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1.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671949

RESUMO

Jeotgal containing abundant free amino acids plays an important role in the unique savory taste (umami) and flavor in kimchi. However, it is also responsible for the unpleasant fishy smell and high salt content of kimchi. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify alternative jeotgal sources and investigate the fermentation properties of jeotgal alternatives added to kimchi. The tomato hot-water extract (TH2) and dry-aged beef hot-water extract (DBH) were selected as jeotgal alternatives for kimchi preparation based on their glutamic acid contents. Characteristics of kimchi with TH2 alone (JA1) and TH2 and DBH in combination (1:1, JA2) were compared with kimchi prepared using commercially available anchovy fish sauce (CON). The pH of JA1 and JA2 was slightly decreased during fermentation, whereas the salinity was significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). Notably, the most effective factor of the savory taste of kimchi, glutamic acid contents of JA1 and JA2 were significantly higher than that of CON (p < 0.05). In conclusion, JA1 showed slower fermentation with lower salinity and higher glutamic acid content than CON. Overall, this study showed that JA1 derived from TH2 could improve the taste and quality of kimchi by increasing glutamic acid content and decreasing the unpleasant flavor.

2.
Nutr Res ; 86: 50-59, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482598

RESUMO

Citrus fruits contain an abundance of nutrients, including vitamins C and B6 and hesperidin, which attribute to its beneficial health effects. Previously, kimchi with Jeju citrus concentrate (CK) elicited anti-obesity effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we aimed to investigate whether CK exhibits anti-obesity effects by reducing serum and hepatic lipid concentrations and anti-obesity-associated gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6N mice. Low-dose CK (LDCK, 50 mg/kg) and high-dose CK (HDCK, 200 mg/kg) were orally administered 3 times per week over 8 weeks with HFD diet. Body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and tissue weight were measured. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations were also assessed. The effect of CK on the lipid profile and lipid accumulation was analyzed. Body and white adipose tissue masses were significantly lower in the LDCK and HDCK groups than in the HFD group. Orally administered CK significantly decreased serum lipid, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels. Hepatic lipid content also decreased in the LDCK and HDCK groups. Serum leptin concentrations decreased, whereas serum adiponectin concentrations increased, confirming the anti-obesity effects of LDCK and HDCK. The decrease of hepatic vacuoles and stained lipid droplets indicated inhibition of lipid accumulation. These results support the hypothesis that CK exhibits anti-obesity effects in vivo by reducing lipid accumulation and by regulating anti-obesity-related genes.

3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 502-511, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of bicortical engagement by microimplants with maxillary skeletal expanders on pterygopalatine sutures opening and to analyze the postexpansion skeletal changes associated with it. METHODS: Eighteen subjects treated with maxillary skeletal expanders were examined for pterygopalatine suture openings. Eight subjects who showed no evidence of the suture opening were assigned to the nonsplit group (NG), whereas 10 subjects with opened sutures were assigned to the split group (SG). Preexpansion and postexpansion cone-beam computed tomography images were superimposed for each group, and the changes in the 2 groups were compared. Finally, cone-beam computed tomography volumes were reoriented along the axis of each microimplant to check the bicortical engagement of the 4 microimplants. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the bicortical engagement of the orthodontic microimplants and the pterygopalatine suture opening (P = 0.0003). In the NG, the average amount of transverse expansion measured at the center of resistance of the maxillary first molars, anterior nasal spine, and posterior nasal spine (PNS) was 4.33 mm, 2.22 mm, and 1.58 mm, respectively, whereas the transverse expansion in the SG was 5.29 mm, 2.21 mm, and 2.46 mm, respectively. The magnitude of transverse expansion at PNS was significantly higher in the SG than in the NG (P = 0.036). The PNS also showed a significant anterior displacement in the SG (0.89 mm) compared with the NG (0.06 mm) (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Bicortical microimplant anchorage is essential for pterygopalatine suture opening in microimplant-assisted maxillary skeletal expansion, which may result in further skeletal expansion and forward movement in the posterior part of the palatomaxillary complex.


