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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14879-14899, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533177

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and urgently needs better therapeutic approaches. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is already used in the clinic for several cancers but not yet well investigated for CRC. Currently, systemic administration of ALA offers a limited degree of tumour selectivity, except for intracranial tumours, limiting its wider use in the clinic. The combination of effective ALA-PDT and chemotherapy may provide a promising alternative approach for CRC treatment. Herein, theranostic Ag2S quantum dots (AS-2MPA) optically trackable in near-infrared (NIR), conjugated with endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting Cetuximab (Cet) and loaded with ALA for PDT monotherapy or ALA/5-fluorouracil (5FU) for the combination therapy are proposed for enhanced treatment of EGFR(+) CRC. AS-2MPA-Cet exhibited excellent targeting of the high EGFR expressing cells and showed a strong intracellular signal for NIR optical detection in a comparative study performed on SW480, HCT116, and HT29 cells, which exhibit high, medium and low EGFR expression, respectively. Targeting provided enhanced uptake of the ALA loaded nanoparticles by strong EGFR expressing cells and formation of higher levels of PpIX. Cells also differ in their efficiency to convert ALA to PpIX, and SW480 was the best, followed by HT29, while HCT116 was determined as unsuitable for ALA-PDT. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 2D cell cultures and 3D spheroids of SW480 and HT29 cells using AS-2MPA with either electrostatically loaded, hydrazone or amide linked ALA to achieve different levels of pH or enzyme sensitive release. Most effective phototoxicity was observed in SW480 cells using AS-2MPA-ALA-electrostatic-Cet due to enhanced uptake of the particles, fast ALA release and effective ALA-to-PpIX conversion. Targeted delivery reduced the effective ALA concentration significantly which was further reduced with codelivery of 5FU. Delivery of ALA via covalent linkages was also effective for PDT, but required a longer incubation time for the release of ALA in therapeutic doses. Phototoxicity was correlated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Hence, both AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet based PDT and AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet-5FU based chemo/PDT combination therapy coupled with strong NIR tracking of the nanoparticles demonstrate an exceptional therapeutic effect on CRC cells and excellent potential for synergistic multistage tumour targeting therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fotoquimioterapia , Pontos Quânticos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196177

RESUMO

It is a generally accepted perspective that type-II nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have low quantum yield due to the separation of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Recently, high quantum yield levels were reported for cadmium-based type-II QDs. Hence, the quest for finding non-toxic and efficient type-II QDs is continuing. Herein, we demonstrate environmentally benign type-II InP/ZnO/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs that reach a high quantum yield of ∼91%. For this, ZnO layer was grown on core InP QDs by thermal decomposition, which was followed by a ZnS layer via successive ionic layer adsorption. The small-angle X-ray scattering shows that spherical InP core and InP/ZnO core/shell QDs turn into elliptical particles with the growth of the ZnS shell. To conserve the quantum efficiency of QDs in device architectures, InP/ZnO/ZnS QDs were integrated in the liquid state on blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as down-converters that led to an external quantum efficiency of 9.4% and a power conversion efficiency of 6.8%, respectively, which is the most efficient QD-LED using type-II QDs. This study pointed out that cadmium-free type-II QDs can reach high efficiency levels, which can stimulate novel forms of devices and nanomaterials for bioimaging, display, and lighting.

3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 217: 112171, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711563

RESUMO

Dual phototherapy agents have attracted great interest in recent years as they offer enhanced cytotoxicity on cancer cells due to the synergistic effect of photodynamic and photothermal therapies (PDT/PTT). In this study, we demonstrate a brominated hemicyanine (HC-1), which is previously shown as mitochondria targeting PDT agent, can also serve as an effective photosensitizer for PTT for the first time under a single (640 nm or 808 nm) and dual laser (640 nm + 808 nm) irradiation. Generation of reactive oxygen species and photothermal conversion as a function of irradiation wavelength and power were studied. Both single wavelength irradiations caused significant phototoxicity in colon and cervical cancer cells after 5 min of irradiation. However, co-irradiation provided near-complete elimination of cancer cells due to synergistic action. This work introduces an easily accessible small molecule-based synergistic phototherapy agent, which holds a great promise towards the realization of local, rapid and highly efficient treatment modalities against cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Lasers , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Carbocianinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 213: 112082, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221627

