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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(3): 900-912.e7, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency predisposes to opportunistic infections, including those caused by fungi and intracellular bacteria. Studies of CD40L-deficient patients reveal the critical role of CD40L-CD40 interaction for the function of T, B, and dendritic cells. However, the consequences of CD40L deficiency on macrophage function remain to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of CD40L absence on monocyte-derived macrophage responses. METHODS: After observing the improvement of refractory disseminated mycobacterial infection in a CD40L-deficient patient by recombinant human IFN-γ (rhIFN-γ) adjuvant therapy, we investigated macrophage functions from CD40L-deficient patients. We analyzed the killing activity, oxidative burst, cytokine production, and in vitro effects of rhIFN-γ and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) treatment on macrophages. In addition, the effect of CD40L absence on the macrophage transcriptome before and after rhIFN-γ treatment was studied. RESULTS: Macrophages from CD40L-deficient patients exhibited defective fungicidal activity and reduced oxidative burst, both of which improved in the presence of rhIFN-γ but not sCD40L. In contrast, rhIFN-γ and sCD40L ameliorate impaired production of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, rhIFN-γ reversed defective control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proliferation by patients' macrophages. The absence of CD40L dysregulated the macrophage transcriptome, which was improved by rhIFN-γ. Additionally, rhIFN-γ increased expression levels of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors 1 and 2, dectin 1, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin in macrophages from both control subjects and patients. CONCLUSION: Absence of CD40L impairs macrophage development and function. In addition, the improvement of macrophage immune responses by IFN-γ suggests this cytokine as a potential therapeutic option for patients with CD40L deficiency.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/deficiência , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Fagocitose , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 76(1): 36-9, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26826992

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired disease that may affect nerve roots and peripheral nerves. Despite its low incidence, diagnosis is particularly important because there are different effective treatments. Human immunoglobulin is one of the mainstays of the treatment. Although there are few studies up to date, subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IgSC) has been proposed as an alternative to intravenous administration with similar efficacy. We present three cases with definite CIDP, classified according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies / Peripheral Nerve, Society (EFNS /PNS) criteria in which was used SCIgG as a treatment after success with the intravenous route. The Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to estimate the changes in the muscular strength before and after treatment.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(1): 36-39, feb. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-841537

RESUMO

La polineuropatía desmielinizante inflamatoria crónica (CIDP) es una enfermedad adquirida que puede afectar a raíces, plexos y nervios periféricos. A pesar de su baja incidencia, su diagnóstico cobra especial relevancia dado que actualmente existen tratamientos efectivos para la misma. La gammaglobulina humana endovenosa (IVIgG) es, junto con los esteroides y la plasmaféresis, uno de los tratamientos de primera elección. La vía de administración subcutánea se ha propuesto como una alternativa novedosa frente a la administración endovenosa con una eficacia similar. Presentamos tres casos de CIDP definitiva, clasificados según los criterios de la European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) en los cuales se utilizó tratamiento crónico con inmunoglobulina subcutánea (IgSC). Todos ellos habían recibido tratamiento previo con IVIgG. Se obtuvo mejoría de la fuerza evaluada por Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) y los tres pacientes manifestaron una mejor adaptación a sus actividades de la vida diaria.


Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired disease that may affect nerve roots and peripheral nerves. Despite its low incidence, diagnosis is particularly important because there are different effective treatments. Human immunoglobulin is one of the mainstays of the treatment. Although there are few studies up to date, subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IgSC) has been proposed as an alternative to intravenous administration with similar efficacy. We present three cases with definite CIDP, classified according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies / Peripheral Nerve, Society (EFNS /PNS) criteria in which was used SCIgG as a treatment after success with the intravenous route. The Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to estimate the changes in the muscular strength before and after treatment.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(2): 146-56, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402618

RESUMO

Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels associated with absent or decreased IgG, IgA and IgE. Here we summarize data from the HIGM syndrome Registry of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID). Of the 58 patients from 51 families reported to the registry with the clinical phenotype of HIGM syndrome, molecular defects were identified in 37 patients thus far. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, immunological and molecular data from these 37 patients. CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency was found in 35 patients from 25 families and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency in 2 unrelated patients. Five previously unreported mutations were identified in the CD40L gene (CD40LG). Respiratory tract infections, mainly pneumonia, were the most frequent clinical manifestation. Previously undescribed fungal and opportunistic infections were observed in CD40L-deficient patients but not in the two patients with AID deficiency. These include the first cases of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens or Aspergillus sp. and diarrhea caused by Microsporidium sp. or Isospora belli. Except for four CD40L-deficient patients who died from complications of presumptive central nervous system infections or sepsis, all patients reported in this study are alive. Four CD40L-deficient patients underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. This report characterizes the clinical and genetic spectrum of HIGM syndrome in Latin America and expands the understanding of the genotype and phenotype of this syndrome in tropical areas.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/epidemiologia , Ligante de CD40/deficiência , Ligante de CD40/genética , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Citidina Desaminase/deficiência , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/diagnóstico , Infecção/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 33(7): 1216-22, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23846854

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) infusions demonstrate similar efficacy to intravenous Ig (IVIG) in preventing infections in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), and are safe and well tolerated in this population. This open, prospective/retrospective, multicenter study was designed to compare the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of a 16 % liquid human IgG preparation (Beriglobina P), administered SC, with previous IVIG treatment in PID pediatric patients in Argentina. METHODS: Fifteen subjects were enrolled in the study, and a total of 13 subjects (aged 6-18 years) completed the 36-week SCIG treatment period. All children had previously received IVIG treatment. The dose of SCIG equaled the previous IVIG dose and subjects received an average weekly dose of 139 mg/kg (range 105-181) during the SCIG period. RESULTS: Significantly higher serum IgG trough levels were recorded on SCIG treatment at 16, 24, and 36 weeks, when compared with previous IgG trough levels on steady-state IVIG treatment. The annualized infection rate was 1.4 infections/subject/year during the IVIG administration period compared with 0.4 infections/subject/year during the SCIG period. All subjects who completed the study chose to continue administering SCIG at home after the study had ended. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that self-administered SCIG therapy is a well-tolerated and effective alternative to IVIG therapy for children with PID.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Infecção/terapia , Adolescente , Argentina , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/epidemiologia , Infecção/imunologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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