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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), but mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the association of glycemic control with risk of AKI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In two observational cohorts of U.S. (Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA) and Swedish (Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements [SCREAM] project, Stockholm, Sweden) adults with type 2 diabetes and confirmed CKD stages G3-G5 undergoing routine care, we evaluated associations between baseline and time-varying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with the incident AKI (defined as increase in creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL over 48 h or 1.5 times creatinine over 7 days). RESULTS: In the U.S. cohort, there were 22,877 patients (55% women) with a median age of 72 years and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 52 mL/min/1.73 m2. In the Swedish cohort, there were 12,157 patients (51% women) with a median age of 76 years and eGFR 51 mL/min/1.73 m2. During 3.1 and 2.3 years of follow-up, 7,060 and 2,619 AKI events were recorded in the U.S. and Swedish cohorts, respectively. The adjusted association between baseline HbA1c and AKI was similar in both cohorts. Compared with baseline HbA1c 6-6.9% (42-52 mmol/mol), the hazard ratio for AKI in patients with HbA1c >9% (75 mmol/mol) was 1.29 (95% CI 1.18-1.41) in Geisinger and 1.33 (95% CI 1.13-1.57) in the Swedish cohort. Results were consistent in stratified analysis, when using death as competing risk, and when using time-varying HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Higher HbA1c was associated with AKI in adults with type 2 diabetes and CKD, suggesting that improving glycemic control may reduce the risk of AKI.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 137-143, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed at comprehensively evaluate the independent association of diabetes and its duration with incident abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and aortic diameter. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied incident AAA according to baseline glycemic status (diabetes, prediabetes, normal glycemia) in 13,116 ARIC participants (1990-1992) and the time-varying exposure of duration post incident diabetes in 11,675 participants (1987-1989) using Cox models. Additionally, we cross-sectionally explored ultrasound-based abdominal aortic diameter by glycemic status and cumulative duration of diabetes in 4710 participants (2011-2013) using linear regression models. Over ~20 years of follow-up, diabetes (vs. normal glycemia) at baseline was independently associated with lower AAA risk (489 cases) (hazard ratio: 0.71 [95%CI 0.51-0.99]), especially after 10 years (hazard ratio: 0.58 [0.38-0.87]). Prediabetes did not demonstrate an independent association. The inverse association was more evident with longer duration of diabetes (p for trend = 0.045), with 30-50% lower risk in eight years after diabetes diagnosis. The cross-sectional analysis demonstrated smaller aortic diameters with longer duration of diabetes (e.g., -0.76 mm [-1.24, -0.28] in diabetes with 8-12 years) compared to non-diabetes, whereas prediabetes consistently showed nominally greater diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, especially with longer duration, but not prediabetes, was independently associated with lower risk of AAA and smaller aortic diameter. Our findings suggest that long lasting clinical hyperglycemia plays an important role in the reduced AAA risk, and the reduced aortic diameter may be a structural mechanism behind this paradoxical association.

3.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990802

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: There is controversy regarding the performance of HbA1c in old age. We evaluated the prognostic value of HbA1c and other glycaemic markers (fructosamine, glycated albumin, fasting glucose) with mortality risk in older adults (66-90 years). METHODS: This was a prospective analysis of 5636 participants (31% with diagnosed diabetes, mean age 76, 58% female, 21% black) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, baseline 2011-2013. We used Cox regression to examine associations of glycaemic markers (modelled in categories) with mortality risk, stratified by diagnosed diabetes status. RESULTS: During a median of 6 years of follow-up, 983 deaths occurred. Among older adults with diabetes, 30% had low HbA1c (<42 mmol/mol [<6.0%]) and 10% had high HbA1c (≥64 mmol/mol [≥8.0%]); low (HR 1.32 [95% CI 1.04, 1.68]) and high (HR 1.86 [95% CI 1.32, 2.62]) HbA1c were associated with mortality risk vs HbA1c 42-52 mmol/mol (6.0-6.9%) after demographic adjustment. Low fructosamine and glycated albumin were not associated with mortality risk. Both low and high fasting glucose were associated with mortality risk. After further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical risk factors, high HbA1c (HR 1.81 [95% CI 1.28, 2.56]), fructosamine (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.43-2.69]), glycated albumin (HR 1.81 [95% CI 1.33-2.47]) and fasting glucose (HR 1.81 [95% CI 1.24, 2.66]) were associated with mortality risk. Low HbA1c and fasting glucose were no longer significantly associated with mortality risk. Among participants without diabetes, associations of glycaemic markers with mortality risk were less robust. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Elevated HbA1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin and fasting glucose were associated with risk of mortality in older adults with diabetes. Low HbA1c and fasting glucose may be markers of poor prognosis but are possibly confounded by health status. Our findings support the clinical use of HbA1c in older adults with diabetes. Graphical abstract.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971191