Assuntos
Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , Dente Molar , Suturas
4.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(4): 274-282, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cephalometric changes following anterior repositioning of the mandible for predicting the treatment effects in Class II adolescent patients. STUDY DESIGN: Lateral cephalograms of 28 patients (ANB > 4°) were taken in centric occlusion (CO) and edge-to-edge bite (EtoE) before orthodontic treatment. The patients were classified into two groups according to their mandibular plane angle [MPA; low MPA (LMPA) ≤ 28° and high MPA (HMPA) > 28°]. Cephalometric changes of hard and soft tissues were measured and analyzed with an x-y cranial base coordinate system. RESULTS: For CO to EtoE, there were no significant cephalometric changes between HMPA and LMPA, but the horizontal ratio of soft to hard tissue pogonion (H-Pog'/H-Pog) change was significantly greater with LMPA than with HMPA while the vertical ratio (V-Pog'/V-Pog) showed vice versa. For CO to EtoE, MPA showed significant correlations with H-Pog'/H-Pog and V-Pog'/V-Pog. Y-axis angle, V-Pog'/V-Pog and H-Pog'/H-Pog can be used as good tools to discriminate between HMPA and LMPA. CONCLUSION: Cephalometric findings for CO to EtoE may be useful in predicting the vertical and horizontal changes of hard and soft tissues with the treatment of growing adolescents having various vertical skeletal patterns of Class II malocclusion.


Assuntos
Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/terapia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044988

RESUMO

Kahweol is a diterpene found in coffee beans and unfiltered coffee drinks. Several studies have demonstrated that kahweol induces the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ hemeoxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway; however, the mechanisms involved are currently unknown. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a major regulator of Nrf2 expression and is degraded mostly by autophagy. The p62 protein enhances binding to Keap1 and contributes to the activation of Nrf2. Here, we examined the role of Keap1 regulation in the effect of kahweol on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in hepatocytes. In AML12 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, kahweol increased the levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 protein without increasing expression of the Nrf2 mRNA. In addition, kahweol reduced Keap1 protein levels significantly without decreasing Keap1 mRNA levels. Although regulation of the Keap1-Nrf2-pathway by p62-dependent autophagy is well known, we confirmed here that the reduction of Keap1 protein levels by kahweol does not involve p62-dependent autophagy degradation or ubiquitination. In conclusion, kahweol increases the expression of Nrf2 in hepatocytes by inhibiting translation of the Keap1 mRNA.

6.
J Food Sci Technol ; 57(11): 4103-4110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071331

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of onion juices that had been heat-treated for different times as well as their use as a table sugar substitute in Kimchi. The onions were steamed at 100 ∘C for 30 min and boiled at 90 ∘C for 30, 60, and 120 min. The highest cycloalliin (0.76 mM), free-sugar (sucrose 1.66 g/L, glucose 8.62 g/L, and fructose 7.64 g/L), and malic acid (0.82 g/L) contents were observed in onion boiled at 90 ∘C for 120 min. The possibility of using heat-treated onion juices as an alternative to table sugar in Kimchi was evaluated by comparing the lactic acid bacteria count, pH, acidity, organic acid, and free-sugar in these juices with those in Kimchi prepared using table sugar (control). The total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria showed similar growth patterns as in the control. The average pH reduction and increase in titratable acidity (%) in all treated Kimchi samples during fermentation for 4 weeks were 1.18 ± 0.05 and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively. Kimchi with onion juice heat-treated for 120 min (K120) had the most similar lactic acid and acetic acid contents to that in the control after fermentation for 4 weeks. The highest mannitol level after fermentation for 4 weeks was detected in K120, which showed better sensory qualities compared to the control.

7.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(11): 1563-1571, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088605

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera leaf (ML) is rich in vitamins and minerals, specially abundant calcium, therefore it is widely used as a calcium supplement for food. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and calcium bioaccessibility of M. oleifera leaf hydrolysate (MLH) as a calcium supplement for kimchi. MLH was prepared under three different proteases, two different protease contents, and three different incubation times. Total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities were investigated. Cellular activity and calcium bioaccessibility were also investigated. The highest calcium level of MLH was observed in 3% Protamex treatment for 4 h. TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of MLH in Protamex and Alcalase treatments were higher than those in Flavourzyme treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, high cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity were also observed in C2C12 cells. Kimchi containing MLH showed high calcium accessibility compared to kimchi alone. Taken together, the application of MLH could have potential as a calcium supplement for kimchi production.

8.
ACS Omega ; 5(33): 20825-20830, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875217

RESUMO

Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites of Lupinus plants. This study reports the simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids from Lupinus angustifolius L. and its processed foods by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection. After optimizing the extraction conditions, the analytical method was validated for the QAs in lupin beans and in three major processed foods through detection and quantification limits, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The detection and quantification limits of the QAs were 0.5-1.7 and 1.5-5.7 mg kg-1, respectively. The linearity was greater than 0.9992 and the precision was less than 3.1%. The recoveries of three different concentrations of each QA were 89.5-106.2%. For both raw lupin beans and processed foods, lupanine was the major QA, and 13-hydroxylupanine and angustifoline were detected in lower amounts. This method could be widely used for accurate risk assessment of QAs.

