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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4917, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389714

RESUMO

APOBEC3A is a cytidine deaminase driving mutagenesis in tumors. While APOBEC3A-induced mutations are common, APOBEC3A expression is rarely detected in cancer cells. This discrepancy suggests a tightly controlled process to regulate episodic APOBEC3A expression in tumors. In this study, we find that both viral infection and genotoxic stress transiently up-regulate APOBEC3A and pro-inflammatory genes using two distinct mechanisms. First, we demonstrate that STAT2 promotes APOBEC3A expression in response to foreign nucleic acid via a RIG-I, MAVS, IRF3, and IFN-mediated signaling pathway. Second, we show that DNA damage and DNA replication stress trigger a NF-κB (p65/IkBα)-dependent response to induce expression of APOBEC3A and other innate immune genes, independently of DNA or RNA sensing pattern recognition receptors and the IFN-signaling response. These results not only reveal the mechanisms by which tumors could episodically up-regulate APOBEC3A but also highlight an alternative route to stimulate the immune response after DNA damage independently of cGAS/STING or RIG-I/MAVS.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/genética , Dano ao DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células THP-1 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1029-1047, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755550

RESUMO

Viral tracers are important tools for neuroanatomical mapping and genetic payload delivery. Genetically modified viruses allow for cell-type-specific targeting and overcome many limitations of non-viral tracers. Here, we summarize the viruses that have been developed for neural circuit mapping, and we provide a primer on currently applied anterograde and retrograde viral tracers with practical guidance on experimental uses. We also discuss and highlight key technical and conceptual considerations for developing new safer and more effective anterograde trans-synaptic viral vectors for neural circuit analysis in multiple species.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Sinapses/fisiologia , Vírus/genética , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Vírus/metabolismo
3.
Curr Clin Microbiol Rep ; 7(2): 31-37, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704466

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: To highlight recent findings on how picornavirus infections of the airways and cardiac tissues impact cellular inflammation and remodeling events. Recent Findings: Recent published work has revealed that although many picornavirus infections appear to be initially asymptomatic, there are significant disease sequelae that result from chronic or persistent infections and the long-term, pathogenic effects on host tissues. Summary: Because many acute picornavirus infections are asymptomatic, it is difficult to diagnose these pathologies at the early stages of disease. As a result, we must rely on preventative measures (i.e., vaccination) or discover novel treatments to reverse tissue damage and remodeling in affected individuals. Both of these strategies will require a comprehensive knowledge of virus-and cell-specific replication determinants and how these processes induce pathogenic effects in infected cells and tissues.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 8006-8021, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556302

RESUMO

The poliovirus type I IRES is able to recruit ribosomal machinery only in the presence of host factor PCBP2 that binds to stem-loop IV of the IRES. When PCBP2 is cleaved in its linker region by viral proteinase 3CD, translation initiation ceases allowing the next stage of replication to commence. Here, we investigate the interaction of PCBP2 with the apical region of stem-loop IV (SLIVm) of poliovirus RNA in its full-length and truncated form. CryoEM structure reconstruction of the full-length PCBP2 in complex with SLIVm solved to 6.1 Å resolution reveals a compact globular complex of PCBP2 interacting with the cruciform RNA via KH domains and featuring a prominent GNRA tetraloop. SEC-SAXS, SHAPE and hydroxyl-radical cleavage establish that PCBP2 stabilizes the SLIVm structure, but upon cleavage in the linker domain the complex becomes more flexible and base accessible. Limited proteolysis and REMSA demonstrate the accessibility of the linker region in the PCBP2/SLIVm complex and consequent loss of affinity of PCBP2 for the SLIVm upon cleavage. Together this study sheds light on the structural features of the PCBP2/SLIV complex vital for ribosomal docking, and the way in which this key functional interaction is regulated following translation of the poliovirus genome.


