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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(15): 1795-1807, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032741

RESUMO

The significant morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) justify the search for novel therapeutic agents. Reduced cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels contribute to HF progression. Among molecules modulating the nitric oxide (NO)-GMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) pathway, the evaluation of nitrates, synthetic natriuretic peptides (NP), and NP analogs has yielded mixed results. Conversely, sacubitril/valsartan, combining NP degradation inhibition through neprilysin and angiotensin receptor blockade, has led to groundbreaking findings in HFrEF. Other strategies to increase tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate have been attempted, such as PDE-3 or PDE-5 inhibition (with negative or neutral results), NO-independent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation, or enhancement of sGC sensitivity to endogenous NO. Following the positive results of the phase 3 VICTORIA (A Study of Vericiguat in Participants With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction) trial on the sGC stimulator vericiguat in HFrEF, the main open questions are the efficacy of the sacubitril/valsartan-vericiguat combination in HFrEF and of vericiguat in HFpEF.

2.
Digit Biomark ; 4(2): 45-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083685

RESUMO

Aims: Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 26 million people worldwide. With an aging global population, innovative approaches to HF evaluation and management are needed to cope with the worsening HF epidemic. The aim of the Real-Life Multimarker Monitoring in Patients with Heart Failure (REALIsM-HF) study (NCT03507439) is to evaluate a composite instrument comprising remote, real-time, activity-monitoring devices combined with daily electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) items in patients who have been hospitalized for HF and are undergoing standard HF assessment (e.g., 6-min walking distance [6MWD], blood biomarkers, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ], and echocardiography). Methods: REALIsM-HF is an ongoing, 12-week, observational study enrolling 80-100 patients aged ≥45 years with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; EF ≥45%) or reduced EF (HFrEF; EF ≤35%). Statistical analyses will include examining the association between data from wearables (the AVIVO© mobile patient management patch or VitalPatch© biosensor, and the DynaPort MoveMonitor©), daily ePROs, and conventional HF metrics (e.g., serum/plasma biomarkers, 6MWD, KCCQ, and echocardiographic parameters). The feasibility of and patient compliance with at-home devices will be documented, and the data captured for the purpose of establishing reference values in patients with HFpEF or HFrEF will be summarized. Conclusions: The REALIsM-HF study is to evaluate the longitudinal daily activity profiles of patients with HF and correlate these with changes in serum/plasma biomarker profiles, symptoms, quality of life, and cardiac function and morphology to inform the use of wearable activity monitors for developing novel therapies and managing patients.

3.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic was associated with changes in the pattern of acute cardiovascular admissions across European centres. METHODS: We set-up a multi-centre, multi-national, pan-European observational registry in 15 centres from 12 countries. All consecutive acute admissions to emergency departments and cardiology departments throughout a 1-month period during the COVID-19 outbreak were compared with an equivalent 1-month period in 2019. The acute admissions to cardiology departments were classified into 5 major categories: acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism and other. RESULTS: Data from 54331 patients were collected and analysed. Nine centres provided data on acute admissions to emergency departments comprising 50384 patients: 20226 in 2020 vs 30158 in 2019 - incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.66(0.58-0.76). The risk of death at the emergency departments was higher in 2020 vs 2019: odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI: 4.1(3.0-5.8), P<0.0001. All 15 centers provided data on acute cardiology departments admissions: 3007 patients in 2020 vs 4452 in 2019, respectively, IRR(95%CI): 0.68(0.64-0.71). In 2020, there were less admissions with IRR(95%CI): acute coronary syndrome: 0.68(0.63-0.73), acute heart failure: 0.65(0.58-0.74), arrhythmia: 0.66(0.60-0.72), other: 0.68(0.62-0.76); we found a relatively higher percentage of pulmonary embolism admissions in 2020: OR(95%CI): 1.5(1.1-2.1), P=0.02. Among patients with acute coronary syndrome there were fewer admissions with unstable angina: 0.79(0.66-0.94), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.56(0.50-0.64) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.78(0.68-0.89). CONCLUSION: In the European centres during the COVID-19 outbreak, there were fewer acute cardiovascular admissions. Also, fewer patients were admitted to the emergency departments with 4-times higher death risk at the emergency departments.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845276

