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1.
Subst Abus ; : 1-22, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use and opioid use-related problems contribute significantly to increased morbidity rates and premature deaths as well as an increased economic burden. Nurses have key roles in providing care to this patient population; however, they often report low motivation toward working with these patients. Examining personal and professional attitudes associated with nurses' motivation to work with this population can present a valuable opportunity to enhance their willingness to intervene at an earlier stage when patients do not have a diagnosable opioid use disorder. Methods: A descriptive, correlational design was used. Nurses were recruited from four hospital settings in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Data on nurses' demographic/background characteristics, personal attitudes, professional attitudes, and motivation related to working with patients with opioid use and opioid use-related problems were collected via a paper/pencil survey and analyzed using linear regression. Results: A sample of 234 nurses were included in the final analyses. Personal attitudes associated with nurses' motivation included personal experience with a family member related to alcohol and/or other drugs, and stigma perceptions (familiarity, perceived dangerousness, fear, social distance and personal responsibility beliefs). Professional attitudes associated with nurses' motivation included working experience with substance use (SU), SU education as continuing education or other educational resources, role security, therapeutic commitment, role responsibility, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: This study's findings provide valuable information regarding the bivariate relationships between nurses' personal attitudes, professional attitudes, and motivation to work with patients with opioid use and opioid use-related problems. The study provides a base for future studies aimed at developing interventions to enhance nurses' motivation to work with this patient population particularly related to preventing the progression of opioid use to a diagnosable disorder.

2.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social cognitive theory posits that observing similar others succeed (i.e., vicarious experience) can improve self-efficacy. However, there are very limited data on the utility of vicarious experience in promoting physical activity (PA). This analysis examined the association between vicarious experience and leisure-time PA (LTPA) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of MESA participants who completed exam 5. LTPA and neighborhood factors were self-reported. Neighborhood factors were converted into aesthetic, walking, and safety scores. Group comparative analyses evaluated differences in variables of interest. The relationship between vicarious experience and recommended LTPA (≥ 7.5 MET-h/week) was assessed via logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS: Participants (N = 4579) were older (69.7 ± 9.4 years), 53% female, 41% Caucasian, 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese. Those who reported vicarious experience had 45% (95% CI 1.16-1.81) greater odds of attaining recommended LTPA. Unfavorable walking score was associated with lower odds of attaining recommended LTPA (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-1.00). The aesthetic and safety scales were not associated with LTPA (OR = 1.00 [95% CI 0.89-1.13] and OR = 0.91 [95% CI 0.82-1.10], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Programs exposing community-dwelling adults to peers engaging in PA could provide an effective public health approach to increase community-level PA participation.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research on the relationship between sleep and attempted weight loss failed to recognize the multidimensional nature of sleep. We examined the relationship between a composite measure of sleep health and change in weight and body composition among adults in a weight loss intervention. METHODS: Adults (N = 125) with overweight or obesity (50.3 ± 10.6 years, 91% female, 81% white) participated in a 12-month behavioral weight loss intervention, with assessments of sleep, weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Six sleep dimensions (regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) were categorized as "good" or "poor" using questionnaires and actigraphy. A composite score was calculated by summing the number of "good" dimensions. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was assessed in a subsample (n = 117), using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to determine OSA severity. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine the relationships between sleep health and outcomes of percent weight, fat mass, or fat-free mass change during the subsequent 6-month interval, adjusting for age, sex, bed partner, and race; an additional model adjusted for AHI. RESULTS: Mean baseline and 6-month sleep health was 4.5 ± 1.1 and 4.5 ± 1.2, respectively. Mean weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass changes from 0 to 6 months were -9.3 ± 6.1%, -16.9 ± 13.5%, and -3.4 ± 3.4%, respectively, and 0.4 ± 4.8%, -0.3 ± 10.3%, and 0.7 ± 4.1% from 6 to 12 months. Better sleep health was associated with greater subsequent weight loss (P = 0.016) and fat loss (P = 0.006), but not fat-free mass loss (P = 0.232). Following AHI adjustment, the association between sleep health and weight loss was attenuated (P = 0.102) but remained significant with fat loss (P = 0.040). Regularity, satisfaction, timing, and efficiency were each associated with weight and/or fat loss (P ≤ 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Better sleep health was associated with greater weight and fat loss, with associations attenuated after accounting for OSA severity. Future studies should explore whether improving sleep health, OSA, or the combination improves weight loss.

