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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of various breast-cancer treatments on patients with a BRCA2 mutation has not been studied. We sought to estimate the impact of bilateral oophorectomy and other treatments on breast cancer-specific survival among patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: We identified 664 women with stage I-III breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation by combining five different datasets (retrospective and prospective). Subjects were followed for 7.2 years from diagnosis to death from breast cancer. Tumour characteristics and cancer treatments were patient-reported and derived from medical records. Predictors of survival were determined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for other treatments and for prognostic features. RESULTS: The 10-year breast-cancer survival for ER-positive patients was 78.9% and for ER-negative patients was 82.3% (adjusted HR = 1.23 (95% CI, 0.62-2.45, p = 0.55)). The 10-year breast-cancer survival for women who had a bilateral oophorectomy was 89.1% and for women who did not have an oophorectomy was 59.0% (adjusted HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.72, p = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for chemotherapy was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65-1.53: p = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: For women with breast cancer and a germline BRCA2 mutation, positive ER status does not predict superior survival. Oophorectomy is associated with a reduced risk of death from breast cancer and should be considered in the treatment plan.

2.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142025

RESUMO

Cascade genetic testing is essential to clarify cancer risk in families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) due to pathogenic variants (PVs) in BRCA1 or BRCA2. To date, data suggest that family communication of genetic testing results, with or without the aid of clinical resources such as a provider-written family letter, is impacted by multiple barriers. These barriers eventually lead to sub-optimal uptake of cascade genetic testing. We designed a 2-min animated video that a proband can share with relatives to notify them that the proband has tested positive for a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2. We studied the video via hypothetical scenario in an unselected population to simulate the process by which a relative receives unsolicited genetics information about their family member. We assessed the impact of the video on three specific domains: knowledge, cognitive message processing, and affective reactions. A total of 399 participants recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the study, and 373 were analyzed. The video significantly improved content knowledge/recall (p < .0001) from pre- to post-video viewing, indicating effective message communication. Items used to measure cognitive processing showed preliminary tendencies toward systematic message processing, which could be desired in familial communication aimed at initiating a specific action-in this case, cascade genetic testing. A majority of participants (66%) reported positive affective reaction as they indicated that they would feel gratitude if they received the video message from a relative, and did not evidence a negative affective reaction to receiving the information. Our data suggest that a video message can effectively communicate information about cascade genetic testing to potential relatives with as little as two minutes of content. Our data suggest that video messaging to assist family communication is a reasonable approach that increases understanding and is unlikely to cause harm.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 820-826, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.

4.
J Genet Couns ; 29(6): 884-887, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969094

RESUMO

To help advance research critical to the achievement of the National Society of Genetic Counselors' (NSGC) strategic objectives, coordination and prioritization of society resources are needed. NSGC convened a task force to advance research necessary for the achievement of our strategic objectives by reviewing existing society-supported research efforts identifying gaps in current research, and coordinating society resources, the task force was formed in order to coordinate and prioritize society resources to advance research critical to the achievement of our strategic objectives. The task force developed a research agenda outlining high-priority research questions for the next 5 years. The questions are organized into four domains: (a) Genetic Counseling Clients; (b) Genetic Counseling Process and Outcomes; (c) Value of Genetic Counseling Services; and (d) Access to Genetic Counseling Services. This framework can be used to advocate for research and funding priorities within NSGC and with other key research entities to stimulate the growth and advancement of the genetic counseling profession.

5.
Surg Oncol ; 34: 40-45, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A pathologic chemotherapy response score (CRS) is used to grade ovarian cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). We evaluated the prognostic significance of the CRS in a single institution cohort. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive epithelial ovarian cancer patients undergoing interval debulking surgery (IDS) after NACT from 2016 to 2017 were included. Clinical, pathologic, surgical, outcomes, and genetic data were abstracted from medical records. CRS was assigned by pathology based on a section of omentum as follows: 1 = minimal response, 2 = moderate response, and 3 = near complete response. RESULTS: Among the 50 subjects, 14 (28%) were classified as CRS1, 29 (58%) as CRS2, and 7 (14%) as CRS3. The majority of patients were diagnosed with high grade serous histology (94%). Most women in this cohort underwent either an optimal or complete cytoreduction to no gross residual disease (96%). Women in the CRS2 group were most likely to have a pathogenic variant (51.7%) while those in the CRS1 were least likely (7.1%). Most women recurred regardless of CRS. CRS was not associated with progression-free survival (log-rank p = 0.82) or overall survival (log-rank p = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Though previous data support the use of CRS as a prognostic indicator, we failed to show a correlation between CRS and survival in our continuous single institution cohort. The high rate of optimal debulking across all CRS groups in this study may mitigate the prognostic significance of the scoring system. Nevertheless, tumors that respond poorly to traditional chemotherapy should remain of avid interest for potential novel therapies.