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension, which have shared risk factor profiles with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are conflicting findings regarding the relationship between physical activity and CKD. The objective was to evaluate the association between physical activity and CKD development over long-term follow-up using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: & Participants: 14,537 participants aged 45 to 64 years old. PREDICTORS: Baseline physical activity status was assessed by the modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire at visit 1 (1987-1989) and categorized according to the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to group participants as inactive, insufficiently active, active, and highly active. OUTCOMES: Incident CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow up and ≥25% decline in eGFR relative to baseline, CKD-related hospitalization or death, or end stage renal disease. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.8%, 24.2%, 22.7%, and 15.3% of participants were classified as inactive, insufficiently active, active, and highly active, respectively. During a median follow up of 24 years, 33.2% of participants developed CKD. After adjusting for age, sex, race-center, education, smoking status, diet quality, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, antihypertensive medication, body mass index, and baseline eGFR, higher categories of physical activity were associated with lower risk of CKD compared to the inactive group (HR for insufficiently active, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.88-1.02]; active, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.86-1.01]; highly active, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]; P for trend = 0.007). LIMITATIONS: Observational design and self-reported physical activity that was based on leisure time activity only. Due to low numbers, non black and white participants were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Highly active participants had a lower risk of developing CKD compared to inactive participants. Index words (5 words): chronic kidney disease; physical activity; Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study; estimated glomerular filtration rate; cystatin C.

5.
Am J Med ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy and erectile dysfunction are common conditions that have both been linked to cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, especially diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the association of large-fiber peripheral neuropathy with erectile dysfunction in adult US males with and without diabetes. METHODS: We included all men aged ≥40 years from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data on erectile dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy (n = 1213, including 206 men with diabetes). Erectile dysfunction was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. Peripheral neuropathy was evaluated using standardized 10-g monofilament testing, which assesses lower extremity sensation. We used logistic regression to examine the association of peripheral neuropathy with erectile dysfunction overall and stratified by diabetes status, adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 26.1% (51.2% in men with diabetes and 22.5% in men without diabetes). There was a significant independent association of peripheral neuropathy with erectile dysfunction overall (odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.43) and among US adult men without diabetes (OR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.11-2.56). The association in adults with diabetes was not statistically significant (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 0.39-4.26), possibly owing to limited power in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that decreased lower extremity sensation, even in the absence of diabetes, is common and a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is a measure of mitochondrial dysfunction and is associated with diabetes in experimental models. To explore the temporality of mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes, we estimated the prevalent and incident association of mtDNA-CN and diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the associations of mtDNA-CN measured from buffy coat with prevalent and incident diabetes, stratified by race, in 8954 white and 2444 black participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, an observational cohort study. Follow-up for incident analyses was complete through visit 6, 2016. RESULTS: Mean age at mtDNA-CN measurement was 57 years and 59% were female. Prevalence of diabetes at time of mtDNA-CN measurement was higher in blacks (563/2444, 23%) than whites (855/8954, 10%). The fully adjusted odds of prevalent diabetes for the 10th vs 90th percentile of mtDNA-CN was 1.05 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.49) among black and 1.49 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.85) among white participants. Over a median follow-up time of 19 years (Q1, Q3: 11, 24 years), we observed 617 incident diabetes cases among 1744 black and 2121 cases among 7713 white participants free of diabetes at baseline. The fully adjusted hazard of incident diabetes for the 10th vs 90th percentile of mtDNA-CN was 1.07 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.38) among black and 0.97 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.10) among white participants. CONCLUSIONS: Lower mtDNA-CN in buffy coat was associated with prevalent diabetes in white but not black ARIC participants. Lower mtDNA-CN was not associated with incident diabetes over 20 years of follow-up in whites or blacks.

