at visit 2, compared to those who remained in the detectable hs-cTnT group, reduction to undetectable at visit 4 was associated with lower risk of AF (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.94), while increment to elevated was associated with higher AF risk (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.68). Adding hs-cTnT change to our main model with baseline hs-cTnT did not result in significant improvement in the C-statistic or substantial NRI. CONCLUSION: Six-year increase in circulating hs-cTnT was associated with elevated risk of incident AF.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548283

RESUMO

The discovery that HbA1c was a valid and reliable measure of average glucose exposure was one of the most important advances in diabetes care. HbA1c was rapidly adopted for monitoring glucose control and is now recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c has several advantages over glucose. Glucose assessment requires fasting, has poor preanalytic stability, and is not standardized; concentrations are acutely altered by a number of factors; and measurement can vary depending on sample type (e.g., plasma or whole blood) and source (e.g., capillary, venous, interstitial). HbA1c does not require fasting, reflects chronic exposure to glucose over the past 2-3 months, and has low within-person variability, and assays are well standardized. One reason HbA1c is widely accepted as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker is that epidemiologic studies have demonstrated robust links between HbA1c and complications, with stronger associations than those observed for usual measures of glucose. Clinical trials have also demonstrated that lowering HbA1c slows or prevents the development of microvascular disease. As with all laboratory tests, there are some clinical situations in which HbA1c is unreliable (e.g., certain hemoglobin variants, alterations in red blood cell turnover). Recent studies demonstrate that fructosamine and glycated albumin may be substituted as measures of hyperglycemia in these settings. Other approaches to monitoring glucose have recently been introduced, including continuous glucose monitoring, although this technology relies on interstitial glucose and epidemiologic evidence supporting its routine use has not yet been established for most clinical settings. In summary, a large body of epidemiologic evidence has convincingly established HbA1c as a cornerstone of modern diabetes care.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19159, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580377

RESUMO

Peripheral neuropathy is associated with substantial morbidity, but risk factors other than diabetes are largely uncharacterized. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in adults with and without diabetes from two different population-based studies in the US. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5200 black and white participants from NHANES (1999-2004, age 40-85 years) and 3362 black and white participants from the ARIC Study (2016-2017, age 70-89 years) who underwent monofilament testing for peripheral neuropathy using a shared protocol. We used logistic regression to quantify age, sex, and race-adjusted risk factor associations for peripheral neuropathy among middle-aged (40-69 years) and older (≥ 70 years) adults. The age, sex, and race-adjusted prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (decreased sensation on monofilament testing) was 10.4% for middle-aged adults in NHANES, 26.8% for older adults in NHANES, and 39.2% for older adults in ARIC. Diabetes was an important risk factor, but more strongly associated with peripheral neuropathy in middle-aged (OR ~ 5 for long-standing diabetes) compared to older adults (ORs ~ 1.5-2). Male sex (ORs ~ 2), black race (ORs ~ 1.3-1.5), and greater height (ORs ~ 1.5-3) were robust risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Other risk factors included body mass index, education, and peripheral artery disease. The burden of peripheral neuropathy defined by abnormal monofilament testing among older adults is substantial, even among adults without diabetes. Studies are needed to understand the etiology and prognosis of peripheral neuropathy in the absence of diabetes.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 158: 45-52, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465464

RESUMO

We evaluated the association of longitudinal changes in circulating levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with the burden of arrhythmias as captured by 2-week ambulatory ECG monitoring. This study included 1,930 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who wore a leadless, ambulatory ECG monitor (Zio XT Patch) at visit 6 (2016 to 2017) and had cardiac biomarkers measured at visit 6 and visit 4 (median of 19 years earlier). The mean age of participants at V6 was 79 ± 5 years, 41% were men, and 22% were black. Adjusting for demographics, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, left ventricular mass, cardiac medications, patch wear time, visit 4 levels of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT, and relative change in hs-cTnT, each log-transformed unit relative increase in NT-proBNP was associated with a higher likelihood of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.48), a higher number of daily atrial tachycardia episodes (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.21), and a higher daily ectopic burden (premature ventricular contractions -GMR 1.42, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.62; premature atrial contractions -GMR 1.40, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.57). In fully adjusted analyses, each log-transformed unit relative increase in hs-cTnT was only found to be weakly associated with a higher daily premature ventricular contraction burden (GMR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70). In conclusion, longitudinal change in NT-proBNP was associated with an increased atrial and ventricular arrhythmia burden.