RESUMO

Importance: Myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, has been associated with mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the initial data were reported from single-center or 2-center studies in Chinese populations. Compared with these patients, European and US patients are older, with more comorbidities and higher mortality rates. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, in a large population of White Italian patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 13 Italian cardiology units from March 1 to April 9, 2020. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Elevated troponin levels were defined as values greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and outcomes stratified as elevated or normal cardiac troponin levels at admission, defined as troponin T or troponin I at a level greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. Results: A total of 614 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study (mean age [SD], 67 [13] years; 70.8% male), of whom 148 patients (24.1%) died during the hospitalization. Elevated troponin levels were found in 278 patients (45.3%). These patients were older (mean [SD] age, 64.0 [13.6] years vs 71.3 [12.0] years; P < .001) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (168 patients [50.5%] vs 182 patients [65.9%]; P < .001), heart failure (24 [7.2%]; 63 [22.8%]; P < .001), coronary artery disease (50 [15.0%] vs 87 [31.5%]; P < .001), and atrial fibrillation (33 [9.9%] vs 67 [24.3%]; P < .001). Elevated troponin levels were associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (37% vs 13%; HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.59]; P = .01 via multivariable Cox regression analysis), and this was independent from concomitant cardiac disease. Elevated troponin levels were also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital complications: heart failure (44 patients [19.2%] vs 7 patients [2.9%]; P < .001), sepsis (31 [11.7%] vs 21 [6.4%]; P = .03), acute kidney failure (41 [20.8%] vs 13 [6.2%]; P < .001), multiorgan failure (21 [10.9%] vs 6 [2.9%]; P = .003), pulmonary embolism (27 [9.9%] vs 17 [5.2%]; P = .04), delirium (13 [6.8%] vs 3 [1.5%]; P = .02), and major bleeding (16 [7.0%] vs 4 [1.6%]; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter, cross-sectional study of Italian patients with COVID-19, elevated troponin was an independent variable associated with in-hospital mortality and a greater risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular complications during a hospitalization for COVID-19.

7.
Circulation ; 142(13): 1236-1245, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease is common and associated with a higher risk of renal events than in patients without chronic kidney disease. We assessed the renal effects of angiotensin/neprilysin inhibition in patients who have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, event-driven trial, we assigned 4822 patients who had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to receive sacubitril/valsartan (n=2419) or valsartan (n=2403). Herein, we present the results of the prespecified renal composite outcome (time to first occurrence of either: ≥50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), end-stage renal disease, or death from renal causes), the individual components of this composite, and the influence of therapy on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At randomization, eGFR was 63±19 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. At study closure, the composite renal outcome occurred in 33 patients (1.4%) assigned to sacubitril/valsartan and 64 patients (2.7%) assigned to valsartan (hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.33-0.77]; P=0.001). The treatment effect on the composite renal end point did not differ according to the baseline eGFR (<60 versus ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (P-interaction=0.92). The decline in eGFR was less for sacubitril/valsartan than for valsartan (-2.0 [95% CI, -2.2 to -1.9] versus -2.7 [95% CI, -2.8 to -2.5] mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 per year). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of renal events, and slowed decline in eGFR, in comparison with valsartan. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 822-833, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and determined patient characteristics associated with favorable NT-proBNP reduction response. BACKGROUND: NT-proBNP levels reflect cardiac wall stress and predict event risk in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the TRANSITION (Comparison of Pre- and Post-discharge Initiation of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy in HFrEF Patients After an Acute Decompensation Event) study, including stabilized ADHF patients with reduced ejection fraction, randomized to open-label sacubitril/valsartan initiation in-hospital (pre-discharge) versus post-discharge. NT-proBNP was measured at randomization (baseline), discharge, and 4 and 10 weeks post-randomization. A favorable NT-proBNP response was defined as reduction to ≤1,000 pg/ml or >30% from baseline. RESULTS: In patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan in-hospital, NT-proBNP was reduced by 28% at discharge, with 46% of patients obtaining favorable NT-proBNP reduction response compared with a 4% reduction and 18% favorable response rate in patients initiated post-discharge (p < 0.001). NT-proBNP was reduced similarly in patients initiating sacubitril/valsartan pre- and post-discharge (reduction at 4 weeks: 25%/22%; 10 weeks: 38%/34%) with comparable favorable response rates (46%/42% and 51%/48% at 4 and 10 weeks, respectively). NT-proBNP favorable response at 4 weeks was associated with lower risk of first heart failure (HF) rehospitalization or cardiovascular death through 26 weeks (hazard ratio: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 to 0.86; p = 0.007). Predictors of a favorable response at 4 weeks were starting dose ≥49/51 mg twice daily, higher baseline NT-proBNP, lower baseline serum creatinine, de novo HF, no atrial fibrillation, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-naive or angiotensin receptor blocker-naive, and no prior myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan produced rapid reductions in NT-proBNP, statistically significant at discharge. A favorable NT-proBNP response over time was associated with a better prognosis and predicted by higher starting dose and predisposing clinical profile. (Comparison of Pre- and Post-discharge Initiation of LCZ696 Therapy in HFrEF Patients After an Acute Decompensation Event [TRANSITION]; NCT02661217).

