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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281180

RESUMO

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (SCA), has become a major pest of grain sorghum since its appearance in the USA. Several grain sorghum parental lines are moderately resistant to the SCA. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying this resistance are poorly understood, which has constrained breeding for improved resistance. RNA-Seq was used to conduct transcriptomics analysis on a moderately resistant genotype (TAM428) and a susceptible genotype (Tx2737) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. Differential expression analysis revealed differences in transcriptomic profile between the two genotypes at multiple time points after infestation by SCA. Six gene clusters had differential expression during SCA infestation. Gene ontology enrichment and cluster analysis of genes differentially expressed after SCA infestation revealed consistent upregulation of genes controlling protein and lipid binding, cellular catabolic processes, transcription initiation, and autophagy in the resistant genotype. Genes regulating responses to external stimuli and stress, cell communication, and transferase activities, were all upregulated in later stages of infestation. On the other hand, expression of genes controlling cell cycle and nuclear division were reduced after SCA infestation in the resistant genotype. These results indicate that different classes of genes, including stress response genes and transcription factors, are responsible for countering the physiological effects of SCA infestation in resistant sorghum plants.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , Sorghum/genética , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Grão Comestível/genética , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Sorghum/parasitologia , Transcriptoma
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068886

RESUMO

Millets are important cereal crops cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world, particularly Africa and southeast Asia. Climate change has triggered multiple abiotic stresses in plants that are the main causes of crop loss worldwide, reducing average yield for most crops by more than 50%. Although millets are tolerant to most abiotic stresses including drought and high temperatures, further improvement is needed to make them more resilient to unprecedented effects of climate change and associated environmental stresses. Incorporation of stress tolerance traits in millets will improve their productivity in marginal environments and will help in overcoming future food shortage due to climate change. Recently, approaches such as application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) have been used to improve growth and development, as well as stress tolerance of crops. Moreover, with the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, genome editing, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system are increasingly used to develop stress tolerant varieties in different crops. In this paper, the innate ability of millets to tolerate abiotic stresses and alternative approaches to boost stress resistance were thoroughly reviewed. Moreover, several stress-resistant genes were identified in related monocots such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays), and other related species for which orthologs in millets could be manipulated by CRISPR/Cas9 and related genome-editing techniques to improve stress resilience and productivity. These cutting-edge alternative strategies are expected to bring this group of orphan crops at the forefront of scientific research for their potential contribution to global food security.


Assuntos
Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 777, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pearl millet, a nutritious food for around 100 million people in Africa and India, displays extensive genetic diversity and a high degree of admixture with wild relatives. Two major morphotypes can be distinguished in Senegal: early-flowering Souna and late-flowering Sanio. Phenotypic variabilities related to flowering time play an important role in the adaptation of pearl millet to climate variability. A better understanding of the genetic makeup of these variabilities would make it possible to breed pearl millet to suit regions with different climates. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic basis of these phenotypic differences. RESULTS: We defined a core collection that captures most of the diversity of cultivated pearl millets in Senegal and includes 60 early-flowering Souna and 31 late-flowering Sanio morphotypes. Sixteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in the panel in the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons. Phenological and phenotypic traits related with yield, flowering time, and biomass helped differentiate early- and late-flowering morphotypes. Further, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), 21,663 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers with more than 5% of minor allele frequencies were discovered. Sparse non-negative matrix factorization (sNMF) analysis confirmed the genetic structure in two gene pools associated with differences in flowering time. Two chromosomal regions on linkage groups (LG 3) (~ 89.7 Mb) and (LG 6) (~ 68.1 Mb) differentiated two clusters among the early-flowering Souna. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to link phenotypic variation to the SNPs, and 18 genes were linked to flowering time, plant height, tillering, and biomass (P-value < 2.3E-06). CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of early- and late-flowering pearl millet morphotypes in Senegal was captured using a heuristic approach. Key phenological and phenotypic traits, SNPs, and candidate genes underlying flowering time, tillering, biomass yield and plant height of pearl millet were identified. Chromosome rearrangements in LG3 and LG6 were inferred as a source of variation in early-flowering morphotypes. Using candidate genes underlying these features between pearl millet morphotypes will be of paramount importance in breeding for resilience to climatic variability.