6.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of periodontal disease with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is well known, but not with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Therefore, we studied the associations of periodontal disease with incident PAD in a population-based setting. METHODS: Among 9,793 participants (aged 53-75 years) without prevalent PAD, self-reported history of periodontal disease was ascertained. Of these, 5,872 participants underwent full-mouth examinations from which periodontal status was defined using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-American Academy of Periodontology (CDC-AAP) definition. We quantified the association of periodontal disease with incident PAD (defined by hospital admission diagnosis or procedures) using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20.1 years, 360 participants (3.6%) developed PAD. In models accounting for potential confounders including diabetes and smoking pack-years, there was higher hazard of PAD in participants with self-reported tooth loss due to periodontal disease (hazard ratio:1.54 [95% CI:1.20-1.98], history of periodontal disease treatment (1.37 [1.05-1.80]), and periodontal disease diagnosis (1.38 [1.09-1.74]), compared to their respective counterparts. The clinical measure of periodontal disease (n=5,872) was not significantly associated with incident PAD in the fully-adjusted model (e.g.,1.53 [0.94-2.50] in CDC-AAP-defined severe periodontal disease vs. no disease). CONCLUSION: We observed a modest association of self-reported periodontal disease, especially when resulting in tooth loss, with incident PAD in the general population. Nonetheless, a larger study with the clinical measure of periodontal disease is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Vasa ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346252

RESUMO

Background: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin associated tissue fibrosis and inflammation. There is limited understanding of the relationship between gal-3 and vascular health. Our aim was to assess the association between gal-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4275 participants (mean age of 75 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Central arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). We evaluated the association of gal-3 with cfPWV using multivariable linear regression. Results: The median (interquartile range) gal-3 concentration was 16.5 (13.8, 19.8) ng/mL and mean cfPWV was 1163±303 cm/s. Higher gal-3 concentration was associated with greater central arterial stiffness after adjustment for age, sex, race-center, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use, and current smoking status (ß=36.4 cm/s change in cfPWV per log unit change in gal-3; 95% CI: 7.2, 65.5, p=0.015). The association was attenuated after adjusting for additional cardiovascular risk factors (ß=17.3, 95% CI: -14.4, 49.0). Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, gal-3 concentration was associated with central arterial stiffness, likely sharing common pathways with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined diabetes mellitus (DM) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk equivalent based on diabetes severity and other CVD risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We pooled 4 US cohorts (ARIC, JHS, MESA, FHS-Offspring) and classified subjects by baseline DM/CVD. CVD risks between DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+ were examined by diabetes severity and in subgroups of other CVD risk factors. We developed an algorithm to identify subjects with CVD risk equivalent diabetes by comparing the relative CVD risk of being DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+. RESULTS: The pooled cohort included 27,730 subjects (mean age of 58.5 years, 44.6% male). CVD rates per 1000 person-years were 16.5, 33.4, 43.2 and 71.4 among those with DM-/CVD-, DM+/CVD-, DM-/CVD+ and DM+/CVD+, respectively. Compared with those with DM-/CVD+, CVD risks were similar or higher for those with HbA1c ≥ 7%, diabetes duration ≥10 years, or diabetes medication use while those with less severe diabetes had lower risks. Hazard ratios (95%CI) for DM+/CVD- vs. DM-/CVD+ were 0.96(0.86-1.07), 0.97(0.88-1.07), 0.96(0.82-1.13), 1.18(0.98-1.41), 0.93(0.85-1.02) and 1.00(0.89-1.13) among women, white race, age <55 years, triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L, hs-CRP ≥ 2 mg/L and eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. In DM+/CVD- group, 19.1% had CVD risk equivalent diabetes with a lower risk score but a higher observed CVD risk. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a CVD risk equivalent in one-fifth of CVD-free adults living with diabetes. High HbA1c, long diabetes duration, and diabetes medication use were predictors of CVD risk equivalence. Diabetes is a CVD risk equivalent for women, white people, those of younger age, with higher triglycerides or CRP, or reduced kidney function.