Assuntos
Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Poliovirus/genética , RNA Viral/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
5.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023921

RESUMO

In this study, we characterized the role of host cell protein tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) activity, also known as VPg unlinkase, in picornavirus infections in a human cell model of infection. TDP2/VPg unlinkase is used by picornaviruses to remove the small polypeptide, VPg (Virus Protein genome-linked, the primer for viral RNA synthesis), from virus genomic RNA. We utilized a CRISPR/Cas-9-generated TDP2 knock out (KO) human retinal pigment epithelial-1 (hRPE-1) cell line, in addition to the wild type (WT) counterpart for our studies. We determined that in the absence of TDP2, virus growth kinetics for two enteroviruses (poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3) were delayed by about 2 h. Virus titers were reduced by ~2 log10 units for poliovirus and 0.5 log10 units for coxsackievirus at 4 hours post-infection (hpi), and by ~1 log10 unit at 6 hpi for poliovirus. However, virus titers were nearly indistinguishable from those of control cells by the end of the infectious cycle. We determined that this was not the result of an alternative source of VPg unlinkase activity being activated in the absence of TPD2 at late times of infection. Viral protein production in TDP2 KO cells was also substantially reduced at 4 hpi for poliovirus infection, consistent with the observed growth kinetics delay, but reached normal levels by 6 hpi. Interestingly, this result differs somewhat from what has been reported previously for the TDP2 KO mouse cell model, suggesting that either cell type or species-specific differences might be playing a role in the observed phenotype. We also determined that catalytically inactive TDP2 does not rescue the growth defect, confirming that TDP2 5' phosphodiesterase activity is required for efficient virus replication. Importantly, we show for the first time that polysomes can assemble efficiently on VPg-linked RNA after the initial round of translation in a cell culture model, but both positive and negative strand RNA production is impaired in the absence of TDP2 at mid-times of infection, indicating that the presence of VPg on the viral RNA affects a step in the replication cycle downstream of translation (e.g., RNA synthesis). In agreement with this conclusion, we found that double-stranded RNA production (a marker of viral RNA synthesis) is delayed in TDP2 KO RPE-1 cells. Moreover, we show that premature encapsidation of nascent, VPg-linked RNA is not responsible for the observed virus growth defect. Our studies provide the first lines of evidence to suggest that either negative- or positive-strand RNA synthesis (or both) is a likely candidate for the step that requires the removal of VPg from the RNA for an enterovirus infection to proceed efficiently.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polirribossomos/imunologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Retina/citologia
6.
J Virol ; 93(21)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413128

RESUMO

Due to the limiting coding capacity for members of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses, their successful replication cycles require complex interactions with host cell functions. These interactions span from the down-modulation of many aspects of cellular metabolism to the hijacking of specific host functions used during viral translation, RNA replication, and other steps of infection by picornaviruses, such as human rhinovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, enterovirus D-68, and a wide range of other human and nonhuman viruses. Although picornaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells, they have extensive interactions with host cell nuclei and the proteins and RNAs that normally reside in this compartment of the cell. This review will highlight some of the more recent studies that have revealed how picornavirus infections impact the RNA metabolism of the host cell posttranscriptionally and how they usurp and modify host RNA binding proteins as well as microRNAs to potentiate viral replication.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , RNA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Humanos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/metabolismo , RNA/genética
7.
Circulation ; 139(20): 2326-2338, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group B enteroviruses are common causes of acute myocarditis, which can be a precursor of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, leading causes of heart transplantation. To date, the specific viral functions involved in the development of dilated cardiomyopathy remain unclear. METHODS: Total RNA from cardiac tissue of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy was extracted, and sequences corresponding to the 5' termini of enterovirus RNAs were identified. After next-generation RNA sequencing, viral cDNA clones mimicking the enterovirus RNA sequences found in patient tissues were generated in vitro, and their replication and impact on host cell functions were assessed on primary human cardiac cells in culture. RESULTS: Major enterovirus B populations characterized by 5' terminal genomic RNA deletions ranging from 17 to 50 nucleotides were identified either alone or associated with low proportions of intact 5' genomic termini. In situ hybridization and immunohistological assays detected these persistent genomes in clusters of cardiomyocytes. Transfection of viral RNA into primary human cardiomyocytes demonstrated that deleted forms of genomic RNAs displayed early replication activities in the absence of detectable viral plaque formation, whereas mixed deleted and complete forms generated particles capable of inducing cytopathic effects at levels distinct from those observed with full-length forms alone. Moreover, deleted or full-length and mixed forms of viral RNA were capable of directing translation and production of proteolytically active viral proteinase 2A in human cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that persistent viral forms are composed of B-type enteroviruses harboring a 5' terminal deletion in their genomic RNAs and that these viruses alone or associated with full-length populations of helper RNAs could impair cardiomyocyte functions by the proteolytic activity of viral proteinase 2A in cases of unexplained dilated cardiomyopathy. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the persistence of EV forms in human cardiac tissues and should stimulate the development of new therapeutic strategies based on specific inhibitors of the coxsackievirus B proteinase 2A activity for acute and chronic cardiac infections.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cisteína Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , DNA Complementar/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/complicações , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/virologia , Deleção de Sequência , Transfecção , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Latência Viral , Replicação Viral
8.
mBio ; 9(5)2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181254