9.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846617

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish a mixed starter culture to standardize the flavor of kimchi, a traditional Korean food. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei were selected for the culture based on their key roles in kimchi fermentation. The effects of various starter culture mixing ratios on the overall fermentation process were investigated. Fermentation was carried out at 15 °C for 72 h. In the microbial community analysis, a similar ratio to the initial mixed inoculated ratio was observed in the microbial environments. Treatment with high-rate L. mesenteroides inoculation, exhibiting hetero-fermentative characteristics, led to the production of mannitol (1393.11 mg/100 g), acetic acid (57.70 mg/kg), and lactic acid (1141.90 mg/kg), in addition to the induction of a rapid increase in the number of viable cells, thereby reducing the pH (pH 3.9). Conversely, treatment with high-rate L. sakei inoculation, exhibiting homo-fermentative characteristics, led to the production of less mannitol and acetic acid, with more lactic acid. Principal component analysis score plots showed a distinct difference in kimchi metabolites depending on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture. Therefore, by using mixed LAB starter strains, this study demonstrated the value of various characteristics and standardized manufacturing of kimchi. LAB types and inoculation ratios greatly affected the types and concentration of metabolites in kimchi fermentation.

10.
Korean J Orthod ; 50(3): 157-169, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475843

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pre- and postsurgical bone densities at alveolar and extra-alveolar sites following twojaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 18.0-27.8 years; 8 males, 2 females) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. A three-dimensional imaging program (Invivo 5) was used with multidetector computed tomography images taken preand postoperatively (obtained 32.3 ± 6.0 days before surgery and 5.8 ± 2.6 days after surgery, respectively) for the measurement of bone densities at the following sites: (1) alveolar bone in the maxilla and mandible, (2) extra-alveolar sites, such as the top of the head, menton (Me), condyle, and the fourth cervical vertebrae (C4). Results: When pre- and postsurgical bone densities were compared, an overall tendency of decrease in bone density was noted. Statistically significant reductions were observed in the densities of cancellous bone at several areas of the maxillary alveolar bone; cortical and cancellous bone in most areas of the mandibular alveolar bone; cortical bone in Me; and cancellous bone in C4. There was no statistically significant difference in bone density in relation to the depth of the alveolar bone. In a comparison of the bone densities between groups with and without genioplasty, there was almost no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Accelerated tooth movement following orthognathic surgery may be confirmed with reduced bone density. In addition, this study could offer insights into bone metabolism changes following orthognathic surgery, providing direction for further investigations in this field.

11.
Food Chem ; 328: 127149, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480264

RESUMO

A novel approach for the discrimination of different glucosinolates (sinigrin, progoitrin, gluconapin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoraphenin, and glucoerucin) using a colorimetric sensor array (CSA) is reported herein. The developed CSA technique exhibited an acceptable linearity (r2 ≥ 0.97) over a concentration range of 0-150 µM for the 10 glucosinolates. The CSA coupled with principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis correctly distinguished the majority of glucosinolate samples according to their type. In addition, the CSA coupled with linear discriminant analysis correctly classified the majority of 8 kinds of cruciferous vegetable samples with an overall accuracy of 94%. Furthermore, the partial least squares regression results showed that the CSA responses were correlated with the concentration in a correlation coefficient (Rp) range of 0.813-0.964. These results demonstrate that the described procedure based on the CSA technique could be useful for the rapid discrimination of different glucosinolates.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Colorimetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal
12.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120837

RESUMO

The SRC kinase family comprises non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are ubiquitously expressed in all cell types. Although Src is reportedly activated in pulmonary and renal fibrosis, little is known regarding its role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether the inhibition of Src protects against liver fibrosis. The expression of Src was upregulated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrotic mouse liver and cirrhosis of patients, and phospho-Src was upregulated during activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In addition, Src inhibition reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) in primary HSCs and suppressed transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in hepatocytes. Src inhibitor Saracatinib also attenuated TAA-induced expression of type I collagen, αSMA, and CTGF in mouse liver tissues. The antifibrotic effect of Src inhibitors was associated with the downregulation of smad3, but not of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In addition, Src inhibition increased autophagy flux and protected against liver fibrosis. These results suggest that Src plays an important role in liver fibrosis and that Src inhibitors could be treat liver fibrosis.