4.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210238

RESUMO

Physical activity may improve cognitive function in women with breast cancer. In a cross-sectional study, we explored the relationship between cognitive function and physical activity (actigraph) and cardiorespiratory fitness (sub-maximal graded exercise test) in 73 postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer prior to the initiation of systemic adjuvant therapy. Cognitive function was assessed with a standardized battery of neurocognitive measures assessing eight domains. Data were analyzed using partial correlations, controlling for age and total hours of actigraph wear-time. Women were, on average, 63.71 (± 5.3) years of age with 15.47 (± 2.48) years of education. For physical activity, greater average number of steps per day were associated with better attention (r = .262, p = .032) and psychomotor speed (r = .301, p = .011); greater average hours of moderate and moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity were associated with better visual memory (r = .241, p = .049; r = .241, p = .049, respectively); and greater average daily energy expenditure was associated with better visual memory (r = .270, p = .027) and psychomotor speed (r = .292, p = .017). For fitness, higher peak maximum VO2 was associated with better concentration (r = .330, p = .006), verbal memory (r = .241, p = .048), and working memory (r = .281, p = .019). These results suggest that higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with better cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) to examine whether physical activity improves cognitive function in women with breast cancer are warranted. These RCTs should also determine the mechanisms of the influence of physical activity on cognitive function. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02793921; Date: May 20, 2016.

5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108483, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038473

RESUMO

AIM: This study examined glycemia level over a 2-year period between portal users and non-users. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from electronic health records (EHRs) of a large academic medical center and its ancillary patient portal. A total of 15,528 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included. Using propensity score matching (PSM), portal users and non-users were balanced on demographic and clinical characteristics. Mixed-effects polynomial regression modeling was employed to evaluate the HbA1c change over time between groups. RESULTS: The patient sample was 85.9% (13,333) white and 52.5% (7375) male. On average, patients were 62.8 (SD, 11.7) years old and with obesity (mean BMI: 34.2 ± 7.2 kg/m2) with uncontrolled T2DM (initial HbA1c: 8.5 ± 1.5%). After PSM, portal users (n = 4924) and non-users (n = 4924) were matched on all variables except for the insurance. The mixed-effects modeling showed a nonlinear decrease of HbA1c in both groups over time. A significant interaction was observed with a greater decline, followed by a smaller rise of HbA1c in portal users than non-users. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the patient portal was significantly associated with a lower HbA1c. This finding supports patient portals as a promising tool for improving clinical outcomes in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

6.
Geriatr Nurs ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039202

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe older adults' social network and support during a physical activity intervention and its association with physical activity. Mixed methods were used for this secondary analysis of existing data from a physical activity intervention. Seventy-three participants who completed a session by telephone on using support comprised the sample. Participants reported on average approximately eight individuals in their social network. Half reported support for physical activity from a spouse/partner, adult child, or friend. Those who perceived support for self-reported physical activity tended to have greater improvements on average from baseline for mean daily minutes of physical activity than those with no perceived support. Four-fifths developed a plan for a spouse/partner, friend, adult child, or sibling to provide physical activity support. Participants reported that the session was helpful and increased their confidence in using support; over one-quarter intended to use support after the intervention ended.