6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(10): 1569-1575, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Niraparib maintenance after frontline chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer extends progression free survival. The objective of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of niraparib maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. METHODS: Decision analysis models compared the cost of observation versus niraparib maintenance following chemotherapy for five groups: all newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients (overall), those with homologous recombination deficiency, those harboring BRCA mutations (BRCA), homologous recombination deficiency patients without BRCA mutations (homologous recombination deficiency non-BRCA), and non-homologous recombination deficiency patients. Drug costs were estimated using average wholesale prices. Progression free survival was estimated from published data and used to estimate projected overall survival. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios per quality adjusted life year were calculated. Sensitivity analyses varying the cost of niraparib were performed. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set at US$100 000 per quality adjusted life year saved. RESULTS: For the overall group, the cost of observation was US$5.8 billion versus $20.5 billion for niraparib maintenance, with an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $72 829. For the homologous recombination deficiency group, the observation cost was $3.0 billion versus $14.8 billion for niraparib maintenance (incremental cost effectiveness ratio $56 329). Incremental cost effectiveness ratios for the BRCA, homologous recombination deficiency non-BRCA, and non-homologous recombination deficiency groups were $58 348, $50 914, and $88 741, respectively. For the overall and homologous recombination deficiency groups, niraparib remained cost effective if projected overall survival was 2.2 and 1.5 times progression free survival, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer, maintenance therapy with niraparib was cost effective. Cost effectiveness was improved when analyzing those patients with homologous recombination deficiency and BRCA mutations. Efforts should continue to optimize poly-ADP-ribose polymerase utilization strategies.

7.
Menopause ; 27(12): 1396-1402, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (oophorectomy) is recommended to women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation before natural menopause to prevent ovarian and fallopian tube cancer. The adverse effects of early surgical menopause are well established. Although many of the side effects can be ameliorated by the use of hormone therapy (HT); use of HT in this group of predominantly young patients remains suboptimal. The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of HT use, as well as predictors of HT uptake in BRCA mutation carriers who underwent preventive oophorectomy before natural menopause. METHODS: Eligible participants were identified from a longitudinal study of BRCA mutation carriers. We included premenopausal women with no personal history of cancer who underwent oophorectomy before age 50 and who had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Detailed information on HT use and other important variables was collected by a research questionnaire every 2 years. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the use of HT in various subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 793 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were included in this analysis. The mean age at oophorectomy was 42 years (range 28-49). Sixty-one percent of the women reported using HT after oophorectomy. Factors associated with HT use included young age at surgery, a high level of education and preventive mastectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of HT after oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation varies by age, education, and surgical history. Clinician and patient awareness may lead to better utilization of HT in women who undergo oophorectomy at an early age to help mitigate the adverse effects associated with surgical menopause.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3981, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769997

