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1.
iScience ; 25(4): 104033, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340429

RESUMO

In the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave regime, which has recently received great attention in the fields of communication and security, shielding of THz waves is a significant issue. Therefore, carbon-based nanostructures or polymer-carbon nanocomposites have been widely explored. Herein, significantly enhanced THz shielding efficiency is reported for silver nanowires coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and nanoscale THz metamaterials, as compared to the cases without nanoscale metamaterials. Using a nanoslot-patterned metamaterial with strong resonances at certain frequencies, THz transmission in intensity is enhanced up to three orders of magnitude. Enhanced transmission by nanopatterns substantially increases the shielding performance to the external THz waves, even for ultrathin films (several tens of nanometers) produced by a simple spray of rGO (a few nm of flakes) on a complex random nanowire network. Excellent shielding performance is presented and the shielding mechanism is investigated by the nanoprobing configuration at the same time.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 202: 113981, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086028

RESUMO

The development of effective assay techniques for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently received research attention due to its rapid worldwide spread and considerable risk to human health. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein in SARS-CoV-2, a key component for viral entry that has a unique sequence compared to other structural proteins, has been considered an important diagnostic target. In this respect, low-frequency vibrational modes have the advantage of providing information about compositional and structural dependencies at the peptide level. In this study, the sensitive and selective detection of peptides derived from the RBD in SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV was investigated using metamaterial-based sensing chips with a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. Based on their RBD sequences, two pairs of peptides with 20 residues each were prepared. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the proposed system were examined via quantitative analysis using THz metamaterials at three resonance frequencies, and it was found that the species could be discriminated based on their sequences. The THz signals were analyzed with regard to the major amino acid components of the peptides, and the molecular distributions were also investigated based on the hydropathy and net charge of the peptides.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
3.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 52(3): 1515-1526, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452788

RESUMO

Training agents via deep reinforcement learning with sparse rewards for robotic control tasks in vast state space are a big challenge, due to the rareness of successful experience. To solve this problem, recent breakthrough methods, the hindsight experience replay (HER) and aggressive rewards to counter bias in HER (ARCHER), use unsuccessful experiences and consider them as successful experiences achieving different goals, for example, hindsight experiences. According to these methods, hindsight experience is used at a fixed sampling rate during training. However, this usage of hindsight experience introduces bias, due to a distinct optimal policy, and does not allow the hindsight experience to take variable importance at different stages of training. In this article, we investigate the impact of a variable sampling rate, representing the variable rate of hindsight experience, on training performance and propose a sampling rate decay strategy that decreases the number of hindsight experiences as training proceeds. The proposed method is validated with three robotic control tasks included in the OpenAI Gym suite. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves improved training performance and increased convergence speed over the HER and ARCHER with two of the three tasks and comparable training performance and convergence speed with the other one.


Assuntos
Robótica , Reforço Psicológico
4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(11): e2004826, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105290

RESUMO

Probing the kinetic evolution of nanoparticle (NP) growth in liquids is essential for understanding complex nano-phases and their corresponding functions. Terahertz (THz) sensing, an emerging technology for next-generation laser photonics, has been developed with unique photonic features, including label-free, non-destructive, and molecular-specific spectral characteristics. Recently, metasurface-based sensing platforms have helped trace biomolecules by overcoming low THz absorption cross-sectional limits. However, the direct probing of THz signals in aqueous environments remains difficult. Here, the authors report that vertically aligned nanogap-hybridized metasurfaces can efficiently trap traveling NPs in the sensing region, thus enabling us to monitor the real-time kinetic evolution of NP assemblies in liquids. The THz photonics approach, together with an electric tweezing technique via spatially matching optical hotspots to particle trapping sites with a nanoscale spatial resolution, is highly promising for underwater THz analysis, forging a route toward unraveling the physicochemical events of nature within an ultra-broadband wavelength regime.

5.
Opt Express ; 29(1): 12-23, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362096

RESUMO

Signal enhancement of spectroscopies including terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a critical issue for effective molecular detection and identification. In this study, the sensing performance between THz-TDS and SERS individually accompanied by the proper plasmonic subwavelength structures was compared. For the precisely quantitative study on the optical properties of rhodamine 6G (R6G) dyes, SERS incorporates with the non-linearly enhanced Raman emissions at the molecular characteristic peaks while THz-TDS refers to the transmittance change and the shift of the spectral resonance. The local molecular density-dependent trade-off relationship between limit-of-detection and quenching was observed from both measurements. The specificity for two samples, R6G and methylene blue, is determined by the discriminations in spectral features such as the intensity ratio of assigned peaks in SERS and transmittance difference in THz-TDS. The comprehension of field enhancement by the specific nanostructures was supported by the finite-element method-based numerical computations. As a result, both spectroscopic techniques with the well-tailored nanostructures show great potential for highly sensitive, reproducible, label-free, and cost-effective diagnosis tools in the biomedical fields.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112663, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011619