Assuntos
Pennisetum , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Índia , Pennisetum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Senegal
4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 469, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic improvement of pearl millet is lagging behind most of the major crops. Development of genomic resources is expected to expedite breeding for improved agronomic traits, stress tolerance, yield, and nutritional quality. Genotyping a breeding population with high throughput markers enables exploration of genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) which are important preludes for marker-trait association studies and application of genomic-assisted breeding. RESULTS: Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) libraries of 309 inbred lines derived from landraces and improved varieties from Africa and India generated 54,770 high quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. On average one SNP per 29 Kb was mapped in the reference genome, with the telomeric regions more densely mapped than the pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes. Population structure analysis using 30,208 SNPs evenly distributed in the genome divided 309 accessions into five subpopulations with different levels of admixture. Pairwise genetic distance (GD) between accessions varied from 0.09 to 0.33 with the average distance of 0.28. Rapid LD decay implied low tendency of markers inherited together. Genetic differentiation estimates were the highest between subgroups 4 and 5, and the lowest between subgroups 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Population genomic analysis of pearl millet inbred lines derived from diverse geographic and agroecological features identified five subgroups mostly following pedigree differences with different levels of admixture. It also revealed the prevalence of high genetic diversity in pearl millet, which is very useful in defining heterotic groups for hybrid breeding, trait mapping, and holds promise for improving pearl millet for yield and nutritional quality. The short LD decay observed suggests an absence of persistent haplotype blocks in pearl millet. The diverse genetic background of these lines and their low LD make this set of germplasm useful for traits mapping.


Assuntos
Pennisetum/genética , Alelos , Genômica , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Plant Genome ; 12(3): 1-12, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016587

RESUMO

CORE IDEAS: Mapping of GBS reads of 398 accessions to the draft genome sequence identified 82,112 SNPs Model-based clustering analysis revealed a hierarchical genetic structure of six subgroups Greater LD decay in the west-African subpopulation is likely due to long history of recombination Genetic differentiation analysis among subpopulations revealed variation in selection signatures Pearl millet [Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone syn. Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is one of the most extensively cultivated cereals in the world, after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. It is the main component of traditional farming systems and a staple food in the arid and semiarid regions of Africa and southern Asia. However, its genetic improvement is lagging behind other major cereals and the yield is still low. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were screened on a total of 398 accessions from different geographic regions to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD). By mapping the GBS reads to the reference genome sequence, 82,112 genome-wide SNPs were discovered. The telomeric regions of the chromosomes have the higher SNP density than in pericentromeric regions. Model-based clustering analysis of the population revealed a hierarchical genetic structure of six subgroups that mostly overlap with the geographic origins or sources of the genotypes but with differing levels of admixtures. A neighbor-joining phylogeny analysis revealed that germplasm from western Africa rooted the dendrogram with much diversity within each subgroup. Greater LD decay was observed in the west-African subpopulation than in the other subpopulations, indicating a long history of recombination among landraces. Also, genome scan of genetic differentiatation detected different selection histories among subpopulations. These results have potential application in the development of genomic-assisted breeding in pearl millet and heterotic grouping of the lines for improved hybrid performance.


Assuntos
Cenchrus , Pennisetum/genética , África , Ásia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
6.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1724, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920783

