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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7922, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404897

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether interdental brush shape influences cleaning efficacy, by comparing a waist-shaped interdental brush (W-IDB) with a cylindrical IDB (C-IDB); both provided with the same bristle texture. Cleaning efficacy of differently shaped IDBs was measured in proximal surfaces of teeth in a split-mouth cross-over design. Twenty-eight patients abolished oral hygiene for 4 d. Line angle plaque area was scanned with an intraoral camera after use of disclosing dye in baseline and after IDB application and analyzed planimetrically. Additionally, bacterial load in the IDBs was analyzed after usage by colony forming units (cfu). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test with continuity correction was used to compare the results of the waist-shaped and the cylindrically-shaped IDBs. The waist-shaped IDBs cleaned significantly better than their cylindrically-shaped counterparts (area cleaned: 23.1% vs. 18.3%), when applied at same interdental spaces (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found in comparison of bacterial load on the IDBs (median cfu counts: 2.3E9 vs. 2.7E9, p = 0.93). Irrespective of bristle texture or size, IDB shape have impact on cleaning efficacy. Waist-shaped IDBs are more effective in cleaning of the line angle area than cylindrically-shaped IDBs.

2.
Dent Mater ; 36(7): 838-845, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This investigation tested pre-shaded 3Y-TZP materials on optical, mechanical and structural properties and calculated correlations between these properties. METHODS: Seven A2-shaded 3Y-TZP zirconia materials were investigated on translucency (T) via UV-vis-spectrophotometer, fracture load of 3-unit FDPs (FL), biaxial flexural strength (FS), Chevron-Notch Beam (CNB), fracture toughness (KIC) and Martens parameter (hardness: HM and indentation modulus: EIT). FL, FS and KIC were measured in a universal testing machine. The grain size was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Scheffé, Kruskal-Wallis-, Mann-Whitney-U- and Pearson-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: For translucency, negative correlations were found with results of facture load (R=-0.444, p<0.001) and KIC (R=-0.503, p<0.001). While a positive correlation was found between translucency and flexural strength (R=0.238, p=0.019), between fracture load and EIT (R=0.227, p<0.029), between fracture load and KIC (R=0.362, p<0.001) as well as between fracture load and the grain size (R=0.598, p=0.007). While the grain size positively correlated with EIT (R=0.534, p=0.017) as well as EIT with HM (R=0.720, p<0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: Despite of being based on the same raw material, tested zirconia materials significantly differed regarding optical, mechanical (except biaxial flexural strength and Martens hardness) and structural properties. Materials with highest optical properties were those with lowest mechanical properties (CER, COP).