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) imaging technology has shown significant potential for use in biomedical imaging owing to its non-ionizing characteristics by its low photon energy and its ultrabroadband spectral comparability with many molecular vibrational resonances. However, despite the significant advantage of being able to identify bio-materials in label-free configurations, most meaningful signals are buried by huge water absorption, thus it is very difficult to distinguish them using the small differences in optical constants at THz regime, limiting the practical application of this technology. Here, we demonstrate advanced THz imaging with enhanced color contrast by the use of THz field that is localized and enhanced by a nanometer-scale slot array. THz images of a biological specimen, such as mouse brain tissue and fingerprint, on a nano-slot array-based metamaterial sensing chip, which is elaborately fabricated in large-area, show a higher contrast and clearer boundary information in reflectance without any labeling. A reliable numerical solution to find accurate optical constants using THz nano-slot resonance for the quantitative analysis of target bio-specimens is also introduced. Finally, the precise optical properties of real bio-samples and atlas information are provided for specific areas where amyloid beta proteins, known to cause dementia, have accumulated in a mouse brain.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Imagem Terahertz , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos
7.
Opt Express ; 28(12): 17143-17152, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679927

RESUMO

This study demonstrates a metamaterial bolometer that can detect terahertz (THz) waves by measuring variations in electrical resistance. A metamaterial pattern for enhanced THz waves absorption and a composite material with a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are incorporated into a single layer of the bolometer chip to realize a compact and highly sensitive device. To detect the temperature change caused by the absorption of the THz waves, a polydimethylsiloxane mixed with carbon black microparticles is used. The thermosensitive composite has TCR ranging from 1.88%/K to 3.11%/K at room temperature (22.2-23.8°C). In addition, a microscale metamaterial without a backside reflector is designed to enable the measurement of the resistance and to enhance the sensitivity of the bolometer. The proposed configuration effectively improves thermal response of the chip as well as the absorption of the THz waves. It was confirmed that the irradiated THz waves can be detected via the increment in the electrical resistance. The resistance change caused by the absorption of the THz waves is detectable in spite of the changes in resistance originating from the background thermal noise. The proposed metamaterial bolometer could be applied to detect chemical or biological molecules that have fingerprints in the THz band by measuring the variation of the resistance without using the complex and bulky THz time-domain spectroscopy system.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2804, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499540

RESUMO

Toward the development of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for biosensors and diagnostic biochip assays, a local integration of low-concentration target materials into the sensing region of interest is essential to improve the sensitivity and reliability of the devices. As a result, the dynamic process of sorting and accurate positioning the nanoparticulate biomolecules within pre-defined micro/nanostructures is critical, however, it remains a huge hurdle for the realization of practical surface-sensitive biosensors and biochips. A scalable, massive, and non-destructive trapping methodology based on dielectrophoretic forces is highly demanded for assembling nanoparticles and biosensing tools. Herein, we propose a vertical nanogap architecture with an electrode-insulator-electrode stack structure, facilitating the generation of strong dielectrophoretic forces at low voltages, to precisely capture and spatiotemporally manipulate nanoparticles and molecular assemblies, including lipid vesicles and amyloid-beta protofibrils/oligomers. Our vertical nanogap platform, allowing low-voltage nanoparticle captures on optical metasurface designs, provides new opportunities for constructing advanced surface-sensitive optoelectronic sensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Bacillus subtilis , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Simulação por Computador , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Fungos , Cinética , Lipídeos/química , Teste de Materiais , Osmose , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 9062-9068, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710500

RESUMO

Ohmic absorption of light is an indication of a light-matter interaction within metals, where many interesting phenomena and application potentials can be found. To realize the ohmic absorption of light at long wavelengths, where metals are highly reflective, one can use a metamaterial absorber design to concentrate the electromagnetic field within a thin metal film. This concept has enabled thinning of perfect absorbers from a quarter-wave thickness to several tens of nanometers, greatly improving the utility and efficiency of light-metal interactions. Further improvements on the performance are expected if the absorption can be additionally focused laterally, which is a possibility not yet explored. In this study, we report that nanoslot antennas can be a unique ohmic absorber of the low-frequency radiations, where it can incorporate 70% of incident light to ohmic absorption, focused laterally onto 1% of the unit cell area. The inductive field that drives both field enhancement and ohmic absorption is localized within a skin depth distance from the slots with amplitude being as large as 30% of the incident field. Mode-matching calculations and terahertz spectroscopy measurements confirm the inductive and localized nature of the absorption. The strong confinement of the inductive field and of the resulting ohmic absorption is expected to open a new venue in nanocalorimetry, optical nonlinearities of metals, and bolometer applications.