RESUMO

The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. AUF1 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection by these viruses due to the disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by viral proteinases. Previous studies have demonstrated that AUF1 binds to poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA during infection, with binding shown to occur within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the 5' noncoding region (NCR) or the 3' NCR, respectively. Binding to different sites within the viral RNA suggests that AUF1 may negatively regulate infection by these viruses using different mechanisms. The work presented here addresses the mechanism of AUF1 inhibition of the replication of poliovirus and CVB3. We demonstrate that AUF1 knockdown in human cells results in increased viral translation, RNA synthesis, and virus production. AUF1 is shown to negatively regulate translation of a poliovirus and CVB3 IRES reporter RNA during infection but not in uninfected cells. We found that this inhibitory activity is not mediated through destabilization of viral genomic RNA; however, it does require virus-induced relocalization of AUF1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during the early phases of infection. Our findings suggest that AUF1 restriction of poliovirus and CVB3 replication uses a common mechanism through the viral IRES, which is distinct from the canonical role that AUF1 plays in regulated mRNA decay in uninfected host cells.IMPORTANCE Picornaviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal or upper respiratory tracts of humans and animals and may disseminate to tissues of the central nervous system, heart, skin, liver, or pancreas. Many common human pathogens belong to the Picornaviridae family, which includes viruses known to cause paralytic poliomyelitis (poliovirus); myocarditis (coxsackievirus B3 [CVB3]); the common cold (human rhinovirus [HRV]); and hand, foot, and mouth disease (enterovirus 71 [EV71]), among other illnesses. There are no specific treatments for infection, and vaccines exist for only two picornaviruses: poliovirus and hepatitis A virus. Given the worldwide distribution and prevalence of picornaviruses, it is important to gain insight into the host mechanisms used to restrict infection. Other than proteins involved in the innate immune response, few host factors have been identified that restrict picornavirus replication. The work presented here seeks to define the mechanism of action for the host restriction factor AUF1 during infection by poliovirus and CVB3.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Poliovirus/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Replicação Viral , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(8): e1007277, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142213

RESUMO

Protein production, genomic RNA replication, and virion assembly during infection by picornaviruses like human rhinovirus and poliovirus take place in the cytoplasm of infected human cells, making them the quintessential cytoplasmic pathogens. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that picornavirus replication is promoted by a number of host proteins localized normally within the host cell nucleus. To systematically identify such nuclear proteins, we focused on those that appear to re-equilibrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection of HeLa cells with human rhinovirus via quantitative protein mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed a highly selective re-equilibration of proteins with known mRNA splicing and transport-related functions over nuclear proteins of all other functional classes. The multifunctional splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ) was identified as one such protein. We found that SFPQ is targeted for proteolysis within the nucleus by viral proteinase 3CD/3C, and a fragment of SFPQ was shown to migrate to the cytoplasm at mid-to-late times of infection. Cells knocked down for SFPQ expression showed significantly reduced rhinovirus titers, viral protein production, and viral RNA accumulation, consistent with SFPQ being a pro-viral factor. The SFPQ fragment that moved into the cytoplasm was able to bind rhinovirus RNA either directly or indirectly. We propose that the truncated form of SFPQ promotes viral RNA stability or replication, or virion morphogenesis. More broadly, our findings reveal dramatic changes in protein compartmentalization during human rhinovirus infection, allowing the virus to systematically hijack the functions of proteins not normally found at its cytoplasmic site of replication.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Citoplasma/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Processamento Associado a PTB/genética , Fator de Processamento Associado a PTB/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo
10.
Virology ; 516: 139-146, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353210

