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1.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237267

RESUMO

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(10): 2187-2190, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262503

RESUMO

A 3 year old girl presented initially with acute severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis diagnosed by clinical features including a positive Cullen's sign and raised serum amylase. A contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan corroborated the same and also reported a type I choledochal cyst. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) 2 months later reported a type II choledochal cyst and a persistent pseudo pancreatic cyst. Intraoperative features and close perusal of the CECT and MRCP films showed the presence of mixed type I and II choledochal cyst. The case is reported for the presence of Cullen's sign, CECT and MRCP features of a mixed type I and II choledochal cyst and successful surgical outcome. It appears to be only the fifth case of mixed type I and II choledochal cyst in world literature in the pediatric age group, following the 4 previous cases in children reported from Japan.


Assuntos
Cisto do Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Hemorrágica Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Cisto do Colédoco/complicações , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Equimose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pancreatite Hemorrágica Aguda/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 138: 102-113, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132521

RESUMO

The evolution of Peninsular Indian biodiversity has been a fascinating topic of research due to historical connections of this region to the ancient Gondwanaland. We investigated the phylogeny and historical biogeography of nearly all extant species of the genus Piper reported from the region to assess the biogeographical origins and test mechanisms of lineage diversification (dispersal, vicariance and in situ radiation) of this highly diverse genus of angiosperms commonly found in the understory of evergreen forests. The phylogeny of 21 species of Piper reported from Peninsular India was reconstructed for the first time, which included three new putative species from the Western Ghats. We used BEAST for the divergence time estimations (using three constraints), and ancestral range estimations were performed with the dated phylogenetic tree using BIOGEOBEARS. Divergence dating analysis revealed that the genus Piper originated during lower Cretaceous around 110 Ma [95% highest posterior density (HPD): 116-105 Ma] and colonized Peninsular India five times independently, from Southeast Asia starting from the Oligocene. The two major dispersals into India occurred during the periods of 27.3 Ma (95% HPD: 35.8-19.9.) and 15.5 Ma (95% HPD: 24.9-7.11). This was followed by rapid radiations in some lineages with subsequent back dispersals to Southeast Asia. Our study indicates that dispersals from Southeast Asia led to the arrival of Piper to Indian subcontinent following the Indo-Eurasian collision. Members of Piper have colonized and diversified within the climatically stable habitats of Peninsular India. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence for the Miocene overland dispersal of Piper species to Africa from South Asia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Piper/genética , Biodiversidade , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Piper/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol ; 2019: 7201650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792931

RESUMO

Background: Three prior cases of hemoperitoneum associated with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have been reported in adolescents. This reports a case of hemoperitoneum after ovulation in an adult. Case: A 34-year-old nulligravida presented with abdominal pain after a heavy period and rebound tenderness. Urine beta-hCG was negative, hemoglobin was 5.4, and platelet count was zero. CT revealed hemoperitoneum and contrast blush surrounding the left ovary. She was treated for newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus and steroid-refractory ITP. Her platelet count and symptoms improved. Conclusion: Hemoperitoneum after ovulation in ITP is rare; this represents the first adult case in the literature and reviews differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. The obstetrician/gynecologist is part of a multidisciplinary team caring for patients with bleeding of gynecological origin and should withhold surgical intervention for hemoperitoneum when medical therapy is warranted.

5.
Case Rep Hematol ; 2018: 5865321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595928

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of clonal disorders characterized by ineffective and dysplastic hematopoiesis in the bone marrow with variable risk of progression to leukemia. MDS is characterized by specific karyotypic and molecular abnormalities. The t(9 : 22) Philadelphia translocation is not a common abnormality found in MDS, and it is not included in the prognostic indices for germline mutations. There are no definitive treatment guidelines for these patients either. Here, we reviewed previously reported cases of MDS with the Philadelphia translocation with a goal to determine their prognosis and treatment options, specifically the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

6.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1538, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746767

RESUMO

Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use.

7.
Ecol Evol ; 6(18): 6510-6523, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777725

RESUMO

Conservation managers and policy makers are often confronted with a challenging dilemma of devising suitable strategies to maintain agricultural productivity while conserving endemic species that at the early stages of becoming pests of agricultural crops. Identification of environmental factors conducive to species range expansion for forecasting species distribution patterns will play a central role in devising management strategies to minimize the conflict between the agricultural productivity and biodiversity conservation. Here, we present results of a study that predicts the distribution of Indrella ampulla, a snail endemic to the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, which is becoming a pest in cardamom (Ellettaria cardamomum) plantations. We determined the distribution patterns and niche overlap between I. ampulla and Ellettaria cardamomum using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) niche modeling techniques under current and future (2020-2080) climatic scenarios. The results showed that climatic (precipitation of coldest quarter and isothermality) and soil (cation exchange capacity of soil [CEC]) parameters are major factors that determine the distribution of I. ampulla in Western Ghats. The model predicted cardamom cultivation areas in southern Western Ghats are highly sensitive to invasion of I. ampulla under both present and future climatic conditions. While the land area in the central Western Ghats is predicted to become unsuitable for I. ampulla and Ellettaria cardamomum in future, we found 71% of the Western Ghats land area is suitable for Ellettaria cardamomum cultivation and 45% suitable for I. ampulla, with an overlap of 35% between two species. The resulting distribution maps are invaluable for policy makers and conservation managers to design and implement management strategies minimizing the conflicts to sustain agricultural productivity while maintaining biodiversity in the region.