10.
Opt Express ; 27(13): 19042-19049, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252836

RESUMO

We investigate spectral responses of two different terahertz (THz) metamaterials of double split ring resonator (DSRR) and the nano slot resonator (NSR) for molecule sensing in low concentration. Two different resonant frequencies of DSRR can be controlled by polarization angle of incident THz beam. For comparison of THz optical characteristics, two NSRs were made as showing the same resonant frequencies as DSRR's multimode. The monosaccharide molecules of glucose and galactose were detected by these two types of metamaterials matching the resonant frequencies in various concentration. NSR shows higher sensitivity in very low concentration range rather than DSRR, although the behavior was easily saturated in terms of concentration. In contrast, DSRR can cover more broad concentration range with clear linearity especially under high quality factor mode in polarization of 67.5 degree due to the Fano resonance. THz field enhancement distributions were calculated to investigate sensing performance of both sensing chips in qualitative and quantitative manner.

11.
Anal Chem ; 91(10): 6844-6849, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035757

RESUMO

Discrimination and quantification of trace amounts of steroid hormones in biological specimens are needed to elucidate their changing expression because their biological functions are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine disorders. Although mass-spectrometry-based assays are most commonly recommended, development of a new type of highly sensitive and selective detection methods in clinical practices is needed. Here, we introduce a label-free type of terahertz molecule sensor capable of sensing and identifying progesterone and 17α-OH-progesterone selectively. Nanoslot-array-based sensing chips were used as launching pads for absorption cross-section enhancement of molecules at a reliable terahertz frequency. With use of nanoslots with resonances at 1.17 THz corresponding to intrinsic THz absorption resonance mode for progesterone and at 1.51 THz for 17α-OH-progesterone, respectively, each steroid shows prominent transmittance change in terms of its amount. In particular, the sensing performance has been much improved by controlling evaporation speed, in turn resulting in an efficient, homogeneous distribution of the molecules onto a sensing hot spot.


Assuntos
17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/análise , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectroscopia Terahertz/métodos
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(31): 9716-9721, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933516

RESUMO

The current gold-standard diagnosis method for avian influenza (AI) is an embryonic egg-based hemagglutination assay followed by immunoblotting or PCR sequencing to confirm subtypes. It requires, however, specialized facilities to handle egg inoculation and incubation, and the subtyping methods relied on costly reagents. Now, the first differential sensing approach to distinguish AI subtypes is demonstrated using series of cell lines and a fluorescent sensor. Susceptibility of AI virus differs depending on genetic backgrounds of host cells. Cells were examined from different organ origins, and the infection patterns against a panel of cells were utilized for AI virus subtyping. To quantify AI infection, a highly cell-permeable fluorescent superoxide sensor was designed to visualize infection. This differential sensing strategy successfully proved discriminations of AI subtypes and demonstrated as a useful primary screening platform to monitor a large number of samples.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico por imagem , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Superóxidos/análise , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , Cães , Humanos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Superóxidos/metabolismo
13.
Adv Mater ; 30(27): e1706764, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775503

RESUMO

Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye. The materials exhibit considerably effective spectral characteristics according to each pigment. Four photoreceptors originating from the human eye with color-distinguishability are produced in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells and partially purified in the form of nanovesicles. Under various wavelengths of visible light, electrochemical measurements are performed to analyze the physiological behavior and kinetics of the photoreceptors, with graphene, performing as an electrode, playing an important role in the lipid bilayer deposition and oxygen reduction processes. Four nanovesicles with different photoreceptors, namely, rhodopsin (Rho), short-, medium-, and longwave sensitive opsin 1 (1SW, 1MW, 1LW), show remarkable color-dependent characteristics, consistent with those of natural human retina. With four different light-emitting diodes for functional verification, the photoreceptors embedded in nanovesicles show remarkably specific color sensitivity. This study demonstrates the potential applications of light-activated platforms in biological optoelectronic industries.

14.
Opt Express ; 25(24): 30591-30597, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221086

RESUMO

We introduce a robust control method of terahertz (THz) transmission by tuning filling factors of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside nano slot antennas. AuNPs in sub-100 nm diameters were spread over the nano slot antennas, followed by sweeping them into the slots. AuNPs can be efficiently localized and inserted into nano slots where the THz fields are greatly enhanced, by a "squeegee" made of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The sweeping of the AuNPs results in further dramatic reduction of THz transmission by suppressing the fundamental resonance mode of the nano slot, as compared to a typical random dropping case. It definitely works for an accurate THz transmission control, as well as the removal of unwanted ions that occasionally confuse signal accuracy from the target signals. Our approach provides a complete reinterpretation of sample deposition for further steady demands in developing ultrasensitive terahertz (THz) molecule sensors.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 6397-6401, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945438