RESUMO

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Tireotropina/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Bócio/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tireoglobulina/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 389, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patient psychological factors, perceptions, and comprehension of tumor genomic testing. METHODS: In a prospective, single institution, single-arm trial, patients with MBC underwent next-generation sequencing at study entry with sequencing results released at progression. Patients who completed surveys before undergoing sequencing were included in the present secondary analysis (n = 58). We administered four validated psychosocial measures: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Trust in Physician Scale, and Communication and Attitudinal Self-Efficacy scale for Cancer. Genetic comprehension was assessed using 7-question objective and 6-question subjective measures. Longitudinal data were assessed (n = 40) using paired Wilcoxon signed rank and McNemar's test of agreement. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the beginning and end of study in depression, anxiety, physician trust, or self-efficacy (median time on study: 7.6 months). Depression and anxiety were positively associated with each other and both negatively associated with self-efficacy. Self-efficacy decreased from pre- to post-genomic testing (p = 0.05). Objective genetics comprehension did not significantly change from pre- to post-genomic testing, but patients expressed increased confidence in their ability to teach others about genetics (p = 0.04). Objective comprehension was significantly lower in non-white patients (p = 0.02) and patients with lower income (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This is the only study, to our knowledge, to longitudinally evaluate multiple psychological metrics in MBC as patients undergo tumor genomic testing. Overall, psychological dimensions remained stable over the duration of tumor genomic testing. Among patients with MBC, depression and anxiety metrics were negatively correlated with patient self-efficacy. Patients undergoing somatic genomic testing had limited genomic knowledge, which varied by demographic groups and may warrant additional educational intervention. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: NCT01987726, registered November 13, 2013.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(3): 706-710, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association between hormone replacement therapy and the incidence of subsequent malignancies in patients who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and had mutations predisposing them to Müllerian cancers. METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study was performed at five academic institutions. Women were included if they were age 18-51 years, had one or more confirmed germline highly penetrant pathogenic variants, and underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Patients with a prior malignancy were excluded. Clinicodemographic data were collected by chart review. Patients with no documented contact for one year prior to study termination were called to confirm duration of hormone use and occurrence of secondary outcomes. Hormone replacement therapy included any combination of estrogen or progesterone. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 159 women, of which 82 received hormone replacement therapy and 77 did not. In both groups an average of 6 years since risk reduction had passed. The patients treated with hormone replacement therapy did not have a higher risk of subsequent malignancy than those not treated with hormone replacement therapy (6 out of 82 vs. 7 out of 77, P = .68). Patients who received hormone replacement therapy were younger than those who did not receive hormone replacement therapy (39.0 vs. 43.9 years, P < .01) and were more likely to have undergone other risk reductive procedures including mastectomy and/or hysterectomy, though this difference was not statistically significant (69.5% vs. 55.8%, P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-institution retrospective study of data from patients with high-risk variant carriers who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of malignancy between women who did and did not receive hormone replacement therapy.

11.
Menopause ; 27(2): 156-161, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers are advised to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent ovarian cancer. The abrupt hormonal withdrawal associated with early surgical menopause has been shown to increase the risk of depression and anxiety among women in the general population. The impact in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not known. METHODS: We undertook a matched prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on self-reported initiation of antidepressant use. We identified women with no personal history of cancer or depression and prospectively evaluated the frequency of self-reported medication use after surgery. Each exposed participant (oophorectomy) was randomly matched to a control participant (no oophorectomy) according to year of birth (within 3 years), BRCA mutation type (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and country of residence (Canada, United States, Poland). A total of 506 matched sets were included. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of antidepressant use (ever/never) following preventive oophorectomy in the entire study population and stratified by age at oophorectomy and by use of hormone therapy. RESULTS: Oophorectomy was not associated with more frequent antidepressant use among BRCA mutation carriers (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). We observed reductions in the odds of antidepressant medication use among women who underwent oophorectomy before the age of 50 years (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78) and among those who initiated hormone therapy use after oophorectomy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.90). Findings were similar when the analysis was based on self-reported depression (rather than antidepressant use). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small number of women, these findings suggest that oophorectomy does not increase psychological distress among women at an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/psicologia , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(2): 337-346, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418620

RESUMO

Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) are increasingly used to reduce breast and ovarian cancer risk following BRCA1/BRCA2 testing. However, little is known about how genetic counseling influences decisions about these surgeries. Although previous studies have examined intentions prior to counseling, few have examined RRM and RRSO intentions in the critical window between genetic counseling and test result disclosure. Previous research has indicated that intentions at this time point predict subsequent uptake of surgery, suggesting that much decision-making has taken place prior to result disclosure. This period may be a critical time to better understand the drivers of prophylactic surgery intentions. The aim of this study was to examine predictors of RRM and RRSO intentions. We hypothesized that variables from the Health Belief Model would predict intentions, and we also examined the role of affective factors. Participants were 187 women, age 21-75, who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. We utilized multiple logistic regression to identify independent predictors of intentions. 49.2% and 61.3% of participants reported intentions for RRM and RRSO, respectively. Variables associated with RRM intentions include: newly diagnosed with breast cancer (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.20-11.04), perceived breast cancer risk (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.17-1.81), perceived pros (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.38-2.32) and cons of RRM (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65-0.996), and decision conflict (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.98). Variables associated with RRSO intentions include: proband status (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89), perceived pros (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.63) and cons of RRSO (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59-0.89), and ambiguity aversion (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.95). These data provide support for the role of genetic counseling in fostering informed decisions about risk management, and suggest that the role of uncertainty should be explored further.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Health Commun ; 24(4): 377-384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060454