7.
Toxics ; 8(3)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887300

RESUMO

The Pacific Island nation of Samoa is marked by prevalent obesity and an increasing dependence on packaged foods likely to contain the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA). We evaluated participant- and household-level characteristics associated with estimated dietary BPA exposure in Samoan mothers and their children and examined associations between dietary BPA exposure and body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference (AC). Dietary BPA exposure indices were estimated for 399 mother-child pairs by combining information from dietary questionnaires and relative concentrations of BPA measured in foods/beverages. We observed moderate to strong correlation between mother-child daily BPA indices (Spearman's rho = 0.7, p < 0.0001). In mothers, we observed lower daily BPA indices in those who were less physically active (p = 0.0004) and living in homes with higher income (p = 0.00001). In children, we observed lower daily BPA indices in those living in homes with higher income (p = 0.0003) and following a less modern dietary pattern (p = 0.002), and higher daily BPA indices in those who were less physically active (p = 0.02). No significant associations were observed between daily BPA indices and BMI or AC. Despite this, the application of the daily BPA index identified factors associated with dietary BPA exposure and warrants further examination in Samoa and other understudied populations.

8.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887850

RESUMO

A 6-month self-efficacy intervention was compared with attention-control intervention on physical activity, clinical outcomes, and mediators immediate postintervention and 6-month postintervention in 182 older adults with knee osteoarthritis and hypertension using a randomized controlled trial design. The intervention group received six weekly individual physical therapy sessions for lower-extremity exercise and fitness walking and nine biweekly nurse telephone counseling sessions. The attention-control group received six weekly and nine biweekly nurse telephone sessions on health topics. Lower-extremity exercise was assessed by e-diary; fitness walking was assessed by accelerometer and e-diary; blood pressure was assessed by automated monitor; function was assessed by performance-based tests and questionnaires; and pain, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy were assessed by questionnaires. Self-reported lower-extremity exercise and fitness walking, function, pain, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy showed significant group or group by time effects favoring intervention. The intervention did not improve physical activity by accelerometer and blood pressure. Mean minutes of fitness walking fell short of the 150 min/week goal.

9.
Diabetes Educ ; : 145721720958396, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in mood, diabetes-related distress, and functional outcomes in activities sensitive to impaired sleep in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and insomnia. This study also evaluated the associations of age, insomnia severity, and OSA severity on outcome variables. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of pooled baseline data from 2 randomized controlled trials among adults with T2DM with symptoms of sleep disorders (N = 145,109 younger adults, 36 older adults; 46.2% male; 67.6% white). Comorbid OSA and insomnia was defined as Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5 events per hour and Insomnia Severity Index ≥10. Outcome variables included mood, diabetes-related distress, and functional outcomes. RESULTS: Older adults reported better mood, lower diabetes-related distress, and higher functional outcomes relative to younger adults (all Ps < .05). Insomnia severity was associated with worse mood (b = 2.59, P < .001) and diabetes-related distress (b = 1.40, P < .001) and lower functional outcome (b = -0.22, P < .001). Older age was associated with lower diabetes-related distress (b = -0.44, P = .040). CONCLUSION: Older age was a protective factor of mood disturbance, diabetes-related distress, and functional impairment in adults with T2DM and comorbid OSA and insomnia. Insomnia severity was associated with greater mood disturbance, diabetes-related distress, and functional impairment when OSA and insomnia coexist. The results suggest that diabetes care and education specialists should assess patients for impaired sleep.

10.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of problem-solving is not well understood in behavioral weight loss interventions. In a 12-month behavioral weight loss study, we examined whether problem-solving changed over time and the relationships between problem-solving and changes in adherence to calorie, fat, and physical activity (PA) goals and percent weight change. METHODS: One of the 24 intervention sessions (15th) was devoted to problem-solving. Participants received individualized calorie and fat goals and were given a 150 min/week moderate-to-vigorous PA goal. Adherence to calorie/fat goals and PA goals was calculated at 1, 6, and 12 months using self-reported food intake in a mobile-based weight loss app and accelerometer data, respectively. Weight was measured via a digital scale at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. A general linear model was used to compare problem-solving across time points; post hoc linear mixed modeling was used to examine the relationships between problem-solving and changes in adherence to lifestyle goals and percent weight change. RESULTS: The sample (N = 150) was mostly female (90.7%), white (80.70%), with a mean age of 51.1 ± 10.2 years, and a mean body mass index of 34.1 + 4.6 kg/m2. The mean total score of problem-solving at baseline was 81.2 ± 12.3. Problem-solving total and subscale scores did not significantly change over time. Baseline problem-solving was not significantly associated with changes in adherence to lifestyle goals and percent weight change (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A behavioral weight loss study did not impact problem-solving, and problem-solving may not influence lifestyle adherence and weight changes. Future work needs to examine problem-solving in larger and more diverse samples.