RESUMO

Multifunctional quantum dots (QDs) with photothermal therapy (PTT) potential loaded with an anticancer drug and labelled with a targeting agent can be highly effective nano-agents for tumour specific, image-guided PTT/chemo combination therapy of cancer. Ag-chalcogenides are promising QDs with good biocompatibility. Ag2S QDs are popular theranostic agents for imaging in near-infrared with PTT potential. However, theranostic applications of AgInS2 QDs emitting in the visible region and its PTT potential need to be explored. Here, we first present a simple synthesis of small, glutathione (GSH) coated AgInS2 QDs with peak emission at 634 nm, 21% quantum yield, and excellent long-term stability without an inorganic shell. Ag2S-GSH QDs emitting in the near-infrared region (peak emission = 822 nm) were also produced. Both QDs were tagged with folic acid (FA) and conjugated with methotrexate (MTX). About 3-fold higher internalization of FA-tagged QDs by folate-receptor (FR) overexpressing HeLa cells than HT29 and A549 cells was observed. Delivery of MTX by QD-FA-MTX reduced the IC50 of the drug from 10 µg/mL to 2.5-5 µg/mL. MTX release was triggered at acidic pH, which was further enhanced with local temperature increase created by laser irradiation. Irradiation of AgInS2-GSH QDs at 640 nm (300 mW) for 10 min, caused about 10 °C temperature increase but did not cause any thermal ablation of cells. On the other hand, Ag2S-GSH-FA based PTT effectively and selectively killed HeLa cells with 10 min 808 nm laser irradiation via mostly necrosis with an IC50 of 5 µg Ag/mL. Under the same conditions, IC50 of MTX was reduced to 0.21 µg/mL if Ag2S-GSH-FA.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Metotrexato/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Prata/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Células HT29 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Terapia Fototérmica , Exposição à Radiação , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(20): 8758-8764, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921048

RESUMO

BiVO4 is one of the most promising photoanode materials for water-splitting systems. Nitrogen incorporation into a BiVO4 surface overcomes the known bottleneck in its charge-transfer kinetics into the electrolyte. We explored the role of nitrogen in the surface charge recombination and charge-transfer kinetics by employing transient photocurrent spectroscopy at the time scale of surface recombination and water oxidation kinetics, transient absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We attributed the activity enhancement mechanism to the accelerated V5+/V4+ redox process, in which incorporated nitrogen suppresses a limiting surface recombination channel by increasing the oxygen vacancies.

6.
Opt Lett ; 45(15): 4104-4107, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735234

RESUMO

We report, for the first time to our knowledge, tunable continuous-wave laser action in the Tm3+:BaY2F8 (BYF) crystal near 2.3 µm. In the experiments, a BYF crystal doped with 3 at. % thulium was end pumped with a narrow-linewidth, tunable Ti3+:sapphire laser with up to 920 mW of incident power. Lasing was achieved for the two pump polarizations of E//x and E//y. The best power performance was obtained in the case of E//x, double-end pumping, where 100 mW of output power was obtained at 2290 nm with 920 mW of pump power and 1% output coupler. The laser could be continuously tuned from 2233 to 2385 nm. Excitation spectra for E//x and E//y pumping were measured in the 760-810 nm range, and the optimum pumping wavelength was determined to be 779 nm for E//x. By using the lifetime and lasing threshold data, the stimulated emission cross section at 2290 nm was further determined to be (0.66±0.06)×10-24m2.

7.
iScience ; 23(7): 101272, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590328

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising building blocks for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). For their widespread use, they need to simultaneously satisfy non-toxic material content, low reabsorption, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and large-scale production. Here, copper doping of zinc carboxylate-passivated InP core and nano-engineering of ZnSe shell facilitated high in-device quantum efficiency of QDs over 80%, having well-matched spectral emission profile with the photo-response of silicon solar cells. The optimized QD-LSCs showed an optical quantum efficiency of 37% and an internal concentration factor of 4.7 for a 10 × 10-cm2 device area under solar illumination, which is comparable with the state-of-the-art LSCs based on cadmium-containing QDs and lead-containing perovskites. Synthesis of the copper-doped InP/ZnSe QDs in gram-scale and large-area deposition (3,000 cm2) onto commercial window glasses via doctor-blade technique showed their scalability for mass production. These results position InP-based QDs as a promising alternative for efficient solar energy harvesting.