9.
J Electrocardiol ; 62: 20-25, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low serum magnesium (Mg) is associated with an increased incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A richer phenotyping of arrhythmia indices, such as burden or frequency, may provide etiologic insights. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cross-sectional associations of serum Mg with burden of atrial arrhythmias [atrial fibrillation (AF), premature atrial contractions (PAC), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)], and ventricular arrhythmias [premature ventricular contractions (PVC), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT)] over 2-weeks of ECG monitoring. METHODS: We included 2513 ARIC Study visit 6 (2016-2017) participants who wore the Zio XT Patch-a leadless, ambulatory ECG-monitor-for up to 2-weeks. Serum Mg was modeled categorically and continuously. AF burden was categorized as intermittent or continuous based on the percent of analyzable time spent in AF. Other arrhythmia burdens were defined by the average number of abnormal beats per day. Linear regression was used for continuous outcomes; logistic and multinomial regression were used for categorical outcomes. RESULTS: Participants were mean ± SD age 79 ± 5 years, 58% were women and 25% black. Mean serum Mg was 0.82 ± 0.08 mmol/L and 19% had hypomagnesemia (<0.75 mmol/L). Serum Mg was inversely associated with PVC burden and continuous AF. The AF association was no longer statistically significant with further adjustment for traditional lifestyle risk factors, only the association with PVC burden remained significant. There were no associations between serum Mg and other arrhythmias examined. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based cohort of older adults, we found little evidence of independent cross-sectional associations between serum Mg and arrhythmia burden.

10.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to screening and diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes in youth is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14 119 youth aged 10 to 19 years in the 1999-2016 NHANES. First, we examined the performance of American Diabetes Association risk-based screening criteria. Second, we evaluated the performance of current clinical definitions of prediabetes and diabetes based on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), either HbA1c or FPG, or both HbA1c and FPG (confirmatory definition) to identify youth at high cardiometabolic risk. RESULTS: Overall, 25.5% of US youth (10.6 million in 2016) were eligible for screening. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening criteria for detecting any hyperglycemia were low for both HbA1c ≥5.7% (sensitivity = 55.5%, specificity = 76.3%) and FPG ≥100 mg/dL (sensitivity = 35.8%, specificity = 77.1%). Confirmed undiagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% and FPG ≥126 mg/dL) was rare, <0.5% of youth. Most (>85%) cases of diabetes were diagnosed. Associations with cardiometabolic risk were consistently stronger and more specific for HbA1c-defined hyperglycemia (specificity = 98.6%; sensitivity = 4.0%) than FPG-defined hyperglycemia (specificity = 90.1%; sensitivity = 19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of US youth are eligible for screening for diabetes and prediabetes; however, few will test positive, especially for diabetes. Most cases of diabetes in US youth are diagnosed. Regardless of screening eligibility, we found that HbA1c is a specific and useful nonfasting test to identify high-risk youth who could benefit from lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular risk in adulthood.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785663