10.
Diabetologia ; 64(11): 2458-2465, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345973

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to assess the association between diabetes and risk for infection-related hospitalisation and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetes was defined as a fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/l or non-fasting glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, self-report of a diagnosis of diabetes by a physician, or current diabetes medication use. Hospitalisation for infection was ascertained from hospital discharge records. Participants were followed from 1987-1989 to 2019. RESULTS: We included 12,379 participants (mean age 54.5 years; 24.7% Black race; 54.3% female sex). During a median follow-up of 23.8 years, there were 4229 new hospitalisations for infection. After adjusting for potential confounders, people with (vs without) diabetes at baseline had a higher risk for hospitalisation for infection (HR 1.67 [95% CI 1.52, 1.83]). Results were generally consistent across infection type but the association was especially pronounced for foot infection (HR 5.99 [95% CI 4.38, 8.19]). Diabetes was more strongly associated with hospitalisation for infection in younger participants and Black people. Overall infection mortality was low (362 deaths due to infection) but the adjusted risk was increased for people with diabetes (HR 1.72 [95% CI 1.28, 2.31]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Diabetes confers significant risk for infection-related hospitalisation. Enhancing prevention and early treatment of infection in those with diabetes is needed to reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality.

11.
Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14639, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245042

RESUMO

AIMS: Both lifestyle factors and genetic background contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Estimation of the lifetime risk of diabetes based on genetic information has not been presented, and the extent to which a normal body weight can offset a high lifetime genetic risk is unknown. METHODS: We used data from 15,671 diabetes-free participants of European ancestry aged 45 years and older from the prospective population-based ARIC study and Rotterdam Study (RS). We quantified the remaining lifetime risk of diabetes stratified by genetic risk and quantified the effect of normal weight in terms of relative and lifetime risks in low, intermediate and high genetic risk. RESULTS: At age 45 years, the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes in ARIC in the low, intermediate and high genetic risk category was 33.2%, 41.3% and 47.2%, and in RS 22.8%, 30.6% and 35.5% respectively. The absolute lifetime risk for individuals with normal weight compared to individuals with obesity was 24% lower in ARIC and 8.6% lower in RS in the low genetic risk group, 36.3% lower in ARIC and 31.3% lower in RS in the intermediate genetic risk group, and 25.0% lower in ARIC and 29.4% lower in RS in the high genetic risk group. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants for type 2 diabetes have value in estimating the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. Normal weight mitigates partly the deleterious effect of high genetic risk.

12.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data supporting the association of accumulated inflammation from mid- to late life with late-life risk of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF) is limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 4011 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study who were free of prevalent cardiovascular disease at study Visit 5, accumulated inflammation was defined as time-averaged high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) over 3 visits spanning 1990 to 2013. Associations with left ventricular (LV) function at Visit 5 and with incident adjudicated HF post Visit 5 were assessed using linear and Cox regression, adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Higher accumulated hsCRP was associated with greater LV mass index, lower e', higher E/e', and higher adjusting for demographics (all P ≤0.01), but only with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure after adjustment for comorbidities (P = 0.024). At 5.3 ± 1.2 year follow-up, higher accumulated hsCRP was associated with greater risk of incident HF (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.18-1.47], P < 0.001), HFrEF (1.26 [1.05-1.52], P = 0.01), and HFpEF (1.30 [1.11-1.53], P = 0.001) in demographic-adjusted models, but not after adjustment for comorbidities (all P > 0.10). Only Visit 5 hsCRP remained associated with incident HF (1.12 [1.02-1.24], P = 0.02) after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Greater accumulated inflammation is associated with worse LV function and heightened HF risk in late-life. These relationships are attenuated after adjusting for HF risk factors.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(8): 594-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association of diabetes duration with incident heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Diabetes increases HF risk. However, the independent effect of diabetes duration on incident HF is unknown. METHODS: We included 9,734 participants (mean age 63 years, 58% women, 22% Black) at ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Visit 4 (1996-1998) without HF or coronary heart disease. We calculated diabetes duration at Visit 4 (baseline), utilizing diabetes status at the first 4 ARIC visits spaced 3 years apart, and self-reported diagnosis date for those with diabetes diagnosed before Visit 1. We used Cox regression to estimate associations of diabetes duration with incident HF, accounting for intercurrent coronary heart disease and other risk factors. We performed analyses stratified by age (<65 years or ≥65 years), race, sex, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C [HbA1C] consistently <7%, vs HbA1C ≥7%), with tests for interaction. RESULTS: Over 22.5 years of follow-up, there were 1,968 HF events. Compared to those without diabetes, HF risk rose with longer diabetes duration, with the highest risk among those with ≥15 y diabetes duration (HR: 2.82; 95% CI: 2.25-3.63). Each 5-year increase in diabetes duration was associated with a 17% (95% CI: 11-22) relative increase in HF risk. Similar results were observed across HF subtypes. The HF and diabetes duration associations were stronger among those aged <65 years, those with HbA1C ≥7%, those with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, women, and Blacks (all P interactions <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying diabetes onset may augment HF prevention efforts, and therapies to improve HF outcomes might target those with long diabetes duration.

