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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(6): 815-823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218703

RESUMO

Importin-11 (Ipo11) is a novel member of the human importin family of transport receptors (karyopherins), which are known to mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargos. Despite its role in the transport of protein, we found that knockout of Ipo11 nuclear import factor affects normal embryonic development and govern embryo-lethal phenotypes in mice. In this study, we for the first time produced a mouse line containing null mutation in Ipo11 gene utilized by gene trapping. The Ipo11-/- embryos showed an embryonic lethal phenotype. The Ipo11-/- embryos showed a reduced size at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) when compared with Ipo11+/+ or Ipo11+/- embryos and died by E11.5. Whereas Ipo11+/- mice were healthy and fertile, and there was no detectable changes in embryonic lethality and phenotype when reviewed. In the X-gal staining with the Ipo11-/- or Ipo11+/- embryos, strong X-gal staining positivity was detected systematically in the whole mount embryos at E10.5, although almost no X-gal positivity was detected at E9.5, indicating that the embryos die soon after the process of Ipo11 expression started. These results indicate that Ipo11 is essential for the normal embryonic development in mice.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112779, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209388

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Asteris Radix et Rhizoma (AR) refers to the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus L., which is widely distributed throughout East Asia. AR has been consumed as a traditional medicine in Korea, Japan and China for the treatment of urologic symptoms. To date, however, the therapeutic effect of AR on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of AR on a testosterone-induced BPH rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced BPH to rats by subcutaneous injections (s.c) of testosterone propionate (TP) daily for four weeks. Rats were also administered daily oral gavage of AR (150 mg/kg) or vehicle. After four weeks of induction, all animals were euthanized humanely and their prostate glands were removed, weighed and processed for further analysis, including histopathological examination, real-time PCR, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Administration of AR to TP-induced BPH rats considerably reduced prostate weight and concentrations of serum testosterone and prostate dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Epithelial thickness and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were markedly suppressed by AR-treatment in the rats. Furthermore, the expression of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were reduced and expression of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) increased, resulting in significant reduction in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, AR decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were reduced by AR treatment in a TP-induced BPH rat model. CONCLUSIONS: AR alleviates BPH by promoting apoptosis and suppressing inflammation, indicating that AR may be used clinically to treat BPH accompanied by inflammation.

3.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(12): 1557-1563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839743

RESUMO

E2F3, a member of the E2F family, plays a critical role in cell cycle and proliferation by targeting downstream, retinoblastoma (RB) a tumor suppressor family protein. The purpose of this study, was to investigate the role and function of E2F3 in vivo. We examined phenotypic abnormalities, by deletion of the E2f3 gene in mice. Complete ablation of the E2F3 was fully penetrant, in the pure C57BL/6N background. The E2f3+/ - mouse embryo developed normally without fatal disorder. However, they exhibited reduced body weight, growth retardation, skeletal imperfection, and poor grip strength ability. Findings suggest that E2F3 has a pivotal role in muscle and bone development, and affect normal mouse growth.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
4.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(1): 1-9, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381617

RESUMO

Veratrum maackii (VM), a perennial plant in the Melanthiaceae family, has anti-hypertensive, anti-cholinergic, anti-asthmatic, anti-tussive, anti-fungal, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of VM on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in human normal prostate cell line (WPMY-1) and a testosterone propionate-induced BPH animal model. WPMY-1 cells were treated with VM (1-10 µg/mL) and testosterone propionate (100 nM). BPH in rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. VM (150 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone propionate. All rats were sacrificed and the prostates were dissected, weighed, and subjected to histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical examinations. Immunoblotting experiments indicated that WPMY-1 cells treated testosterone propionate had increased expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR), and treatment with VM or finasteride blocked this effect. In rat model, VM significantly reduced prostate weight, prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and expression of proliferation markers such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1, but increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and the cleavage of caspase-3. VM administration also suppressed the testosterone propionate-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Our results indicate that VM effectively represses the development of testosterone propionate-induced BPH, suggesting it may be a useful treatment agent for BPH.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade , Veratrum , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 115-122, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508623

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (UMH), of the family Ulmaceae, is a deciduous tree, widely distributed throughout Korea. UMH has been used as a traditional oriental medicine in Korea for the treatment of urological disorders, including bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), diuresis, and hematuria. To date, its possible protective effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been analyzed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of UMH on the development of BPH using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP) for four weeks. UMH was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed, and their prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination, TUNEL assay, and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment of BPH-model rats with UMH significantly reduced prostate weight, serum testosterone concentration and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration in prostate tissue. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly attenuated in UMH-treated rats. In addition, UMH administration markedly induced the activation of caspases-3, - 8, and - 9 in prostate tissues of BPH rats, accompanied by upregulation of expression of Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), and Fas ligand (FasL) and a reduction in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). CONCLUSIONS: UMH effectively inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of prostate cells, suggesting it may be useful for the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Ulmus , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/fisiologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue , Propionato de Testosterona
6.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(12): 2125-2133, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943529

RESUMO

Quisqualis indica (QI) has been used for treating disorders such as stomach pain, constipation, and digestion problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of QI extract on treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line and a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. LNCaP cells were treated with QI plus testosterone propionate (TP), and androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression levels were assessed by Western blotting. To induce BPH, the rats were subjected to a daily subcutaneous injection of TP (3 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats in treatment group were orally gavaged with QI (150 mg/kg) together with the TP injection. In-vitro studies showed that TP-induced increases in AR and PSA expression in LNCaP cells were reduced by QI treatment. In BPH-model rats, the prostate weight, testosterone in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration and 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA expression in prostate tissue were significantly reduced following the treatment with QI. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 were significantly attenuated in QI-treated rats. In addition, QI induced apoptosis by up-regulating caspase-3 and -9 activity and decreasing the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio in prostate tissues of BPH rats. Further investigation showed that TP-induced activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) was reduced by QI administration. Therefore, our findings suggest that QI attenuates the BPH state in rats through anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade
7.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 23(2): 180-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25767687

RESUMO

This study investigated the possible effects and molecular mechanisms of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in rats. Inflammation response was assessed by histopathology and serum cytokines levels. We determined the protein expressions of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), oxidative stress, urinary nitrite-nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Finally, we studied the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling in the protective effects of DADS against CP-induced HC. CP treatment caused a HC which was evidenced by an increase in histopathological changes, proinflammatory cytokines levels, urinary nitrite-nitrate level, and the protein expression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). The significant decreases in glutathione content and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, and the significant increase in MDA content and urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels indicated that CP-induced bladder injury was mediated through oxidative DNA damage. In contrast, DADS pretreatment attenuated CP-induced HC, including histopathological lesion, serum cytokines levels, oxidative damage, and urinary oxidative DNA damage. DADS also caused significantly decreased the protein expressions of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, p-JNK, and p-ERK. These results indicate that DADS prevents CP-induced HC and that the protective effects of DADS may be due to its ability to regulate proinflammatory cytokines production by inhibition of NF-κB and MAPKs expressions, and its potent anti-oxidative capability through reduction of oxidative DNA damage in the bladder.

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