13.
Angle Orthod ; 90(2): 224-232, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the condyle-fossa relationship in adolescents with various skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT images obtained in 120 adolescent patients were used for this study. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to 3 criteria: (1) age (early, middle, and late adolescence); (2) facial height ratio or Jarabak quotient (hyperdivergent, normodivergent, and hypodivergent); and (3) ANB classification (Class I, Class II, and Class III). Temporomandibular joint space (TMJS: AS, anterior space; SS, superior space; PS, posterior space; MS, medial space; LS, lateral space), width and depth of the condyle (MLT, mediolateral thickness; APT, anteroposterior thickness), articular slope (ArS) and vertical height of the fossa (VHF) were measured and compared using CBCT. RESULTS: Differences in condyle-fossa relationships were not significantly different between male and female adolescents, but were significantly different (P < .05) between left and right sides. The mean values showed no statistical differences according to age and skeletal pattern. Most measurements in the sagittal view showed that SS was the greatest, and the mean ratio of AS to SS to PS was 1.00 to 1.27 to 1.19, respectively. The mean values of coronal MS and LS were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: There were almost no statistical differences in the TMJS in adolescents across various factors except between left and right sides.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Côndilo Mandibular , Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Côndilo Mandibular/anatomia & histologia , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Temporomandibular/anatomia & histologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739636

RESUMO

Clusterin is a glycoprotein that is expressed in most human tissues and found in body fluids. In our previous studies we demonstrated that clusterin has a protective effect against hepatic lipid accumulation and renal fibrosis; however, the role of clusterin in hepatic fibrosis is unknown. Here, we examined whether clusterin had protective effects against hepatic fibrosis using in vitro and in vivo models. Clusterin was upregulated in the livers of human cirrhotic patients and in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced and bile duct ligation mouse models of liver fibrosis. Loss and overexpression of clusterin promoted and attenuated hepatic fibrosis after TAA injection, respectively. In addition, we found that clusterin attenuates hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells and Smad3 signaling pathways. Thus, clusterin plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Clusterina/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Clusterina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(10): 1580-1590, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474094

RESUMO

Capsaicinoids in red pepper powder are known to show anti-bacterial effects; however, their effects during kimchi fermentation are not known. This study aimed to investigate the effects of various concentrations of capsaicinoids on kimchi fermentation. Five sets of kimchi samples were prepared using 0 mg/kg (control), 98.34 ± 5.34 mg/kg (mild), 243.47 ± 3.71 mg/kg (medium), 428.63 ± 30.78 mg/kg (hot), and 1,320.49 ± 28.27 mg/kg (extreme) capsaicinoid. The characteristics of each kimchi sample, including pH, acidity, organic acid, sugars, sugar alcohol, capsaicinoid content, and microbial community were periodically investigated during fermentation. Kimchi with red pepper powder shows significantly higher acidity than control kimchi, whereas pH values were the same. Organic acid in kimchi with red pepper powder was higher than in control kimchi, probably caused by higher lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in kimchi samples with red pepper powder. Our results show that addition of red pepper powder decreased Leuconostoc spp. counts in the bacterial community. In particular, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc gelidum counts increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder added to kimchi. Overall, the results of this study indicate that physicochemical properties and LAB such as L. sakei and L. gelidum are influenced by capsaicinoid content. However, further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of the percentage of red pepper powder in kimchi on fermentation to provide practical guidelines for producing standardized kimchi.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Capsaicina/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiota , Ácidos/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Capsicum/química , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Açúcares/análise
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6474-6481, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kimchi, a Korean food, is now produced and consumed in many other countries. In this study, the macro, trace, and toxic element content in varieties of kimchi from Korea and China was evaluated. A health-risk assessment, involving the calculation of estimated dietary intake values, was undertaken. To discriminate among samples with different origins, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied. RESULTS: The analytical methods used for analyses were successfully validated. In the quantification of elements, no significant differences were detected in the concentrations of the elements that were analyzed. Based on the fresh weight of kimchi, among the macro elements, the concentrations of Na and K were relatively high, with values of 4181.9-9919.8 mg kg-1 and 1661.8-6623.5 mg kg-1 , respectively. Among the trace elements that were analyzed, zinc in Korean samples, and strontium in Chinese samples showed the highest concentrations, at 2.67 and 2.98 mg kg-1 , respectively. Concentration levels of the toxic trace elements were within permissible limits. The amount of daily intake and provisional daily intake of each element calculated based on kimchi intake confirmed its safety for consumption. Linear discriminant analysis and PCA successfully discriminated among the samples of Chinese and Korean origin. CONCLUSION: The provisional daily intake of the toxic elements was within provisional tolerable daily intake values. The normal intake of kimchi could not pose a threat upon consumption. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/química , China , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
17.
Nutr Res Pract ; 13(2): 87-94, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major effector of various diseases; accordingly, antioxidants are frequently ingested in order to prevent or alleviate disease symptoms. Kimchi contains various natural antioxidants, and it is known that the functional activity varies depending on the ingredients and fermentation state. Black raspberries (BR) contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. This study investigated the antioxidant and liver-protection effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry juice powder (BJP). MATERIALS/METHODS: BJP-added kimchi (BAK; at 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentrations of BJP) and control (without BJP) were prepared and fermented at 4℃ for 4 weeks. Changes in the antioxidant effects of BAK during fermentation were investigated. In addition, the protective activity of BAK against oxidative stress was investigated in a liver cirrhosis-induced animal model in vivo. RESULTS: BAK groups showed the acidity and pH of optimally ripened (OR) kimchi at 2 weeks of fermentation along with the highest lactic acid bacterial counts. Additionally, BAK groups displayed a higher content of phenolic compounds and elevated antioxidant activities relative to the control, with the highest antioxidant effect observed at 2 weeks of fermentation of OR 1% BAK. After feeding the OR 1% BAK to thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis rats, we observed decreased glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and elevated superoxide dismutase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that the antioxidant effects of OR BAK and feeding of OR 1% BAK resulted in liver-protective effects against oxidative stress.