Assuntos
Resistência à Flexão , Mustelidae , Animais , Materiais Dentários , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Zircônio
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 274, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentin hypersensitivity is a frequent finding especially in periodontitis patients. Conventional treatment aims for obstruction of dentin tubules by disabling liquid and osmotic fluctuation to and from the pulpal chamber. A novel bioglass-based desensitizer was shown to obstruct tubules and to resist periodic exposure to lactic acid. Whether this obstruction is resistant to brushing had not been tested so far. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess dentin tubule obstruction after repeated acid exposure and brushing. METHODS: Sixty dentin discs were cleaned with 17% EDTA, mounted into a pulp fluid simulator and randomly divided into 3 groups: No surface treatment in Group A, Seal&Protect® in group B and DentinoCer in group C. Discs were exposed to 0.1 M non-saturated lactic acid thrice and standardized brushing twice a day for 12 days. At baseline and after 2, 4 and 12 d samples were removed from the setting and prepared for top-view SEM analysis to assess tubule obstruction using the Olley score. Discs were then vertically cut and the section surface morphologically assessed using backscatter imaging. For both vertical and sectional surfaces EDX analysis was used to characterize the surface composition in the tubular and inter-tubular area. RESULTS: Group A showed clean tubular lumina at all time points. From day 2 onwards dentin showed exposed collagen fibers. Group 2 initially showed a complete surface coverage that flattened out during treatment without ever exposing tubules. At baseline, samples of Group C displayed a complete homogeneous coverage. From day 2 on tubules entrances with obstructed lumen became visible. While on day 4 and 12 the dentin surface exposed collagen fibers the lumina remained closed. EDX analysis of the vertical and horizontal views showed that P and Ca were predominant elements in both the inter- and tubular dentin while Si peaks were found in the tubule plugs. CONCLUSION: While group B displayed a packed layer on the surface during the whole investigation time group C samples lost their superficial layer within 48 h. Tubule plugs containing considerable Si proportions indicated previous presence of DentinoCer, while high Ca and P proportions suggest obturation by dentin-like material.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/farmacologia , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/terapia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Dentina/metabolismo , Sensibilidade da Dentina/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
4.
Dent Mater ; 35(10): 1439-1449, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of zirconia pretreatment and aging on flexural strength and phase structure. METHODS: For flexural strength measurements, 180 3Y-TZP0.25 specimens were fabricated and pretreated: (i) air-abraded (105-µm alumina, 0.25MPa), (ii) air-abraded (50-µm alumina, 0.25MPa), (iii) air-abraded (30-µm silica-coated alumina, 0.28MPa) (iv) non-pretreated. Each pretreated group (n=15) was aged: (a) hydrothermal (134°C, 0.23MPa, 2h) (b) in a mastication simulator (1,200,000×, 5/55°C) and (c) not aged. The fractured specimens were stored dry for 5 years (23°C) for analysis of phase transformation. Additionally, specimens were fabricated from 3Y-TZP0.25 (n=12) and 3Y-TZP0.05 (n=8), pretreated (i, ii, iii, iv), and hydrothermally aged. Each air-abrasion method was alternated using 0.05, 0.25 and 0.4MPa pressure. The phase transformation was examined by Raman spectroscopy and surface topography by scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed using univariate ANOVA with the Scheffé post hoc test and partial-eta-squared (ƞp²) (α=0.05). RESULTS: The highest impact on flexural strength was exerted by the pretreatment (ηP²=0.261, p<0.001), followed by interactions between pretreatment and aging (ηP²=0.077, p=0.033). Non-pretreated and non-aged specimens showed the lowest monoclinic percentage. Hydrothermal aging and 5 years of storage at room temperature increased the monolithic percentage of 3Y-TZP0.25. The highest phase transformation was observed in groups air-abraded with 105-µm alumina particles. Increasing pressure during the air-abrading process increased the content of the monoclinic phase in zirconia surfaces. SIGNIFICANCE: Air-abrasion with 30-µm silica-coated alumina powder can be recommended for pretreatment of 3Y-TZP0.25 and 3Y-TZP0.05. For air-abrasion using alumina powder lower pressure should be used.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Ítrio , Zircônio
5.
Dent Mater J ; 38(5): 806-812, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434833

RESUMO

To determine the influence of the fracture toughness (KIC) methods [single-edge-V-notch-beam (SEVNB) and chevron-notch-beam (CNB)] as well as an optional heat treatment on the KIC of three different zirconia generations (1st: ZI, 3rd: FX, 4th: HT). One hundred and twenty specimens each (3×4×45 mm) were fabricated, sintered, notched (n=360) and half of them heat treated before KIC measurements with 4-point-flexural-strength test. SEM images of the notches were recorded. Highest KIC was found for ZI followed by HT and FX. SEVNB resulted in significantly higher KIC than CNB. Heat treatment resulted in decrease for SEVNB and increase for CNB of KIC (except for FX). Groups tested using CNB showed higher reliability of values (Weibull modulus) than tested using SEVNB. SEM images present crack path and fracture surface. Different zirconia materials lead to different KIC values. The test method and a prior heat treatment showed an influence on the KIC values and their reliability.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Mecânico , Zircônio
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 160, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340807

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported their family and given names have been mismatched. The correct names can be found below.