RESUMO

Most semiconductors have surface dynamics radically different from its bulk counterpart due to surface defect, doping level, and symmetry breaking. Because of the technical challenge of direct observation of the surface carrier dynamics, however, experimental studies have been allowed in severely shrunk structures including nanowires, thin films, or quantum wells where the surface-to-volume ratio is very high. Here, we develop a new type of terahertz (THz) nanoprobing system to investigate the surface dynamics of bulk semiconductors, using metallic nanogap accompanying strong THz field confinement. We observed that carrier lifetimes of InP and GaAs dramatically decrease close to the limit of THz time resolution (∼1 ps) as the gap size decreases down to nanoscale and that they return to their original values once the nanogap patterns are removed. Our THz nanoprobing system will open up pathways toward direct and nondestructive measurements of surface dynamics of bulk semiconductors.

16.
Opt Express ; 25(10): 11436-11443, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28788824

RESUMO

We present terahertz (THz) transmission control by several uniquely designed patterns of nano-slot antenna array. Collinearly aligned slot antenna arrays have been usually applied to THz filters with frequency band tunability by their geometry. Normally the amplitude in transmission (reflection) in the collinear alignment case can be varied via rotating the azimuthal angle with a sinusoidal trend, which can limit their utilization and performance only at fixed angle between the alignment of the resonant antennas and incident beam polarization. To pursue a variety of metamaterial uses, here, we present polarization-independent THz filters using variously aligned antenna array (asterisk, chlorophyll, and honeycomb patterns) in such counter-intuitive aspects. Besides, unprecedented multi resonance behaviors were observed in chlorophyll and honeycomb patterns, which can be explained with interferences by adjacent structures. The measured spectra were analyzed by harmonic oscillator model with simplified coupling between slots and their adjacent.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8146, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811551

RESUMO

As a candidate for a rapid detection of biomaterials, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy system can be considered with some advantage in non-destructive, label-free, and non-contact manner. Because protein-ligand binding energy is in the THz range, especially, most important conformational information in molecular interactions can be captured by THz electromagnetic wave. Based on the THz time-domain spectroscopy system, THz nano-metamaterial sensing chips were prepared for great enhancing of detection sensitivity. A metamaterial sensing chip was designed for increasing of absorption cross section of the target sample, related to the transmitted THz near field enhancement via the composition of metamaterial. The measured THz optical properties were then analyzed in terms of refractive index and absorption coefficient, and compared with simulation results. Also, virus quantification regarding various concentrations of the viruses was performed, showing a clear linearity. The proposed sensitive and selective THz detection method can provide abundant information of detected biomaterials to help deep understanding of fundamental optical characteristics of them, suggesting rapid diagnosis way especially useful for such dangerous and time-sensitive target biomaterials.

18.
Adv Mater ; 29(40)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714145

RESUMO

2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitides called MXenes have attracted much attention due to their outstanding properties. However, MXene's potential in laser technology is not explored. It is demonstrated here that Ti3 CN, one of MXene compounds, can serve as an excellent mode-locker that can produce femtosecond laser pulses from fiber cavities. Stable laser pulses with a duration as short as 660 fs are readily obtained at a repetition rate of 15.4 MHz and a wavelength of 1557 nm. Density functional theory calculations show that Ti3 CN is metallic, in contrast to other 2D saturable absorber materials reported so far to be operative for mode-locking. 2D structural and electronic characteristics are well conserved in their stacked form, possibly due to the unique interlayer coupling formed by MXene surface termination groups. Noticeably, the calculations suggest a promise of MXenes in broadband saturable absorber applications due to metallic characteristics, which agrees well with the experiments of passively Q-switched lasers using Ti3 CN at wavelengths of 1558 and 1875 nm. This study provides a valuable strategy and intuition for the development of nanomaterial-based saturable absorbers opening new avenues toward advanced photonic devices based on MXenes.

19.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(12): 125603, 2016 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932975

RESUMO

We report on ultrafast optical investigations of the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide with controlled disorder generated by substrate mismatch. These results reveal common dynamics of this optically-induced phase transition that are independent of this disorder. Above the fluence threshold for completing the transition to the rutile crystalline phase, we find a common time scale, independent of sample morphology, of 40.5 ± 2 ps that is consistent with nucleation and growth dynamics of the R phase from the parent M1 ground state.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21601, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876194

RESUMO

We have performed ultrafast optical microscopy on single flakes of atomically thin CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide, using non-degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and probe carriers above and below the indirect and direct band gaps. These measurements reveal the influence of layer thickness on carrier dynamics when probing near the band gap. Furthermore, fluence-dependent measurements indicate that carrier relaxation is primarily influenced by surface-related defect and trap states after above-bandgap photoexcitation. The ability to probe femtosecond carrier dynamics in individual flakes can thus give much insight into light-matter interactions in these two-dimensional nanosystems.

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