RESUMO

Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 1040, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Switchgrass, a warm-season perennial grass studied as a potential dedicated biofuel feedstock, is classified into two main taxa - lowland and upland ecotypes - that differ in morphology and habitat of adaptation. But there is limited information on their inherent molecular variations. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted for lowland and upland ecotypes to document their gene expression variations. Mapping of transcriptome to the reference genome (Panicum virgatum v1.1) revealed that the lowland and upland ecotypes differ substantially in sets of genes transcribed as well as levels of expression. Differential gene expression analysis exhibited that transcripts related to photosynthesis efficiency and development and photosystem reaction center subunits were upregulated in lowlands compared to upland genotype. On the other hand, catalase isozymes, helix-loop-helix, late embryogenesis abundant group I, photosulfokinases, and S-adenosyl methionine synthase gene transcripts were upregulated in the upland compared to the lowlands. At ≥100x coverage and ≥5% minor allele frequency, a total of 25,894 and 16,979 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were discovered for VS16 (upland ecotype) and K5 (lowland ecotype) against the reference genome. The allele combination of the SNPs revealed that the transition mutations are more prevalent than the transversion mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The gene ontology (GO) analysis of the transcriptome indicated lowland ecotype had significantly higher representation for cellular components associated with photosynthesis machinery controlling carbon fixation. In addition, using the transcriptome data, SNP markers were detected, which were distributed throughout the genome. The differentially expressed genes and SNP markers detected in this study would be useful resources for traits mapping and gene transfer across ecotypes in switchgrass breeding for increased biomass yield for biofuel conversion.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Panicum/genética , Panicum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Frequência do Gene , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Plant Genome ; 8(2): eplantgenome2014.10.0075, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228298

RESUMO

Switchgrass rust caused by Puccinia emaculata is a major limiting factor for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production, especially in monoculture. Natural populations of switchgrass displayed diverse reactions to P. emaculata when evaluated in an Ardmore, OK, field. To identify the differentially expressed genes during the rust infection process and the mechanisms of switchgrass rust resistance, transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq was conducted in two pseudo-F1 parents ('PV281' and 'NFGA472'), and three moderately resistant and three susceptible progenies selected from a three-generation, four-founder switchgrass population (K5 × A4) × (AP13 × VS16). On average, 23.5 million reads per sample (leaf tissue was collected at 0, 24, and 60 h post-inoculation (hpi)) were obtained from paired-end (2 × 100 bp) sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the switchgrass reference genome (AP13 ver. 1.1 assembly) constructed a total of 84,209 transcripts from 98,007 gene loci among all of the samples. Further analysis revealed that host defense-related genes, including the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat domain containing disease resistance gene analogs, play an important role in resistance to rust infection. Rust-induced gene (RIG) transcripts inherited across generations were identified. The rust-resistant gene transcripts can be a valuable resource for developing molecular markers for rust resistance. Furthermore, the rust-resistant genotypes and gene transcripts identified in this study can expedite rust-resistant cultivar development in switchgrass.

9.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 4(5): 913-23, 2014 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24637352

RESUMO

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Panicum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
J Econ Entomol ; 104(6): 2073-7, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299373

RESUMO

Fifteen buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm, genotypes and 94 diploid full-sib progeny were evaluated for western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), resistance in two separate studies. The experimental design for each study was a completely randomized design. Adult chinch bugs were introduced onto caged single clone genotypes and progeny in the greenhouse. Chinch bug damage was assessed using a 1-5 visual damage rating scale with 1 = < or = 10%; 2 = 11-30%; 3 = 31-50%; 4 = 51-70%; and 5 = > or = 70% of the buffalograss leaf area with severe discoloration, or dead tissue. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes and progeny for chinch bug damage. Among the genotypes, Legacy, Prestige, 184, 196, Bowie, NE 3297, NE 2769, and NE 2768 were moderately resistant with damage ratings of > 1, but < 3, while NE 2990, NE 2838, and 1-57-19 were moderately susceptible with damage ratings of > or = 3, but < 4. Among the progeny, one progeny (MP45) was highly resistant with a chinch bug damage rating of 1.0, 78 progeny (83%) had moderate resistance, with damage ratings of > 1.0 and < 3.0, 13 progeny (14%) were moderately susceptible with damage ratings ranging from 3.0 to 3.9, while only two were highly susceptible with damage ratings of > or = 4.0. The significant variability among genotypes and progeny for chinch bug resistance indicates the ability to improve buffalograss resistance to chinch bugs through selection or hybridization of selected genotypes.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Poaceae/genética , Animais , Preferências Alimentares , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Ninfa , Poaceae/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
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