8.
Opt Express ; 28(10): 15035-15037, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403536

RESUMO

This joint issue of Optics Express and Optical Materials Express features 17 state-of-the art articles written by authors who participated in the international conference Advanced Solid-State Lasers held in Vienna, Austria, from September 29 to October 3, 2019. This introduction provides a summary of these articles that cover numerous areas of solid-state lasers from materials research to sources and from design to experimental demonstration.

9.
Opt Lett ; 45(7): 1826-1829, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236009

RESUMO

In this Letter, we describe a novel, to the best of our knowledge, device based on micro-structured graphene, referred to as zebra-patterned graphene saturable absorber (ZeGSA), which can be used as a saturable absorber with adjustable loss to initiate femtosecond pulse generation. Femtosecond laser micro-machining was employed to ablate monolayer graphene on an infrasil substrate in the form of stripes with a different duty cycle, resulting in the formation of regions with variable insertion loss in the 0.21%-3.12% range. The mode-locking performance of the device was successfully tested using a ${{\rm Cr}^{4 {+} }}{:}\,{\rm forsterite}$Cr4+:forsterite laser, operating near 1250 nm. In comparison with mode locking using non-ablated graphene, the ZeGSA device with regions of decreasing graphene, enabled improved power performance where the mode-locked output power increased from 68 mW to 114 mW, and the corresponding pulse duration decreased from 62 to 48 fs at the same incident pump power of 6.3 W. These experiments indicate that ZeGSA shows great potential as a laser mode locker with adjustable loss and that it should find applications in the development of femtosecond lasers over a broad spectral range.

10.
Opt Lett ; 45(4): 931-934, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058509

RESUMO

We report efficient lasing of the isotropic ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{{\rm KY}_3}{{\rm F}_{10}}$Tm3+:KY3F10 crystal near 2.3 µm via upconversion pumping with a 1064 nm ytterbium fiber laser as the pump source. When pumped at 1064 nm, an x-cavity ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{{\rm KY}_3}{{\rm F}_{10}}$Tm3+:KY3F10 laser operated at the free-running wavelength of 2344 nm. Lasing was obtained with output couplers having transmissions in the range of 1-3%, and as high as 124 mW of continuous-wave (cw) output power was generated with 604 mW of absorbed pump power by using the 3% output coupler. Broadly tunable cw lasing could be obtained in the 2268-2373 nm wavelength range. An analysis of the experimental power efficiency data shows that nearly all of the absorbed pump photons were converted to 2.3 µm laser output after accounting for the quantum defect of the laser transition and resonator losses. We expect that higher lasing efficiency should be possible by using longer crystals to increase the pump absorption.

11.
Opt Lett ; 45(3): 656-659, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004276

RESUMO

We report experimental demonstration of graphene mode-locked operation of ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{{\rm YLiF}_4}$Tm3+:YLiF4 (YLF) and ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{{\rm KY}_3}{{\rm F}_{10}}$Tm3+:KY3F10 (KYF) lasers near 2.3 µm. To scale up the intracavity pulse energy, the cavity was extended, and double-end pumping was employed with a continuous-wave, tunable ${{\rm Ti}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm sapphire}$Ti3+:sapphire laser delivering up to 1 W near 780 nm. The extended ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm KYF}$Tm3+:KYF laser cavity was purged with dry nitrogen to eliminate pulsing instabilities due to atmospheric absorption lines, but this was not needed in the case of the ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm YLF}$Tm3+:YLF laser. Once initiated by graphene, stable uninterrupted mode-locked operation could be maintained with both lasers. With the extended cavity ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm YLF}$Tm3+:YLF laser, 921 fs pulses were generated at a repetition rate of 17.2 MHz at 2304 nm. 739 fs pulses were obtained at the repetition rate of 54 MHz from the ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm KYF}$Tm3+:KYF laser at 2340 nm. The corresponding pulse energy and peak power were 2.4 nJ and 2.6 kW for the ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm YLF}$Tm3+:YLF laser, and 1.2 nJ and 1.6 kW for the ${{\rm Tm}^{3 + }}\!:\!{\rm KYF}$Tm3+:KYF laser. We foresee that it should be possible to generate shorter pulses at higher pump levels.