7.
J Prosthet Dent ; 122(4): 396-403, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982619

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The lengthy sintering time of zirconia is costly and limits applications. The consequences of shortening the sintering time are mainly unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test and compare 2 high-speed sintering protocols and 1 conventional sintering protocol on the translucency, phase content, grain sizes, and flexural strength of 3 zirconia materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 450 specimens of 3 zirconia materials-two were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZPs), Ceramill ZI and Zolid (ZD), and a 4 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (4Y-TZP), Zolid HT+ (n=150)-and 5 thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm; n=30) were sintered according to 2 high-speed sintering protocols (final temperature 1570 °C and 1590 °C; n=10) and a reference sintering protocol (1450 °C; n=10). After measuring the monoclinic phase content with Raman spectrometry (n=3), the specimens were polished, and translucency was determined. The biaxial flexural strength of specimens with a thickness of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm was tested (n=20). Statistical evaluation included 1-way ANOVA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, and Spearman-Rho tests and the Bonferroni correction (α=.0011). RESULTS: For ZI, the sintering protocols did not affect the translucency or biaxial flexural strength. ZD and HT+ showed significantly lower translucency for high-speed sintering protocols (P≤.001), but the biaxial flexural strength remained the same after the high-speed sintering protocol at 1590 °C. Grain sizes increased with increasing final sintering temperature for ZI and HT+, whereas translucency generally decreased with increasing material thickness. No monoclinic phase was detected in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The flexural strength was maintained with high-speed sintering but led to a decrease in translucency for ZD and HT+.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Resistência à Flexão , Cerâmica , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Ítrio , Zircônio
8.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(5): 360-367, 2019 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907568

RESUMO

There are many interdental cleaning aids available for patient use, including toothpicks, dental floss and interdental brushes (IDBs). Most are available in various shapes and sizes. The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning efficacy of waist-shaped interdental brushes to those of cylindrical shape. Four groups of IDBs, ranging in diameter from 2 mm to 9 mm, were tested. To reduce production and material bias, all brushes tested were from the same manufacturer. Cleaning efficacy was tested on two different devices: 1) a geometrical model, using opposing rectangular blocks at separation distances of 1 mm to 4 mm and 2) an anatomical model, displaying a standardized maxillary segment from canine to 3rd molar. The surfaces in both devices were coated with a titanium oxide slurry, then cleaned under standardized conditions and planimetrically evaluated. The measurements took place after 1, 5 and 10 cleaning strokes, respectively. Both models showed significant superiority in the cleaning efficacy of the waistshaped brush (p < 0.001), at 1, 5 and 10 strokes. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that interdental brushes with a waistshaped form showed cleaning potential superior to their cylindrical-shaped counterparts, under standardized laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Escovação Dentária , Coleta de Dados , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Humanos , Dente Molar
9.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(3): 186-191, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806511