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels have been inconsistently associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. Data are limited for heart failure (HF) and association between DHEA-S change and events. OBJECTIVE: Assess associations between low DHEA-S/DHEA-S change and incident HF hospitalization, CHD, and mortality in older adults. DESIGN: DHEA-S was measured in stored plasma from visits 4 (1996-1998) and 5 (2011-2013) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Follow-up for incident events: 18 years for DHEA-S level; 5.5 years for DHEA-S change. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease (n = 8143, mean age 63 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between DHEA-S and incident HF hospitalization, CHD, or mortality; associations between 15-year change in DHEA-S (n = 3706) and cardiovascular events. RESULTS: DHEA-S below the 15th sex-specific percentile of the study population (men: 55.4 µg/dL; women: 27.4 µg/dL) was associated with increased HF hospitalization (men: hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.58; women: HR 1.42, 95% CI, 1.13-1.79); DHEA-S below the 25th sex-specific percentile (men: 70.0 µg/dL; women: 37.1 µg/dL) was associated with increased death (men: HR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.01-1.25; women: HR 1.19, 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). In men, but not women, greater percentage decrease in DHEA-S was associated with increased HF hospitalization (HR 1.94, 95% CI, 1.11-3.39). Low DHEA-S and change in DHEA-S were not associated with incident CHD. CONCLUSIONS: Low DHEA-S is associated with increased risk for HF and mortality but not CHD. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate mechanisms underlying these associations.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e015410, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698652

RESUMO

Background Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment focus on 10-year or longer timeframes. Shorter-term CVD risk is also clinically relevant, particularly for high-risk occupations, but is under-investigated. Methods and Results We pooled data from participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and DHS (Dallas Heart Study), free from CVD at baseline (N=16 581). Measurements included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (>100 pg/mL prospectively defined as abnormal); high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (abnormal >5 ng/L); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (abnormal >3 mg/L); left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG (abnormal if present); carotid intima-media thickness, and plaque (abnormal >75th percentile for age and sex or presence of plaque); and coronary artery calcium (abnormal >10 Agatston U). Each abnormal test result except left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG was independently associated with increased 3-year risk of global CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, incident heart failure, or atrial fibrillation), even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors and the other test results. When a simple integer score counting the number of abnormal tests was used, 3-year multivariable-adjusted global CVD risk was increased among participants with integer scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, by ≈2-, 3-, 4.5- and 8-fold, respectively, when compared with those with a score of 0. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for atherosclerotic CVD (fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke). Conclusions A strategy incorporating multiple biomarkers and atherosclerosis imaging improved assessment of 3-year global and atherosclerotic CVD risk compared with a standard approach using traditional risk factors.