12.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111648, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710924

RESUMO

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been recently recognized as highly efficient photothermal therapy (PTT) agents. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, dose and laser intensity dependent PTT potential of small, spherical, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane coated cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (APTMS@SPIONs) in aqueous solutions upon irradiation at 795 nm. Indocyanine green (ICG) which has been recently used for photodynamic therapy (PDT), was loaded to APTMS@SPIONs to improve the stability of ICG and to achieve an effective mild PTT and PDT (dual therapy) combination for synergistic therapeutic effect on cancer cells via a single laser treatment in the near infrared (NIR). Neither APTMS@SPIONs nor ICG-APTMS@SPIONs showed dark toxicity on MCF7 breast and HT29 colon cancer cell lines. A safe laser procedure was determined as 10 min irradiation at 795 nm with 1.8 W/cm2 of laser intensity, at which APTMS@SPION did not cause a significant cell death. However, free ICG reduced cell viability at and above 10 µg/ml under these conditions along with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), more effectively in MCF7. ICG-APTMS@SPION treated cells showed 2-fold increase in ROS generation and near complete cell death at and below 5 µg/ml ICG dose, even in less sensitive HT29 cells after a single laser treatment at NIR, which would be safe for the healthy tissue and provide a longer penetration depth. Besides, both components can be utilized for diagnosis and the overall composition may be used for optical-image guided phototherapy in the NIR region.


Assuntos
Verde de Indocianina/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/toxicidade , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fototerapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura
13.
Opt Lett ; 44(19): 4662-4665, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568411

RESUMO

We report the shortest femtosecond pulses directly generated from a solid-state laser that is mode locked by using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). In the experiments, we used a 660 nm diode-pumped, low-threshold extended-cavity Cr:LiSAF laser operating around 850 nm with a repetition rate of 47.9 MHz. The SWCNT-SA mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser produced 21 fs pulses with a time-bandwidth product of 0.56 by using only 210 mW of pump power. Pump-probe spectroscopy measurements showed that the SWCNT-SA exhibited saturable absorption with slow and fast decay times of 2.7 ps and 0.4 ps. The single-pass modulation depth and saturation fluence of the SWCNT-SA were further determined as 0.3% and 45 µJ/cm2 at the pump wavelength of 850 nm.

14.
Opt Lett ; 44(13): 3242-3245, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259931

RESUMO

We report continuous-wave lasing demonstration of a Tm3+:KY3F10 crystalline gain medium at 2343 nm. A narrow-linewidth, tunable, continuous-wave Ti3+:sapphire laser was used to end pump a Tm3+:KY3F10 crystal with thulium doping of 8 at. %. With 1 W of pump power, the resonator with a 1% output coupler generated output powers of 31 and 122 mW in single-pumping and double-pumping configurations, respectively. Excitation efficiency of the laser was investigated for pump wavelengths in the 765-806 nm range. Four pump bands were identified in this wavelength range, with the two most efficient pump bands centered at 773 and 778 nm. The output of the laser could be tuned smoothly and continuously over a spectral width of 125 nm from 2260 to 2385 nm. The lifetime of the H43 level was further measured to be 16 µs, and the emission cross section was determined based on lasing threshold measurements.

15.
Opt Lett ; 43(16): 3969-3972, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106928

RESUMO

We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, graphene mode-locked operation of a femtosecond Alexandrite laser at 750 nm. A multipass-cavity configuration was employed to scale the output energy and to eliminate spectral/Q-switching instabilities. By using a monolayer graphene saturable absorber, mode locking could be obtained. With 5 W of pump at 532 nm, nearly transform-limited, 65 fs pulses with a time-bandwidth product of 0.319 were generated. The mode-locked laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 5.56 MHz and produced 8 mW output power, corresponding to a pulse energy and peak power of 1.4 nJ and 22 kW, respectively. These experiments further show that graphene can be used to initiate mode locking at wavelengths as low as 750 nm.

16.
Opt Lett ; 43(6): 1315-1318, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543280

RESUMO

We report, to the best of our knowledge, the shortest femtosecond pulses generated from a Kerr-lens mode-locked (KLM) Alexandrite laser operating near 750 nm. The Alexandrite gain medium was pumped with a continuous-wave (cw), 532 nm laser, and the performance of both the short and extended resonators was investigated. The use of an extended cavity eliminated the multi-wavelength spectral instabilities observed during the cw operation of the short cavity. Furthermore, since the repetition rate of the Alexandrite laser was reduced from 107 to 5.6 MHz, the resulting increase in the intracavity pulse energy provided enhanced Kerr nonlinearity and eliminated the Q-switching instabilities during mode-locked operation. The KLM MPC Alexandrite laser produced nearly transform-limited, 70 fs pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 5.6 MHz with only 1 W of pump power. The time-bandwidth product was further measured to be 0.331.