RESUMO

Dental students in Zurich receive 8.5 hours of preclinical training in scaling/root planing. Dental hygiene students receive a multiple of this amount. This study was undertaken to assess the students' acquired preclinical competencies and to what degree they may differ. 34 undergraduate dental students and 20 dental hygiene (DH) students from two different schools in Zurich were tasked with scaling/root planing a maxillary left canine, coated with black lacquer from the apex to ca. 5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, after completing their preclinical periodontal instrumentation course. The students were allowed to use any instrument in their set (Gracey or universal curettes) for a 5-minute period. Positive (experienced DHs) and negative (laypeople) control groups performed the same task. After instrumentation, teeth were scanned and planimetrically assessed. The percentage of cleaned tooth surface was calculated and statistically analysed (Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, Conover's test for pairwise comparisons). The dental students achieved the highest median cleaning efficacy (80.6%), followed by the experienced DHs (65.3%), the DH students (62.0%) and the laypeople (26.7%). When split by schools, a significant difference in instrumentation efficacy by the student DHs was seen (p <0.001). Despite their limited instruction time, the dental students acquired preclinical scaling/root planing skills comparable to, or better than, DH students with more training time.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Aplainamento Radicular , Estudantes de Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Raiz Dentária
10.
J Prosthodont ; 28(2): e563-e571, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the effect of staining and artificial aging on the surface roughness of commercially available resin-ceramic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials both quantitatively and qualitatively and to compare it to feldspathic material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test specimens (n = 15 per material) were prepared of CAD/CAM ingots from a resin nanoceramic (Lava Ultimate, LVU), a polymer-infiltrated ceramic (Vita Enamic, ENA), and a resin nanoceramic (Cerasmart, CER). In the staining protocol, test specimens were (i) roughened in a standardized manner and (ii) stained with the manufacturer's recommended staining kit by means of photo-polymerization (Bluephase Polywave). The control specimens were prepared out of a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II,VM2) and stained in a ceramic furnace. As negative control of each group, 15 specimens were prepared and polished in a standardized manner. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured after finishing procedures and after simulation of clinical service up to 5 years by means of toothbrushing. After each year of aging, one specimen per group was randomly selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test and paired post-hoc test were applied to detect differences between treatment groups (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: The mean roughness measurements of the stained CAD/CAM materials were 0.14 ± 0.04 µm (ENA), 0.15 ± 0.03 µm (LVU), 0.22 ± 0.03 µm (VM2), and 0.26 ± 0.12 µm (CER). In the polished CAD/CAM materials the measurements were 0.01 ± 0.01 µm (CER), 0.02 ± 0.01 µm (LVU), 0.02 ± 0.00 µm (VM2), and 0.03 ± 0.01µm (ENA). Irrespective of the restoration material, the applied staining protocol resulted in a higher surface roughness compared to the polished specimens (p < 0.001). After 5 years of simulated aging the mean surface roughness in the stained CAD/CAM materials were 0.22 ± 0.03 µm (VM2), 0.24 ± 0.09 µm (ENA), 0.25 ± 0.06 µm (CER), and 0.37 ± 0.09 µm (LVU). Aging had a significant effect on surface roughness in groups ENA and LVU (p < 0.001). SEM analysis showed that the staining layer on resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials was partially removed over time. CONCLUSIONS: The applied staining protocol significantly increased surface roughness of CAD/CAM materials. Instability of the staining layer on resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials could be anticipated over time as a consequence of toothbrushing, whereas feldspathic ceramic did not suffer from such aging effect.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Materiais Dentários/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 86: 191-198, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the Martens hardness parameters for five different classes of CAD/CAM restorative materials after storage in water and thermo-cycling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lithium disilicate ceramic IPS e.max CAD (EX), silicate ceramic IPS Empress CAD (EC), a polymer infiltrated interpenetrating network material (hybrid material) VITA Enamic (VE), two compact filled composites Lava Ultimate (LU), experimental material (EM), two low filled resin composites Katana Avencia (KA), Ambarino High-Class (AH) and ultra-low/unfilled acrylic polymers CAD-Temp (CT), Telio CAD (TC), breCAM.HIPC (BC) were tested. Specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 30, 60, 90, 120 days and afterwards thermo-cycled (30,000×, 5 °C/55 °C). Martens hardness (HM) and indentation modulus (EIT) were longitudinally investigated after each storage time. For structural analysis, each material was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). RESULTS: The groups of unfilled polymers/ultra-low filled composite (CT, TC, BC) followed by low (KA, AH) and compact filled resin composites (LU, EM) showed the lowest HM and EIT values (p < 0.001). The highest values presented ceramics (EX, EC) followed by hybrid material (VE) (p < 0.001). High influence on the Martens hardness parameters was exerted by the aging duration (HM: ηP2 = 0.108, p < 0.001; EIT: ηP2 = 0.074, p < 0.001). Structural analyses of resin composites revealed big differences in shape, size and distribution of filler particles. CONCLUSIONS: The tested CAD/CAM materials showed differences in Martens hardness and indentation modulus pursuant to the material class. Ceramics showed highest values, followed by the hybrid material. For resin composites the Martens hardness and indentation modulus increased with the filler content. Artificial aging affected CAD/CAM materials differently. Some materials tested are prone to aging, the Martens hardness and indentation modulus decreased after thermo-cycling.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Materiais Dentários , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Materiais Dentários/química , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Prosthet Dent ; 120(6): 948-954, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807742

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The development of zirconia materials with optimized properties has been rapid, and studies comparing the mechanical and optical properties of recently introduced zirconia with lithium disilicate materials are limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical and optical properties of cubic/tetragonal zirconia materials with those of a lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens were fabricated from 6 different noncolored zirconia materials: Ceramill Zolid FX (CZ), CopraSmile (CS), DD cubeX2 (DD), NOVAZIR MaxT (NZ), priti multidisc ZrO2 (PD), and StarCeram Z-Smile (SC), and 1 lithium disilicate ceramic as a control, IPS e.max Press LT A2 (CG). Four-point flexural strength (N=105/n=15) and fracture toughness using the single-edge V-notched beam (N=105/n=15) were examined according to International Organization for Standardization standard 6872:2015. Translucency (N=70/n=10) was evaluated with an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Grain size (N=6/n=1) of zirconia was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multivariate analysis, 1-way analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Scheffé test and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Weibull analysis, using the maximum likelihood estimation method at 95% confidence level (α=.05). RESULTS: Zirconia materials showed higher mechanical and lower optical properties than CG (P<.001). No differences were observed among the zirconia materials with respect to flexural strength (P=.259) or fracture toughness (P=.408). CG and CS showed significantly higher Weibull modulus than SC and PD. The lowest translucency values were measured for NZ and SC, followed by CS, DD, and PD (P<.001). CZ showed the highest translucency values (P<.001). The lowest grain sizes were found for NZ, DD, and SC; the largest were shown for CS (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cubic/tetragonal zirconia showed better mechanical properties than lithium disilicate ceramic. However, the optical properties and the reliability of zirconia are lower than those of lithium disilicate ceramic.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Zircônio/química , Resistência à Flexão , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fenômenos Ópticos , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 15(1): 33-39, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28232972