RESUMO

Cardioviruses cause diseases in many animals including, in rare cases, humans. Although they share common features with all picornaviruses, cardioviruses have unique properties that distinguish them from other family members, including enteroviruses. One feature shared by all picornaviruses is the covalent attachment of VPg to the 5' end of genomic RNA via a phosphotyrosyl linkage. For enteroviruses, this linkage is cleaved by a host cell protein, TDP2. Since TDP2 is divergently required during enterovirus infections, we determined if TDP2 is necessary during infection by the prototype cardiovirus, EMCV. We found that EMCV yields are reduced in the absence of TDP2. We observed a decrease in viral protein accumulation and viral RNA replication in the absence of TDP2. In contrast to enterovirus infections, we found that TDP2 is modified at peak times of EMCV infection. This finding suggests a unique mechanism for cardioviruses to regulate TDP2 activity during infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cardiovirus/metabolismo , Cardiovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiovirus/genética , Infecções por Cardiovirus/genética , Infecções por Cardiovirus/virologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Transporte Proteico , Proteólise , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
11.
J Virol ; 91(16)2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539455

RESUMO

Group B coxsackieviruses are responsible for chronic cardiac infections. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the virus can persist in the human heart long after the signs of acute myocarditis have abated are still not completely understood. Recently, coxsackievirus B3 strains with 5'-terminal deletions in genomic RNAs were isolated from a patient suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, suggesting that such mutant viruses may be the forms responsible for persistent infection. These deletions lacked portions of 5' stem-loop I, which is an RNA secondary structure required for viral RNA replication. In this study, we assessed the consequences of the genomic deletions observed in vivo for coxsackievirus B3 biology. Using cell extracts from HeLa cells, as well as transfection of luciferase replicons in two types of cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated that coxsackievirus RNAs harboring 5' deletions ranging from 7 to 49 nucleotides in length can be translated nearly as efficiently as those of wild-type virus. However, these 5' deletions greatly reduced the synthesis of viral RNA in vitro, which was detected only for the 7- and 21-nucleotide deletions. Since 5' stem-loop I RNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with cellular and viral proteins involved in viral RNA replication, we investigated the binding of the host cell protein PCBP2, as well as viral protein 3CDpro, to deleted positive-strand RNAs corresponding to the 5' end. We found that binding of these proteins was conserved but that ribonucleoprotein complex formation required higher PCBP2 and 3CDpro concentrations, depending on the size of the deletion. Overall, this study confirmed the characteristics of persistent CVB3 infection observed in heart tissues and provided a possible explanation for the low level of RNA replication observed for the 5'-deleted viral genomes-a less stable ribonucleoprotein complex formed with proteins involved in viral RNA replication.IMPORTANCE Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common indication for heart transplantation worldwide, and coxsackie B viruses are detected in about one-third of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies. Terminal deletions at the 5' end of the viral genome involving an RNA secondary structure required for RNA replication have been recently reported as a possible mechanism of virus persistence in the human heart. These mutations are likely to disrupt the correct folding of an RNA secondary structure required for viral RNA replication. In this report, we demonstrate that transfected RNAs harboring 5'-terminal sequence deletions are able to direct the synthesis of viral proteins, but not genomic RNAs, in human and murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we show that the binding of cellular and viral replication factors to viral RNA is conserved despite genomic deletions but that the impaired RNA synthesis associated with terminally deleted viruses could be due to destabilization of the ribonucleoprotein complexes formed.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Replicação Viral , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Ligação Proteica
12.
Trends Genet ; 33(2): 129-142, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012572

RESUMO

Our understanding of gene expression has come far since the 'one-gene one-polypeptide' hypothesis proposed by Beadle and Tatum. In this review, we address the gradual recognition that a growing number of polycistronic genes, originally discovered in viruses, are being identified within the mammalian genome, and that these may provide new insights into disease mechanisms and treatment. We carried out a systematic literature review identifying 13 mammalian genes for which there is evidence for polycistronic expression via translation through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Although the canonical mechanism of translation initiation has been studied extensively, here we highlight a process of noncanonical translation, IRES-mediated translation, that is a growing source for understanding complex inheritance, the elucidation of disease mechanisms, and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Identification of additional polycistronic genes may provide new insights into disease therapy and allow for new discoveries of both translational and disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Mamíferos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
13.
Viruses ; 8(12)2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27999393

RESUMO

To successfully replicate, viruses protect their genomic material from degradation by the host cell. RNA viruses must contend with numerous destabilizing host cell processes including mRNA decay pathways and viral RNA (vRNA) degradation resulting from the antiviral response. Members of the Picornaviridae family of small RNA viruses have evolved numerous diverse strategies to evade RNA decay, including incorporation of stabilizing elements into vRNA and re-purposing host stability factors. Viral proteins are deployed to disrupt and inhibit components of the decay machinery and to redirect decay machinery to the advantage of the virus. This review summarizes documented interactions of picornaviruses with cellular RNA decay pathways and processes.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Picornaviridae/imunologia , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
14.
mSphere ; 1(1)2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27303683