13.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is biased in the setting of obesity and other conditions. Alternative kidney filtration markers may be useful in adults with diabetes, but few studies examined the associations with risk of clinical outcomes. METHODS: In the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, we evaluated whether baseline levels and change in eGFR based on creatinine (Cr), cystatin c (Cys), ß2 -microglobulin (B2M), eGFRCr-Cys , and the average of three estimates (eGFRCr-Cys-B2M ) assessed in 7217 participants at baseline and a random sample of 640 participants at the 1 year visit are associated with clinical outcomes. We examined associations with major macrovascular and microvascular events together and separately, and all-cause mortality using Cox regression models, adjusting for established risk factors. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5 years, 1313 major macrovascular (n = 748) and microvascular events (n = 637), and 743 deaths occurred. Lower levels of eGFR based on all filtration markers individually and combined were associated with 1.4 to 3.0 times higher risk of major macrovascular and microvascular events (combined and separately) and all-cause mortality. Per 30% decline in eGFRCys , eGFR Cr-Cys , and eGFRCr-Cys-B2M were associated with a > 2-fold higher risk of all clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with type 2 diabetes, baseline levels of eGFR based on alternative filtration markers and per 30% decline in eGFRCys , eGFR Cr-Cys , and eGFRCr-Cys-B2M were associated with clinical outcomes. Measurement of alternative filtration markers, particularly B2M in adults with type 2 diabetes may be warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2322-2331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory markers, such as hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), have been reported to be related to peripheral artery disease (PAD). Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, has been linked to vascular remodeling and atherogenesis. However, its prospective association with incident PAD is unknown; as is the influence of inflammation on the association between galectin-3 and PAD. Approach and Results: In 9851 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998), we quantified the association of galactin-3 and hs-CRP with incident PAD (hospitalizations with PAD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 440.2-440.4] or leg revascularization [eg, International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 38.18]) as well as its severe form, critical limb ischemia (PAD cases with resting pain, ulcer, gangrene, or leg amputation) using Cox models. Over a median follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 316 cases of PAD including 119 critical limb ischemia cases. Log-transformed galectin-3 was associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17 [1.05-1.31] per 1 SD increment) and critical limb ischemia (1.25 [1.05-1.49] per 1 SD increment). The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for hs-CRP (1.14 [1.02-1.27] and 1.22 [1.02-1.45], respectively). Log-transformed hs-CRP demonstrated robust associations with PAD and critical limb ischemia even after adjusting for galectin-3 (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 SD increment 1.34 [1.18-1.52] and 1.34 [1.09-1.65], respectively). The addition of galectin-3 and hs-CRP to traditional atherosclerotic predictors (C statistic of the base model 0.843 [0.815-0.871]) improved the risk prediction of PAD (ΔC statistics, 0.011 [0.002-0.020]). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and hs-CRP were independently associated with incident PAD in the general population, supporting the involvement of fibrosis and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Galectina 3/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Isquemia/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Incidência , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(9): 107605, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600893

RESUMO

AIMS: The association of hyperglycemia and duration of diabetes with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in the general population is not well documented. We examined whether elevated glucose and longer diabetes duration is independently associated with ICAS in a community-based sample. METHODS: We cross-sectionally analyzed 1644 participants (age 67-90 years) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who underwent cerebrovascular magnetic resonance angiography in 2011-13. We applied multivariable ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the association of ICAS category ("no stenosis", "stenosis <50%", or "stenosis ≥50%") with glucose or diabetes duration (<10, 10 to 20, and ≥20 years). We also obtained the corresponding odds ratios applying inverse-probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to attrition. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants in the lowest glucose quartile, the weighted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of higher ICAS category were 1.88 (1.18, 3.00) and 2.01 (1.08, 3.72) for non-diabetic and diabetic participants in the corresponding highest glucose quartile, respectively. We observed significant positive trends of ICAS across diabetes duration categories in unweighted, but not in weighted, analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia and longer duration of diabetes were independently associated with ICAS, suggesting the importance of maintaining glycemic control to prevent stroke.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(9): 2060-2065, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypoglycemia has been postulated to contribute to falls risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between severe hypoglycemia and falls, both important causes of morbidity and mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diagnosed diabetes at visit 4 (1996-1998). Episodes of severe hypoglycemia requiring medical treatment were identified using ICD-9 codes from hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and ambulance calls; total falls were identified from medical claims using E-codes from 1996 to 2013. Secondary analyses examined hospitalized falls and falls with fracture. We calculated incidence rates and used Cox regression models to evaluate the independent association of severe hypoglycemia with falls occurring after visit 4 through 2013. RESULTS: Among 1,162 participants with diabetes, 149 ever had a severe hypoglycemic event before baseline or during the median of 13.1 years of follow-up. The crude incidence rate of falls among persons without severe hypoglycemia was 2.17 per 100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 1.93-2.44) compared with 8.81 per 100 PY (6.73-11.53) with severe hypoglycemia. After adjustment, severe hypoglycemia was associated with a more than twofold higher risk of falls (hazard ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.61-3.07). Associations were consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex, race, BMI, duration of diabetes, or functional difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: Severe hypoglycemia was associated with a substantially higher risk of falls in this community-based population of adults with diabetes. Fall risk should be considered when individualizing glycemic treatment in older adults. Assessing hypoglycemia history and future hypoglycemia risk could also improve multifactorial fall prevention interventions for older adults with diabetes.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(8): 1847-1858, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) changed labeling regarding metformin contraindications in patients with diabetes and CKD from using serum creatinine-based thresholds to using eGFR-based thresholds. Because race and sex affect serum creatinine levels independently of GFR, the earlier creatinine-based contraindication may have inadvertently caused racial and sex disparities in metformin prescription among patients with low eGFR. METHODS: In an analysis of 15,946 Black and White primary care patients with diabetes and eGFR≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in a large health system (the primary cohort), we assessed the association of race and sex with metformin prescription across eGFR level before and after the FDA label change. For a replication cohort, we meta-analyzed data from 36 cohorts with 1,051,723 patients from OptumLabs Data Warehouse. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, before the label change, Black patients with eGFR of 30-44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were prescribed metformin less often than White counterparts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.52 to 0.82); this disparity was significantly attenuated after the label change (aPR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.09; P value for interaction by period =0.04). Results were consistent in the replication cohorts. Men with eGFR of 30-44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 received metformin prescriptions less often than women counterparts before the label change; this was nonsignificantly attenuated after the label change, but we found significant attenuation in the replication cohorts (aPRpre-label change, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.79; aPRpost-label change, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.88; P value for interaction by period <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The metformin label change to an eGFR-based contraindication may have reduced racial and sex disparities in metformin prescription in moderate kidney dysfunction.