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the cleaning efficacy of different manual toothbrushes in orthodontic patients in a single-blind randomised clinical trial. The brushes tested were selected based on previous in vitro tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five regular orthodontic patients with a minimum of six bonded brackets on the maxillary anterior teeth were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: staged (2-level) (Candida Parodin, 12 patients) and V-shaped (Oral-B Ortho, 12 patients) toothbrush head designs were compared in a two-phase study to planar control brushes (Paro M 43, 11 patients). First, all participants were advised to brush their teeth twice daily for 2 min for 3 weeks. Prior to the start and at the end of the study, the gingival index was assessed to evaluate the level of oral hygiene. Afterwards, cleaning efficacy was assessed planimetrically by disclosing the respective teeth after two days of not performing any oral hygiene measures. RESULTS: Of the initial 35 participants, two did not attend after 3 weeks and had to be excluded. After 3 weeks, the control (5 out of 180 sites or -2.8% with GI ≥ 2) and staged groups (16 out of 216 sites or 7.5% with GI ≥ 2) showed minor improvement in the oral hygiene level. In contrast, the V-shaped group (29 out of 198 sites or 14.6 % with GI ≥ 2) showed a statistically significant improvement of the oral hygiene level. Planimetric evaluation, however, showed no superior cleaning efficacy of any of the tested head designs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of V-shaped and staged toothbrush head designs might be beneficial in patients with inadequate oral hygiene undergoing orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance. Further large-scale investigations are, however, necessary to validate the presented results.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
14.
Caries Res ; 50(1): 78-86, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26870948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosion-preventive effect of different artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro compared to human saliva in situ. In the in vitro experiment, bovine enamel and dentin specimens were stored in artificial saliva (4 different formulations, each n = 20), deionized water (n = 20) or human saliva (n = 6 enamel and dentin specimens/volunteer) for 120 min. In the in situ experiment, each of the 6 enamel and dentin specimens was worn intraorally by 10 volunteers for 120 min. The specimens were then eroded (HCl, pH 2.6, 60 s). Half of the specimens were subjected to microhardness analysis (enamel) and the determination of calcium release into the acid (enamel and dentin), while the other half were again placed in the respective medium or worn intraorally, respectively, for 120 min before a second erosion was performed. Knoop microhardness of enamel and the calcium release of enamel and dentin into the acid were again determined. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA or two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Enamel microhardness was not significantly different between all test groups after the first and the second erosive challenge, respectively. Enamel calcium loss was significantly lower in situ compared to the in vitro experiment, where there was no significant difference between all test groups. Dentin calcium loss was significantly lower than deionized water only after the first and than all except one artificial saliva after the second erosion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the use of artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro does not reflect the intraoral situation in dental erosion experiments adequately.