14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2865-2876, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower serum albumin in community-dwelling, older adults is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death independent of pre-existing disease. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of participants in the fifth visit of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Baseline data were collected from 2011 to 2013. Follow-up was available to December 31, 2017. Replication was performed in Geisinger, a health system in rural Pennsylvania. SETTING: For ARIC, four US communities: Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4947 community-dwelling men and women aged 66 to 90 years. EXPOSURE: Serum albumin. MAIN OUTCOMES: Incident all-cause hospitalization and death. RESULTS: Among the 4947 participants, mean age was 75.5 years (SD: 5.12) and mean baseline serum albumin concentration was 4.05 g/dL (SD: 0.30). Over a median follow-up period of 4.42 years (interquartile interval: 4.16-5.05), 553 participants (11.2%) died and 2457 participants (49.7%) were hospitalized at least once. The total number of hospitalizations was 5725. In analyses adjusted for demographics and numerous clinical characteristics, including tobacco use, obesity, frailty, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes C-reactive protein (CRP), cognitive status, alcohol use, medication use, respiratory disease, and systolic blood pressure, 1 g/dL lower baseline serum albumin concentration was associated with higher risk of both hospitalization (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.82; p < 0.001) and death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.24-2.24; p < 0.001). Associations were weaker with older age but not different by frailty status or level of high-sensitivity CRP. Associations between serum albumin, hospitalizations, and death were also similar in a real-world cohort of primary care patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lower baseline serum albumin was significantly associated with increased risk of both all-cause hospitalization and death, independent of pre-existing disease. Older adults with low serum albumin should be considered a high-risk population and targeted for interventions to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes.

15.
16.
Gut ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. METHOD: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. RESULTS: Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. CONCLUSION: Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191599