8.
J Plant Res ; 129(6): 1033-1040, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624169

RESUMO

The center of diversity of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper), one of the highly valued spice crops is reported to be from India. Black pepper is naturally distributed in India in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot and is the only known existing source of its wild germplasm in the world. We used ecological niche models to predict the potential distribution of wild P. nigrum in the present and two future climate change scenarios viz (A1B) and (A2A) for the year 2080. Three topographic and nine uncorrelated bioclim variables were used to develop the niche models. The environmental variables influencing the distribution of wild P. nigrum across different climate change scenarios were identified. We also assessed the direction and magnitude of the niche centroid shift and the change in niche breadth to estimate the impact of projected climate change on the distribution of P. nigrum. The study shows a niche centroid shift in the future climate scenarios. Both the projected future climate scenarios predicted a reduction in the habitat of P. nigrum in Southern Western Ghats, which harbors many wild accessions of P. nigrum. Our results highlight the impact of future climate change on P. nigrum and provide useful information for designing sound germplasm conservation strategies for P. nigrum.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Piper nigrum/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Índia , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Oncol Lett ; 9(2): 749-751, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25621045

RESUMO

The current study presents the case of a 63-year-old patient exhibiting refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T), who was positive for the MPL W515L mutation, but negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation. Following diagnosis, the patient remained asymptomatic for over three years, however, in August 2012, the patient relapsed and was administered with supportive treatment in the form of subcutaneous darbepoetin α at a dose of 300 µg/week, which resulted in an increased hemoglobin concentration, allowing the patient to remain transfusion-independent. The MPL W515L mutation has been reported in two previous cases of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) with ringed sideroblasts, however, to the best of our knowledge, the current report is the first to present a case of RARS-T with an MPL W515L mutation. A clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a targeted agent against the JAK2 V617F mutation is currently ongoing, with the aim of providing a novel therapeutic strategy for treating MDS/MPN patients. As MPL is located upstream of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, it is a possible therapeutic target in MDS/MPN patients positive for an MPL W515L mutation, but negative for a JAK2 V617F mutation.

10.
Mol Biotechnol ; 46(1): 72-9, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20383613

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of eight species of Piper (Piperaceae) viz., P. nigrum, P. longum, P. betle, P. chaba, P. argyrophyllum, P. trichostachyon, P. galeatum, and P. hymenophyllum from Kerala state, India were analyzed by Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Out of 22 10-mer RAPD primers screened, 11 were selected for comparative analysis of different species of Piper. High genetic variations were found among different Piper species studied. Among the total of 149 RAPD fragments amplified, 12 bands (8.05%) were found monomorphic in eight species. The remaining 137 fragments were found polymorphic (91.95%). Species-specific bands were found in all eight species studied. The average gene diversity or heterozygosity (H) was 0.33 across all the species, genetic distances ranged from 0.21 to 0.69. The results of this study will facilitate germplasm identification, management, and conservation.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Piper/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Linhagem , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
South Med J ; 102(3): 308-9, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19204629

RESUMO

The US public consumes grapefruit juice in large quantities, with 14% of the population drinking the juice at least weekly. Grapefruit juice is a well-documented inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, which is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of commonly prescribed drugs. Here we report an unusual case of verapamil toxicity in a 42-year-old female, which resulted from accidental ingestion of only three tablets of the sustained release preparation (120 mg each) over 24 hours which resulted in severe toxicity.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/envenenamento , Citrus paradisi/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Verapamil/envenenamento , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Verapamil/farmacocinética
12.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 96 Suppl 1: S179-83, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12055835

RESUMO

Traditional methods of diagnosing visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in India suffer from a number of disadvantages. Amplification of multicopy nuclear genes and messenger ribonucleic acid of Leishmania by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated as an alternative assay under various clinical conditions. PCR of peripheral blood has the highest absolute sensitivity among all the available procedures, and is particularly useful for detecting parasites in early infections, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, concurrent infections and immunocompromised cases, but is not so reliable for late infections. PCR of immunopurified blood mononuclear cells indicated the association of parasites with monocytes as well as non-monocyte cell types.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , RNA de Protozoário/sangue
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