Assuntos
Erosão Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário , Dentina , Saliva , Saliva Artificial , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle
15.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 59: 128-138, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the mechanical and optical properties of monolithic zirconia in comparison to conventional zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were prepared from: monolithic zirconia: Zenostar (ZS), DD Bio ZX(2) hochtransluzent (DD), Ceramill Zolid (CZ), InCoris TZI (IC) and a conventional zirconia Ceramill ZI (CZI). Contrast ratio (N=75/n=15) was measured according to ISO 2471:2008. Grain sizes (N=75/n=15) were investigated with scanning electron microscope. Four-point flexural strength (N=225/n=15/zirconia and aging regime) was measured initially, after aging in autoclave or chewing simulator (ISO 13356:2008). Two-body wear of polished and glazed/veneered specimens (N=108/n=12) was analyzed in a chewing simulator using human teeth as antagonists. Data were analyzed using 2-/1-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffé, Kruskal-Wallis-H, Mann-Whitney-U, Spearman-Rho, Weibull statistics and linear mixed models (p<0.05). RESULTS: The lowest contrast ratio values were found for ZS and IC and CZ. IC showed the largest grain size followed by DD and CZI. The smallest grain size was observed for ZS followed by CZ. There was no correlation between grain size and contrast ratio. The aging regime showed no impact on flexural strength. All non-aged and autoclave-aged specimens showed lower flexural strengths than the control group CZI. Within groups aged in chewing simulator, ZS showed significantly lower flexural strength than CZI. CZI showed higher material and antagonist wear than monolithic polished and glazed groups. Glazed specimens showed higher material and antagonist loss compared to polished ones. There was no correlation between roughness and wear. CONCLUSIONS: Monolithic zirconia showed higher optical, but lower mechanical properties than conventional zirconia.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Zircônio/química , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Swiss Dent J ; 125(11): 1210-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26631278

RESUMO

In order to estimate the potential of dentifrices to harm exposed dentin, the mechanical properties of 15 dentifrices available in the Swiss market were investigated. A total of 120 bovine dentin samples were irradiated and analyzed for relative dentin abrasion (RDA). To investigate subsequent increases in surface roughness (Ra), dentin specimens (n = 180) were analyzed profilometrically at baseline and after brushing with test slurries. The cleaning efficacy (Ce) was determined using artificially stained tooth specimens (n = 180). The available fluoride content of the dentifrices was measured in respective slurries using an ion-selective electrode. The results of the mechanical analyses were categorized into four or five groups for each parameter. Four potential user groups were defined according to individual problem specifications and user demands. The results were compared to those of an earlier investigation of dentifrices published in 1998. The RDA results exceeded the values declared by the manufacturers and correlated significantly with the results of the Ra measurements. A significant positive correlation of RDA and Ce values was also shown. The measured fluoride content was often below the fluoride, declared by the manufactures. Only a few of the tested dentifrices qualified as suitable for all potential user groups. Major differences were observed between the mechanical properties found in the present study compared to those found in 1998. These changes in the properties of dentifrices during the past decade should be considered with respect to providing adequate recommendations for individual user demands.

17.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 13(4): 349-55, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25197725

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of the relative enamel abrasivity (REA) of fluoridated toothpaste on the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to 6 groups (n=36 per group). Groups A to C were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpastes and groups D to F with amine fluoride (AmF) toothpastes (1500 ppm F each). The REA in groups A and D was 2, in groups B and E it was 6 and in groups C and F it was 9. Twice a day, 18 samples of each group were immersed for 2 min in a slurry (toothpaste:artificial saliva=1:3), while the remaining samples were brushed with the respective slurry (2.5 N force; 60 strokes/min; 2 min). All samples were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After five days, the amount of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was determined and statistically compared by Scheffe's post-hoc tests. RESULTS: REA value and mode of application (immersion or brushing) had no significant influence on the amount of either kind of fluoride from NaF toothpastes. Only for the NaF toothpaste with REA 6 was the amount of KOH-soluble fluoride significantly higher after brushing. With AmF toothpastes, KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride concentrations were significantly higher when the samples were brushed. Furthermore, in the REA-2 group, the amounts of KOH-soluble fluoride (brushed or immersed) and structurally bound fluoride (brushed) were significantly higher than in the other groups. CONCLUSION: The REA dependency of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was found only for the AmF toothpastes. Using AmF toothpaste, the mode of application influenced the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacocinética , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacocinética , Abrasão Dentária/metabolismo , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem , Amino Álcoois/química , Amino Álcoois/farmacocinética , Animais , Fluoreto de Cálcio/química , Fluoreto de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Cariostáticos/química , Bovinos , Precipitação Química , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Fluoretos/química , Umidade , Hidróxidos/química , Imersão , Compostos de Potássio/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Saliva Artificial/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Cremes Dentais/química
18.
Swiss Dent J ; 124(12): 1290-301, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25503477