18.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 699-706, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713275

RESUMO

The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline defines hypertension as a blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg, whereas the 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2019 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines use a ≥140/90 mm Hg threshold. Our objective was to study the associations between isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), diagnosed using these 2 blood pressure thresholds, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of UK adults. We analyzed data from UK Biobank, which enrolled participants between 2006 and 2010 with follow-up through March 2019. We excluded persons with systolic hypertension or baseline CVD. We defined incident CVD as a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. We used Cox regression to quantify associations between IDH and CVD, as well as the individual outcomes included in the composite outcome. We studied 151 831 participants with normal systolic blood pressure (mean age 54 years, 40% male). Overall, 24.5% had IDH by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition compared with 6% by the ESC/NICE definition. Compared with normal diastolic blood pressure, IDH by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition was not significantly associated with CVD risk (hazard ratio, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.98-1.18]) whereas IDH by the ESC/NICE definition was significantly associated with a modest increase in CVD (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.04-1.29]). Similar results were found by sex and among participants not taking baseline antihypertensives. Furthermore, neither IDH definition was associated with the individual outcomes of nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke. In conclusion, the proportion of UK Biobank participants with IDH was significantly higher by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition compared with the ESC/NICE definitions; however, only the ESC/NICE definition was statistically associated with increased CVD risk.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600010

RESUMO

Diabetes has been identified as an important risk factor for mortality and rates of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, many recent reports on this topic reflect hurried approaches and have lacked careful epidemiologic design, conduct, and analysis. Features of prior studies have posed problems for our understanding of the true contribution of diabetes and other underlying comorbidities to prognosis in COVID-19. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the challenges of interpreting the current literature on diabetes and COVID-19 and discuss opportunities for future epidemiologic studies. We contend that the COVID-19 pandemic is a defining moment for the field of epidemiology and that diabetes epidemiology should play a significant role.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1690-1694, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540920

RESUMO

Diabetes has been identified as an important risk factor for mortality and rates of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, many recent reports on this topic reflect hurried approaches and have lacked careful epidemiologic design, conduct, and analysis. Features of prior studies have posed problems for our understanding of the true contribution of diabetes and other underlying comorbidities to prognosis in COVID-19. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the challenges of interpreting the current literature on diabetes and COVID-19 and discuss opportunities for future epidemiologic studies. We contend that the COVID-19 pandemic is a defining moment for the field of epidemiology and that diabetes epidemiology should play a significant role.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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