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(7): 1065-1075, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654354

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a chronic cardiac condition whose prevalence continues to rise, with high social and economic burden, but with no specific approved treatment. Patients diagnosed with HFpEF have a high prevalence of comorbidities and exhibit a high misdiagnosis rate. True HFpEF is likely to have multiple pathophysiological causes - with these causes being clinically ill-defined due to limitations of current measurement techniques. Myocyte, interstitium, microvascular, and metabolic abnormalities have been regarded as key components of the pathophysiology and potential therapeutic targets. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has the capability to look deeper with a number of tissue characterization techniques which are closer to the underlying specific abnormalities and which could be linked to personalized medicine for HFpEF. This review aims to discuss the potential role of CMR to better define HFpEF phenotypes and to infer measurable therapeutic targets.

12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562382

RESUMO

AIMS: We aim to assess the reproducibility of QRS fragmentation (fQRS) on a multi-centre dataset of patients with acute myocarditis (AM), including a histopathological validation in a subgroup with biopsy-proven disease. Electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with myocarditis is usually considered aspecific. ST changes and conduction anomalies have been commonly reported so far. We have previously described fQRS in patients with AM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients admitted between 2008 and 2019 in two centres with a diagnosis of AM were included. Standard ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings were recorded at baseline and at follow-up (FU). Eighty patients were analysed, 66 men (82%), with median age of 34 (26-43) years. Twenty-two patients had biopsy-proven AM. At presentation, 61 patients (76%) displayed fQRS. Median ejection fraction (EF) was 55% (43-60). Seventy-two patients (90%) underwent CMR and displayed late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). ECG leads showed that fQRS correlated with distribution of LGE. In patients with positive biopsy, fQRS was present in 18 (81%). Median FU was 419 days (224-956). Complete FU was available for 64 patients (80%), and 33 patients (52%) displayed persistence of fQRS. Median EF was 60% (57-64). Eleven patients underwent a repeated biopsy at FU, eight of whom had persistent inflammation and fQRS. Fifteen patients (23%) had ventricular tachycardia, 14 of whom still showed fQRS. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort fQRS was confirmed as an additional useful ECG sign. Persistence of fQRS was associated with ongoing inflammation and with a poorer outcome in terms of ventricular function and occurrence of arrhythmias.

13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(7): 530-536, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555572

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines, while representing an objective reference to perform appropriate treatment choices, contain grey zones, where recommendations are not supported by solid evidence. In a conference held in Bergamo in October 2018, an attempt was made to highlight some of the main gray zones in Cardiology and, through a comparison between experts, to draw shared conclusions that can illuminate our clinical practice. This manuscript contains the statements of the symposium concerning the controversies regarding dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The manuscript represents the organization of the meeting, with an initial review of current guidelines on this topic, followed by an expert presentation of pros (white) and cons (black) related to the identified "gaps of evidence". For every issue is then reported the response derived from the votes of the experts and the public, the discussion and, finally, the highlights, which are intended as practical "take home messages" to be used in everyday clinical practice. The first topic concerns the utility of scores to shorten the duration of DAPT in patients at high bleeding risk. The second issue examines the appropriateness of the level of evidence to prolong DAPT beyond 1 year in patients at high ischemic risk. The last "gap in evidence" concerns the possibility of adopting the single antiplatelet therapy plus an anticoagulant vs the triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome. The work has also been implemented with evidences deriving from important randomized studies published after the date of the Conference.

14.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556671

RESUMO

The remarkable scientific progress in the treatment of patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has more than halved the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in this setting. However, SCD remains one of the major causes of death in this patient population. Beyond the acknowledged role of beta blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a new class of drugs, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), proved to reduce the overall cardiovascular mortality and, more specifically, the risk of SCD in HFrEF patients. The mechanism by which ARNI may reduce the mortality connected with harmful ventricular arrhythmias is not utterly clear. A variety of direct and indirect mechanisms have been suggested, but a favorable left ventricular reverse remodeling seems to play a key role in this setting. Furthermore, the well-known protective effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been debated in HFrEF patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) arguing against the role of primary prevention ICD in this setting, particularly when ARNI therapy is considered. The purpose of this review was to provide insights into the SCD mechanisms involved in HFrEF patients together with the current role of electrical therapies and new drug agents in this setting. Graphical abstract.