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication requires binding of the liver-specific microRNA (miRNA) miR-122 to two sites in the HCV 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although we and others have shown that viral genetics impact the amount of active miR-122 required for replication, it is unclear if HCV can replicate in the complete absence of this miRNA. To probe the absolute requirements for miR-122 and the genetic basis for those requirements, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology to knock out miR-122 in Huh-7.5 cells and reconstituted these knockout (KO) cells with either wild-type miR-122 or a mutated version of this miRNA. We then characterized the replication of the wild-type virus, as well as a mutated HCV bearing 5' UTR substitutions to restore binding to the mutated miR-122, in miR-122 KO Huh-7.5 cells expressing no, wild-type, or mutated miR-122. We found that while replication was most efficient when wild-type or mutated HCV was provided with the matched miR-122, inefficient replication could be observed in cells expressing the mismatched miR-122 or no miR-122. We then selected viruses capable of replicating in cells expressing noncognate miR-122 RNAs. Unexpectedly, these viruses contained multiple mutations throughout their first 42 nucleotides that would not be predicted to enhance binding of the provided miR-122. These mutations increased HCV RNA replication in cells expressing either the mismatched miR-122 or no miR-122. These data provide new evidence that HCV replication can occur independently of miR-122 and provide unexpected insights into how HCV genetics influence miR-122 requirements. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver cancer in the Western Hemisphere. HCV infection requires miR-122, which is expressed only in liver cells, and thus is one reason that replication of this virus occurs efficiently only in cells of hepatic origin. To understand how HCV genetics impact miR-122 usage, we knocked out miR-122 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology and adapted virus to replicate in the presence of noncognate miR-122 RNAs. In doing so, we identified viral mutations that allow replication in the complete absence of miR-122. This work provides new insights into how HCV genetics influence miR-122 requirements and proves that replication can occur without this miRNA, which has broad implications for how HCV tropism is maintained.

15.
Viruses ; 8(2)2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861382

RESUMO

Despite being intensely studied for more than 50 years, a complete understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle remains elusive. Specifically, only a handful of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in the RNA replication cycle of these viruses. In an effort to isolate and identify additional cellular proteins that function in enteroviral RNA replication, we have generated multiple recombinant polioviruses containing RNA affinity tags within the 3' or 5' noncoding region of the genome. These recombinant viruses retained RNA affinity sequences within the genome while remaining viable and infectious over multiple passages in cell culture. Further characterization of these viruses demonstrated that viral protein production and growth kinetics were unchanged or only slightly altered relative to wild type poliovirus. However, attempts to isolate these genetically-tagged viral genomes from infected cells have been hindered by high levels of co-purification of nonspecific proteins and the limited matrix-binding efficiency of RNA affinity sequences. Regardless, these recombinant viruses represent a step toward more thorough characterization of enterovirus ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in RNA replication.


Assuntos
Poliomielite/virologia , Poliovirus/genética , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Recombinação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Poliovirus/química , Poliovirus/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
16.
J Virol Methods ; 230: 1-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800776

RESUMO

Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Replicon , Virologia/métodos , Replicação Viral , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Miocardite/virologia , Transfecção
17.
mBio ; 7(1): e01931-15, 2015 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715620