RESUMO

Refined estimates of risk based on genetic risk modifiers could assist BRCA mutation carriers in understanding their risk, but it is not clear whether carriers are interested in receiving these estimates or how they might benefit from them. Using qualitative interviews, we investigated female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers' (N = 20) reactions to numerical and verbal presentations of breast cancer risk based on risk modifiers and assessed women's preferences regarding visual formats for communicating risk. Our results show carriers are interested in receiving refined risk estimates and suggest the estimates may influence decision-making regarding cancer prevention, depending on the nature of the risk assessment. Although accurate and precise estimates of breast cancer risk are most important to women, they preferred quantitative risk estimates expressed as a proportion with or without a population comparison; however, women noted that comparisons to other BRCA mutation carriers were less useful given their high risk. Participants also preferred communication of a risk as a specific percentage versus a range of risk, but a clear preference regarding visual displays was not expressed. Results support many existing recommendations for genetic risk communication and provide guidance for the development of tools incorporating genetic risk modifiers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1 , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Br J Cancer ; 121(1): 15-21, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation face high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In the current study, we report on uptake of cancer screening and risk-reduction options in a cohort of BRCA mutation carriers from ten countries over two time periods (1995 to 2008 and 2009 to 2017). METHODS: Eligible subjects were identified from an international database of female BRCA mutation carriers and included women from 59 centres from ten countries. Subjects completed a questionnaire at the time of genetic testing, which included past use of cancer prevention options and screening tests. Biennial follow-up questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: Six-thousand two-hundred and twenty-three women were followed for a mean of 7.5 years. The mean age at last follow-up was 52.1 years (27-96 years) and 42.3% of the women had a prior diagnosis of breast cancer. In all, 27.8% had a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and  64.7% had a BSO. Screening with breast MRI increased from 70% before 2009 to 81% at or after 2009. There were significant differences in uptake of all options by country. CONCLUSION: For women who received genetic testing more recently, uptake of prophylactic mastectomy and breast MRI is significantly higher than those who received genetic testing more than 10 years ago. However, uptake of both BSO and breast MRI is not optimal, and interventions to increase uptake are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salpingo-Ooforectomia
16.
J Genet Couns ; 28(3): 664-672, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843639

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are associated with an elevated lifetime risk for breast (50%-85% risk) and ovarian cancer (20%-40% risk). Genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 genetic variants associated with modified breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Risk models generated based on these variants have shown that these genetic modifiers strongly influence absolute risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. There is a lack of understanding, however, about the clinical applicability and utility of these risk models. To investigate this gap, we collected survey data from 274 cancer genetic counselors (GCs) through the National Society of Genetic Counselors Cancer Special Interest Group. Questions assessed perceptions of usefulness and intentions of genetic counselors to use these refined risk models in clinical care based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We found that GCs' reactions to the estimates were largely positive, though they thought the possibility of changing management based on results was unlikely. Additionally, we found that more experienced GCs were more likely to consider refined risk estimates in clinic. Support also was provided for core predictions within the TAM, whereby the perceived usefulness (indirect effect est. = 0.08, 95% CI: [0.04, 0.13]) and perceived ease of use (indirect effect est. = 0.078, 95% CI: [0.04, 0.13]) of refined risk estimates were indirectly associated with intentions to use via attitudes.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conselheiros/psicologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético , Intenção , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 443-449, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, BRCA mutation carriers face an increased risk of developing a second (contralateral) cancer in the unaffected breast. It is important to identify predictors of contralateral cancer in order to make informed decisions about bilateral mastectomy. The impact of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (i.e., oophorectomy) on the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer is unclear. Thus, we conducted a prospective study of the relationship between oophorectomy and the risk of contralateral breast cancer in 1781 BRCA1 and 503 BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. METHODS: Women were followed from the date of diagnosis of their first breast cancer until the date of diagnosis of a contralateral breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy, date of death, or date of last follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contralateral breast cancer associated with oophorectomy. Oophorectomy was included as a time-dependent covariate. We performed a left-censored analysis for those women who reported a primary breast cancer prior to study entry (i.e., from completion of baseline questionnaire). RESULTS: After an average of 9.8 years of follow-up, there were 179 (7.8%) contralateral breast cancers diagnosed. Oophorectomy was not associated with the risk of developing a second breast cancer (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.68-1.25). The relationship did not vary by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer. There was some evidence for a decreased risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with an ER-positive primary breast cancer, but this was based on a small number of events (n = 240). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that oophorectomy has little impact on the risk of contralateral breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ovário/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ovariectomia , Ovário/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Cancer ; 144(3): 503-512, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350351