RESUMO

Context: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides nuanced information on glucose patterns, but data in very old adults are scarce. Objective: To evaluate CGM patterns in very old adults. Design: Pilot study. Setting: Participants recruited from one center during visit 7 (2019) of the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Participants: We enrolled 27 adults (8 with type 2 diabetes and 19 without diabetes) who wore a CGM sensor (Abbott Libre Pro) for up to 14 days. Clinical and laboratory measures, including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), were obtained. Main Outcomes: Mean CGM glucose, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL, and hypoglycemia. Results: Mean age was 81 (range 77-91 years) and mean CGM wear time was 13.2 days. In persons without diabetes, there was a wide range of CGM parameters: range of mean glucose, 83.7-124.5 mg/dL, SD 12.2-27.3 mg/dL, CV 14.0%-26.7%, and TIR 71.1%-99.5%. In persons with diabetes, the range of mean CGM glucose was 105.5-223.0 mg/dL, SD, 22.3-86.6 mg/dL, CV 18.2%-38.8%, TIR 38.7%-98.3%. The Pearson's correlation of mean glucose with HbA1c was high overall (0.90); but, for some participants with similar HbA1c, glucose patterns differed substantially. There was a high prevalence of hypoglycemia (glucose <70 or <54 mg/dL) in both persons with and without diabetes. Conclusions: There was high feasibility and acceptability of CGM in very old adults. Low readings on CGM are common, even in nondiabetic older adults; the clinical relevance of these low values is unclear. CGM may provide complementary information to HbA1c in some older adults.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2219-2228, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documenting current trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control may inform public health policy and planning. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adults with diabetes in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess national trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control from 1999 through 2018. RESULTS: Diabetes control improved from 1999 to the early 2010s among the participants but subsequently stalled and declined. Between the 2007-2010 period and the 2015-2018 period, the percentage of adult NHANES participants with diabetes in whom glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin level, <7%) was achieved declined from 57.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9 to 61.8) to 50.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 55.3). After major improvements in lipid control (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, <130 mg per deciliter) in the early 2000s, minimal improvement was seen from 2007-2010 (52.3%; 95% CI, 49.2 to 55.3) to 2015-2018 (55.7%; 95% CI, 50.8 to 60.5). From 2011-2014 to 2015-2018, the percentage of participants in whom blood-pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved decreased from 74.2% (95% CI, 70.7 to 77.4) to 70.4% (95% CI, 66.7 to 73.8). The percentage of participants in whom all three targets were simultaneously achieved plateaued after 2010 and was 22.2% (95% CI, 17.9 to 27.3) in 2015-2018. The percentages of participants who used any glucose-lowering medication or any blood-pressure-lowering medication were unchanged after 2010, and the percentage who used statins plateaued after 2014. After 2010, the use of combination therapy declined in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure and plateaued for those with poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: After more than a decade of progress from 1999 to the early 2010s, glycemic and blood-pressure control declined in adult NHANES participants with diabetes, while lipid control leveled off. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1215-1222, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to study the prospective association between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and changes in weight and obesity risk in a community-based population. METHODS: Data from 9,681 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study were analyzed at two time points 6 years apart. Among people without obesity at baseline, multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between baseline levels of NT-proBNP and incident obesity. A multivariable linear regression model was used to examine the association between changes in NT-proBNP (visit 2 serum and visit 4 plasma samples) and changes in weight. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity increased from 28% to 35% in the 6-year follow-up period. Compared with individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quartile, those in the lowest were more likely to have obesity at baseline (odds ratio 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08-1.45) and, among people who did not have obesity at baseline, were more likely to develop obesity at follow-up (odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07-1.69). Changes in NT-proBNP were inversely associated with weight change. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, lower levels of NT-proBNP were associated with higher risk of obesity, and changes in NT-proBNP were inversely associated with changes in weight. This suggests that natriuretic peptides or their pathways may be potential targets in the treatment of obesity.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2021 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend different A1C targets in older adults that are based on comorbid health status. We assessed risk of mortality and hospitalizations in older adults with diabetes across glycemic control (A1C <7%, 7 to <8%, ≥8%) and ADA-defined health status (healthy, complex/intermediate, very complex/poor) categories. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of older adults aged 66-90 years with diagnosed diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. RESULTS: In the 1,841 participants (56% women, 29% Black), 32% were classified as healthy, 42% as complex/intermediate, and 27% as very complex/poor health. Over a median 6-year follow-up, there were 409 (22%) deaths and 4,130 hospitalizations (median [25th-75th percentile] 1 per person [0-3]). In the very complex/poor category, individuals with A1C ≥8% (vs. <7%) had higher mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.76 [95% CI 1.15-2.71]), even after adjustment for glucose-lowering medication use. Within the very complex/poor health category, individuals with A1C ≥8% (vs. <7%) had more hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.41 [95% CI 1.03-1.94]). In the complex/intermediate group, individuals with A1C ≥8% (vs. <7%) had more hospitalizations, even with adjustment for glucose-lowering medication use (IRR 1.64 [1.21-2.24]). Results were similar, but imprecise, when the analysis was restricted to insulin or sulfonylurea users (n = 663). CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial differences in mortality and hospitalizations across ADA health status categories, but older adults with A1C <7% were not at elevated risk, regardless of health status. Our results support the 2021 ADA guidelines and indicate that <7% is a reasonable treatment goal in some older adults with diabetes.

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