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Viruses of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus, commandeer the functions of host cell proteins to aid in the replication of their small viral genomic RNAs during infection. One of these host proteins is a cellular DNA repair enzyme known as 5' tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2). TDP2 was previously demonstrated to mediate the cleavage of a unique covalent linkage between a viral protein (VPg) and the 5' end of picornavirus RNAs. Although VPg is absent from actively translating poliovirus mRNAs, the removal of VPg is not required for the in vitro translation and replication of the RNA. However, TDP2 appears to be excluded from replication and encapsidation sites during peak times of poliovirus infection of HeLa cells, suggesting a role for TDP2 during the viral replication cycle. Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line lacking TDP2, we found that TDP2 is differentially required among enteroviruses. Our single-cycle viral growth analysis shows that CVB3 replication has a greater dependency on TDP2 than does poliovirus or human rhinovirus replication. During infection, CVB3 protein accumulation is undetectable (by Western blot analysis) in the absence of TDP2, whereas poliovirus protein accumulation is reduced but still detectable. Using an infectious CVB3 RNA with a reporter, CVB3 RNA could still be replicated in the absence of TDP2 following transfection, albeit at reduced levels. Overall, these results indicate that TDP2 potentiates viral replication during enterovirus infections of cultured cells, making TDP2 a potential target for antiviral development for picornavirus infections. IMPORTANCE: Picornaviruses are one of the most prevalent groups of viruses that infect humans and livestock worldwide. These viruses include the human pathogens belonging to the Enterovirus genus, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus. Diseases caused by enteroviruses pose a major problem for public health and have significant economic impact. Poliovirus can cause paralytic poliomyelitis. CVB3 can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease and myocarditis. Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold, which has a severe economic impact due to lost productivity and severe health consequences in individuals with respiratory dysfunction, such as asthma. By gaining a better understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle, antiviral drugs against enteroviruses may be developed. Here, we report that the absence of the cellular enzyme TDP2 can significantly decrease viral yields of poliovirus, CVB3, and human rhinovirus, making TDP2 a potential target for an antiviral against enterovirus infections.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterovirus/enzimologia , Enterovirus/fisiologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Enterovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterovirus Humano B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Camundongos , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Poliovirus/enzimologia , Poliovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliovirus/fisiologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Rhinovirus/enzimologia , Rhinovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
18.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 594, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26150805

RESUMO

The compartmentalization of DNA replication and gene transcription in the nucleus and protein production in the cytoplasm is a defining feature of eukaryotic cells. The nucleus functions to maintain the integrity of the nuclear genome of the cell and to control gene expression based on intracellular and environmental signals received through the cytoplasm. The spatial separation of the major processes that lead to the expression of protein-coding genes establishes the necessity of a transport network to allow biomolecules to translocate between these two regions of the cell. The nucleocytoplasmic transport network is therefore essential for regulating normal cellular functioning. The Picornaviridae virus family is one of many viral families that disrupt the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of cells to promote viral replication. Picornaviruses contain positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes and replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. As a result of the limited coding capacity of these viruses, cellular proteins are required by these intracellular parasites for both translation and genomic RNA replication. Being of messenger RNA polarity, a picornavirus genome can immediately be translated upon entering the cell cytoplasm. However, the replication of viral RNA requires the activity of RNA-binding proteins, many of which function in host gene expression, and are consequently localized to the nucleus. As a result, picornaviruses disrupt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to exploit protein functions normally localized to a different cellular compartment from which they translate their genome to facilitate efficient replication. Furthermore, picornavirus proteins are also known to enter the nucleus of infected cells to limit host-cell transcription and down-regulate innate antiviral responses. The interactions of picornavirus proteins and host-cell nuclei are extensive, required for a productive infection, and are the focus of this review.

20.
Open Biol ; 4(11): 140180, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25392452

RESUMO

Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in cellular mRNAs direct expression of growth-promoting factors through an alternative translation mechanism that has yet to be fully defined. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), a Wnt-mediating transcription factor important for cell survival and metastasis in cancer, is produced via IRES-directed translation, and its mRNA is frequently upregulated in malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). In this study, we determined that LEF1 expression is regulated by Bcr-Abl, the oncogenic protein that drives haematopoietic cell transformation to CML. We have previously shown that the LEF1 5' untranslated region recruits a complex of proteins to its IRES, including the translation initiation factor eIF4A. In this report, we use two small molecule inhibitors, PP242 (dual mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase inhibitor) and hippuristanol (eIF4A inhibitor), to define IRES regulation via a Bcr-Abl-mTOR-eIF4A axis in CML cell lines and primary patient leukaemias. We found that LEF1 and other IRESs are uniquely sensitive to the activities of Bcr-Abl/mTOR. Most notably, we discovered that eIF4A, an RNA helicase, elicits potent non-canonical effects on the LEF1 IRES. Hippuristanol inhibition of eIF4A stalls translation of IRES mRNA and triggers dissociation from polyribosomes. We propose that a combination drug strategy which targets mTOR and IRES-driven translation disrupts key factors that contribute to growth and proliferation in CML.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Facilitador Linfoide/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Células Jurkat , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Facilitador Linfoide/genética , Camundongos , Polirribossomos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esteróis/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
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