17.
Appl Opt ; 57(8): 1772-1776, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521958

RESUMO

We report on an experimental demonstration of a 1200-nm pumped Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramic laser. By using a gain-switched, tunable Cr4+:forsterite laser, the excitation spectrum was measured, with optimum pumping bands centered near 1198 nm, 1204 nm, and 1211 nm. The highest slope efficiency of 21.5% was obtained at the pump wavelength of 1204 nm. Comparative energy efficiency measurements performed near 1200-nm and 800-nm pumping further showed that nearly 40% improvement was obtained in slope efficiency measured with respect to the incident pump energy for 1200-nm pumping. A transition was further observed from single-wavelength operation at 2066 nm to dual-wavelength operation near 2066 nm and 1967 nm for absorbed pump energies above 50 µJ. In this regime, two consecutive output pulses were observed in the time domain. The shortest temporal duration of the first pulse was 1.1 µs at the incident pulse energy of 105 µJ. The duration and build-up time of the second pulse remained around 5.9 µs and 18.5 µs. We believe that the improved energy efficiency demonstrated for the 1.5% Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramic with 1200-nm pumping can be used as an alternative scheme for the excitation of Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers.

18.
Opt Lett ; 42(19): 3964-3967, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957173

RESUMO

We report what is to our knowledge a new source of femtosecond pulses in the mid-infrared, based on a Kerr-lens mode-locked (KLM) Tm3+:YLF laser at 2303 nm. An undoped ZnSe substrate was included in the resonator to provide enhanced nonlinear phase modulation during KLM operation. The Tm3+:YLF laser was end-pumped with a continuous-wave Ti3+ : sapphire laser at 780 nm. With 880 mW of pump power, we generated 514-fs pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 41.5 MHz with an average power of 14.4 mW. The spectral width (full width at half-maximum) was measured as 15.4 nm, giving a time-bandwidth product of 0.44. We foresee that the wide availability of this gain medium, as well as the straightforward pumping scheme near 800 nm, will make 2.3-µm, mode-locked Tm3+:YLF lasers versatile sources of ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared.

19.
Opt Lett ; 42(10): 1935-1938, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504763

RESUMO

We present a novel multi-pass cavity design based on the use of a rotationally symmetric end mirror having a specifically designed spherical aberration so that its focal length varies inversely as the ray height from the optical axis. We provide a detailed discussion of how ray tracing can be done for this system and show with numerical simulations that a very rich set of exotic spot patterns can be formed on the end mirrors. We further show a specific q-preserving configuration where the q-parameters of the input and output beams remain the same. Finally, we derive the polar form of the mirror surface profile that gives this offset-dependent focal length.

20.
Opt Lett ; 42(7): 1404-1407, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362780

RESUMO

We experimentally show that a voltage-controlled graphene-gold supercapacitor saturable absorber (VCG-gold-SA) can be operated as a fast saturable absorber with adjustable linear absorption at wavelengths as low as 795 nm. This was made possible by the use of a novel supercapacitor architecture, consisting of a high-dielectric electrolyte sandwiched between a graphene and a gold electrode. The high-dielectric electrolyte allowed continuous, reversible adjustment of the Fermi level and, hence, the optical loss of the VCG-gold-SA up to the visible wavelengths at low bias voltages of the order of a few volts (0-2 V). The fast saturable absorber action of the VCG-gold-SA and the bias-dependent reduction of its loss were successfully demonstrated inside a femtosecond Ti3+:sapphire laser operating near 800 nm. Dispersion compensation was employed by using dispersion control mirrors and a prism pair. At a bias voltage of 1.2 V, the laser operated with improved power performance in comparison with that at zero bias, and the VCG-gold-SA initiated the generation of nearly transform-limited pulses as short as 48 fs at a pulse repetition rate of 131.7 MHz near 830 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the shortest wavelength where a VCG-gold-SA has been employed as a mode locker with adjustable loss.

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