18.
ACS Sens ; 4(4): 953-960, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844242

RESUMO

Endogenous fluorescence imaging techniques are key for modern single-molecule quantification without the use of additional labeling probes. However, the drawback of weak fluorescence signal is the primary challenge in meeting the ever-increasing demands of single-molecule detection. Here, we report a simple and reliable method that provides up to ∼100-fold uniform fluorescence enhancement of endogenous fluorescence of the capsaicinoid molecule. The method is based on a single nanoparticle plasmon-amplified endogenous fluorescence nanospectroscopic sensor (PAEFS). This work demonstrated the applicability of PAEFS in refining sensitivity at the single-molecule level by showing ultralow limits of detection (106 times lower than previous reports) of fluorescence-based capsaicinoids with a wide range of linear response (18 zM to 85 pM). Spectrally overlapped capsaicinoid analogues were quantified ratiometrically to detect the analogue percentages in real samples. The novel endogenous fluorescence enhancement approach presented here represents a universal sensor for enhanced detection of single molecules using existing techniques without altering the original molecular features or using add-on labeling probes.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Brassica/química , Capsicum/química , Fluorescência , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
19.
Food Chem ; 282: 127-133, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711096

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLS) have been reported to have significant anti-oxidative, antimicrobial, and anti-cancer activities. The current study was aimed to develop an analytical method for glucosinolate quantitation in eight Brassica species from Gwangju, Republic of Korea. For this purpose the UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS technique was used and validated for optimal extraction conditions, detection and quantitation limits, linearity, precision, and accuracy. According to the results of GLS profiling, the total GLS concentration decreased in the order of cabbage > broccoli > cauliflower > mustard > kimchi cabbage > young radish ∼ kale. All Brassica species contained glucoerucin (GER) and glucobrassicin (GBR) as major GLS with the high levels in cabbage (5.913 µM/g) and broccoli (1.723 µM/g), respectively. The contents of minor GLS were species-dependent, and could therefore be used for Brassica species classification.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/análise , Glucosinolatos/química , Imidoésteres/análise , Indóis/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
20.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973533

RESUMO

Gut derived bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are involved in one of the important mechanisms that lead to inflammation associated with various liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Kahweol is a coffee-specific diterpene present in coffee bean and exhibits anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, to date, the effect of kahweol on liver inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether kahweol exhibits a protective effect by inhibiting liver inflammation in primary Kupffer cells and primary hepatocytes cultures as well as their co-cultures. Kahweol decreased the LPS-induced production of interleukin 1 alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The inhibitory effect of kahweol on the liver inflammation was associated with the down regulation of LPS-stimulated phospho-nuclear factor kappa B and -signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression. These results suggest that kahweol might be a novel potent agent to treat liver inflammation induced by LPS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Hepatite/metabolismo , Hepatite/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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