RESUMO

The effective cleaning of interdental spaces using toothbrushes is a challenge. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate on the one hand the interdental cleaning efficiency and on the other hand the gingival injury potential of an electric single-headed sonic toothbrush (Water-pik) and two single-tufted manual toothbrushes (Curaprox 1009; Lactona Interdental Brush). Brushes were evaluated using a brushing device. Test dental casts (maxillary sextants) consisting of black teeth coated with white paint were brushed using standardized horizontal movements. Thereafter, black (i.e. cleaned) areas were measured planimetrically. The soft tissue injury potential was evaluated using front segments of porcine mandibles. In the same brushing device, test brushes were moved over the gingiva. Before and after each treatment, the porcine mucosa was stained with a plaque disclosing agent to visualize injured areas, which could then be measured planimetrically as well. These evaluations were each made after 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds of brushing. The statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The best cleaning performance of 46% across all interdental spaces assessed was found with the electric sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), while the performances of the manual brushes from Lactona and Curaprox were 14.8% and 5%, respectively. At each point of evaluation, the gingiva was injured most markedly by the powered sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), followed by the manual Curaprox brush. The smallest damage of the porcine gingiva was produced by the manual Lactona brush. When comparing the manual toothbrushes, the Lactona product revealed a better cleaning performance combined with a smaller injury potential than the Curaprox brush. Thus, the prophylactic goal to achieve high degrees of cleaning while producing minimal damage is important and should have priority when evaluating and selecting toothbrushes.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/efeitos adversos , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengiva/lesões , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Suínos
19.
J Adhes Dent ; 16(4): 383-92, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25133270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the impact of mechanical and chemical treatments of PEEK on surface roughness (SR), surface free energy (SFE), and tensile bond strength (TBS) to veneering resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PEEK specimens (N = 680) were fabricated and divided into treatment groups (n = 170/group): 1. air abrasion (AIA); 2. etching with piranha solution (PIS); 3. air abrasion + piranha acid etching (AIP); and 4. no treatment (NO). Ten specimens of each treatment group were assessed with a contact angle measuring device and profilometer to determine SFE and SR, respectively. The remaining 160 specimens of each group were divided into subgroups according to coupling method (n = 32/subgroup): 1. Monobond Plus/ Heliobond (MH); 2. Visio.link (VL); 3. Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CCP); 4. Signum PEEK Bond (SPB); and 5. control, no coupling (CG). Specimens were veneered using Signum Composite/SiCo or Signum Ceramis/SiCe (both: n = 16), incubated in water (60 days at 37°C) and thermocycled (5000 cycles of 5°C/55°C). TBS was measured and data analyzed by three- and one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05). RESULTS: A significant effect of surface treatment (p < 0.001) and coupling agent application (p < 0.001) on TBS was observed. AIA specimens with/without PIS showed the highest SFE, SR, and TBS. No differences were measured between PIS and NO, and between AIA and AIP. When no coupling agent was used, no adhesion was obtained. CCP resulted in low adhesion values, whereas MH, SPB, and VL exhibited increased TBS. No significant impact of the veneering resin composite on TBS was found (p = 0.424). CONCLUSION: AIA and AIP combined with VL, SPB, and MH can be recommended for clinical use.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Colagem Dentária , Materiais Dentários/química , Cetonas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente/métodos , Acrilatos/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Corrosão Dentária/métodos , Facetas Dentárias , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Metilmetacrilatos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Silanos/química , Estresse Mecânico , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensão Superficial , Temperatura , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química , Molhabilidade
20.
Dent Mater J ; 33(5): 591-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24998170

RESUMO

This study investigated the contrast ratio and grain size depending on sintering parameters of twelve different zirconia materials and compared with glass-ceramic (N=156, n=12 per group). Contrast ratio of all ceramics was measured using a spectrophotometer according to ISO 2471: 2008. Grain sizes of zirconia were determined by SEM. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Scheffé-test, Kruskal-Wallis-H-test and Spearman correlation (p<0.05). The area under the sintering curve up 25°C (AUC25) and 1200°C (AUC1200) of zirconia was calculated. Glass-ceramic showed significantly lowest contrast ratio compared to zirconia. Final sintering temperature and AUC1200 influenced contrast ratio. Grain size was affected by final sintering temperature, sintering duration and AUC. Contrast ratio and grain size showed an association.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Zircônio/química , Temperatura Alta , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
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