15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557094

RESUMO

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and neurocognitive impairment (NI) are a typical feature of HF (heart failure), especially with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). So far, very few data exist regarding changes in the severity of SDB, the degree of NI, and the diastolic function in acute HF (AHF) patients and during follow up. In a population of 24 AHF patients (12 with reduced ejection fraction-HFrEF- and 12 HFpEF) with SDB a complete echocardiogram, a set of NI tests, and a polysomnography were performed in the acute phase and after 90 days. A control group of 12 non-HF patients hospitalized for other cardiovascular causes was considered. At baseline, SDB were present both in HFpEF and HFrEF, and a consistent reduction of apneic events was observed at follow up. Improvements in diastolic and right ventricular function were documented at three months compared to baseline, both in HFpEF and in HFrEF. Compared to HFrEF patients and controls, HFpEF patients showed lower NI scores at baseline tests, but a more significant improvement at three months follow-up. In AHF patients with SDB the achievement of a better compensation could lead to important beneficial effect not only on echocardiographic variables and nocturnal respiratory profile, but also on NI, especially in HFpEF.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401833

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and United States. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(6): 941-956, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463543

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and the Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
18.
J Card Fail ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) represents a heterogeneous category where phenotype, as well as prognostic assessment, remains debated. The present study explores a specific HFmrEF subset, namely those who recovered from a reduced EF (rec-HFmrEF) and, particularly, it focuses on the possible additive prognostic role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 4535 patients with HFrEF and 1176 patients with rec-HFmrEF from the Metabolic Exercise combined with Cardiac and Kidney Indexes database. The end point was cardiovascular death at 5 years. The median follow-up was 1343 days (25th-75th range 627-2403 days). Cardiovascular death occurred in 552 HFrEF and 61 rec-HFmrEF patients. The multivariate analysis confirmed an independent role of the MECKI score's variables in HFrEF (C-index = 0.744) whereas, in the rec-HFmrEF group, only age and peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) remained associated to the end point (C-index = 0.745). A peak oxygen uptake of ≤55% of predicted and a ventilatory efficiency of ≥31 resulted as the most accurate cut-off values in the outcome prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Present data support the cardiopulmonary exercise test and, particularly, the peak oxygen uptake, as a useful tool in the rec-HFmrEF prognostic assessment. A peak VO2 of ≤55% predicted and ventilatory efficiency of ≥31 might help to identify a high-risk rec-HFmrEF subgroup.

19.
Am Heart J ; 224: 129-137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiac remodeling is a major risk factor for the development of post myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure (HF). This study investigates the effects of the chymase inhibitor fulacimstat on adverse cardiac remodeling after acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial patients with first STEMI were eligible. To preferentially enrich patients at high risk of adverse remodeling, main inclusion criteria were a left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% and an infarct size >10% on day 5 to 9 post MI as measured by cardiac MRI. Patients were then randomized to 6 months treatment with either 25 mg fulacimstat (n = 54) or placebo (n = 53) twice daily on top of standard of care starting day 6 to 12 post MI. The changes in LVEF, LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), and LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) from baseline to 6 months were analyzed by a central blinded cardiac MRI core laboratory. RESULTS: Fulacimstat was safe and well tolerated and achieved mean total trough concentrations that were approximately tenfold higher than those predicted to be required for minimal therapeutic activity. Comparable changes in LVEF (fulacimstat: 3.5% ±â€¯5.4%, placebo: 4.0% ±â€¯5.0%, P = .69), LVEDVI (fulacimstat: 7.3 ±â€¯13.3 mL/m2, placebo: 5.1 ±â€¯18.9 mL/m2, P = .54), and LVESVI (fulacimstat: 2.3 ±â€¯11.2 mL/m2, placebo: 0.6 ±â€¯14.8 mL/m2, P = .56) were observed in both treatment arms. CONCLUSION: Fulacimstat was safe and well tolerated in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD) after first STEMI but had no effect on cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Quimases/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 18(1): 17, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466790

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to determine which echocardiographic markers of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and diastolic dysfunction can contribute as incremental and independent prognostic information in addition to current clinical risk markers of ischemic LV systolic dysfunction in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 1511 of 2136 patients in STICH for whom baseline transmitral Doppler (E/A ratio) could be measured by an echocardiographic core laboratory blinded to treatment and outcomes, and prognostic value of echocardiographic variables was determined by a Cox regression model. E/A ratio was the most significant predictor of mortality amongst diastolic variables with lowest mortality for E/A closest 0.8, although mortality was consistently low for E/A 0.6 to 1.0. Mortality increased for E/A < 0.6 and > 1.0 up to approximately 2.3, beyond which there was no further increase in risk. Larger LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) and E/A < 0.6 and > 1.0 had incremental negative effects on mortality when added to a clinical multivariable model, where creatinine, LVESVI, age, and E/A ratio accounted for 74% of the prognostic information for predicting risk. LVESVI and E/A ratio were stronger predictors of prognosis than New York Heart Association functional class, anemia, diabetes, history of atrial fibrillation, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic markers of advanced LV remodeling and diastolic dysfunction added incremental prognostic value to current clinical risk markers. LVESVI and E/A ratio outperformed other markers and should be considered as standard in assessing risks in ischemic heart failure. E/A closest to 0.8 was the most optimal filling pattern.

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