RESUMO

The first two genome wide association studies (GWAS) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) detected five variants associated with PTC. Two of them (rs944289 and rs116909374) are located at 14q13 making that locus an important target of research into the genetic predisposition to PTC. We aimed at uncovering other variants at 14q13 associated with PTC independently from the GWAS variants. We performed next generation sequencing of the 14q13 region and analyzed the allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in n = 90 PTC cases vs. n = 379 EUR controls from the 1,000 Genome Project. The variants associated with PTC were validated in an Ohio cohort of n = 1,216 PTC cases and n = 1,416 controls. Next, we analyzed the association between SNPs and expression of nearby genes and clinical parameters. We showed that rs368187 was associated with PTC (OR = 1.31, p = 2.20 × 10-6 ). Rs1632250, Rs1863347 and rs1755787 showed association with classical PTC (cPTC) (n = 891; OR = 1.24, 2.22 × 10-3 , OR = 1.31, p = 2.15 × 10-4 and OR = 1.24, p = 2.06 × 10-3 , respectively) while variant rs28397092 showed association with follicular variant (n = 243; OR = 1.51, p = 1.36 × 10-3 ). Rs1863347 was associated with suppression of PTCSC3 in unaffected thyroid tissue (p = 0.026). Rs1632250, rs1863347 and rs1755787 showed association with multifocality (OR = 1.85, p = 0.001, OR = 1.98, p = 0.001 and OR = 1.76, p = 0.003 respectively) and N stage (OR = 1.79, p = 0.014, OR = 1.73, p = 0.023 and OR = 1.81, p = 0.013, respectively) in microPTC (n = 328) while rs368187 was associated with M stage (OR = 0.56, p = 0.034) in cPTC. Our results disclose multiple variants associated with PTC and clinical features in the 14q13 superlocus. We suggest that translational genotype/phenotype studies should take into account not only somatic mutations but also germline variants.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/classificação , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/classificação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
19.
Horm Cancer ; 9(6): 433-439, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088223

RESUMO

There are limited data on the role of neck ultrasound (US) in the surveillance of patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Here, we analyze the likelihood of US to find structural disease in patients with FTC and evaluate if initial American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification and the response to therapy categories [the latter based on thyroglobulin (Tg) levels] modify that likelihood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 32 patients with FTC in our institution. We included all patients with well-differentiated FTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment without neck structural disease at the time of RAI and with Tg and US at least 6 months after RAI. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, two patients (6.3%) had structural disease by US. None of the 18 patients with initial ATA low-risk disease had structural disease by US in contrast to higher, but not significant, frequency of 18.2% (2/11) in patients with initial ATA high-risk disease (p = 0.14). Based on Tg levels, 24/32 patients had excellent response to therapy and 8/32 had biochemical incomplete/indeterminate response. None of the patients with excellent response had structural disease by US versus 2/8 (25%) patients with biochemical incomplete/indeterminate response all of whom had other sites of structural disease (p = 0.054). Our findings suggest that neck US in FTC is unlikely to find structural disease with initial low-risk ATA or excellent response to therapy but can detect structural disease in some patients with initial ATA high-risk or incomplete/indeterminate responses to therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Tireoidectomia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
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