11.
Nurs Res ; 69(5): 404-411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival for Black women with breast cancer in the United States is lower than White women for stage-matched disease. Our past and ongoing work and that of others suggest that symptom incidence, cancer-related distress, and ineffective communication contribute to racial disparity in dose reduction and early therapy termination. Although race is perhaps the most studied social determinant of health, it is clear that race alone does not account for all disparities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to present a study protocol of Black and White women prescribed breast cancer chemotherapy. The aims are to (1) examine and compare chemotherapy received/prescribed over time and in total; (2a) examine and compare symptom incidence, distress, and management and clinical encounter, including patient-centeredness of care and management experience over time and (2b) correlate symptom incidence, distress, and management experience to Aim 1; and (3) explore the effects of social determinants of health, including age, income, education, zip code, and lifetime stress exposure, on Aims 1, 2a, and 2b. METHODS: A longitudinal, repeated-measures (up to 18 time points), comparative, mixed-methods design is employed with 179 White and 179 Black women from 10 sites in Western Pennsylvania and Northeast Ohio over the course of chemotherapy and for 2 years following completion of therapy. RESULTS: The study began in January 2018, with estimated complete data collection by late 2023. DISCUSSION: This study is among the first to explore the mechanistic process for racial disparity in dosage and delay across the breast cancer chemotherapy course. It will be an important contribution to the explanatory model for breast cancer treatment disparity and may advance potential mitigation strategies for racial survival disparity.

12.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(4): 356-364, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491206

RESUMO

Emergency department (ED) nurses need to identify patients with potential acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rapidly because treatment delay could impact patient outcomes. Aims of this secondary analysis were to identify key patient factors that could be available at initial ED nurse triage that predict ACS. Consecutive patients with chest pain who called 9-1-1, received a 12-lead electrocardiogram in the prehospital setting, and were transported via emergency medical service were included in the study. A total of 750 patients were recruited. The sample had an average age of 59 years old, was 57% male, and 40% Black. One hundred and fifteen patients were diagnosed with ACS. Older age, non-Caucasian race, and faster respiratory rate were independent predictors of ACS. There was an interaction between heart rate by Type II diabetes receiving insulin in the context of ACS. Type II diabetics requiring insulin for better glycemic control manifested a faster heart rate. By identifying patient factors at ED nurse triage that could be predictive of ACS, accuracy rates of triage may improve, thus impacting patient outcomes.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(9): 1330-1337, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker disclosure has no discernable psychological impact on cognitively healthy persons. Far less is known about how such results affect symptomatic individuals and their caregivers. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial of 82 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patient and caregiver dyads (total n = 164) to determine the effect of receiving amyloid positron emission tomography results on understanding of, and perceived efficacy to cope with, MCI over 52 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Gains in the primary outcomes were not consistently observed. Amyloid negative patients reported greater perceived ambiguity regarding MCI at follow-up, while moderate and sustained emotional distress was observed in patients, and to a lesser extent, caregivers, of those who were amyloid positive. There was no corresponding increase in depressive symptoms. DISCUSSION: These findings point to the possibility that both MCI patients and caregivers may need emotional support after the disclosure of amyloid scan results.

14.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 34(5): 418-423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) girls have double the risk of obesity, pregnancy, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than the general U.S. POPULATION: The purpose of this study was to beta test Stopping GDM (SGDM), a GDM risk reduction intervention for at-risk AIAN teens, before beginning a randomized controlled trial. METHOD: A sample of 11 AIAN mothers and daughters were recruited through an urban Indian health program. Daughters were at risk of GDM as assessed by a BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Pre- and posttest online questionnaires evaluated the online intervention (e-book and video). RESULTS: Mean pre- to posttest knowledge increased for mothers and daughters on diabetes prevention, reproductive health, and GDM knowledge. Daughters demonstrated an increased self-efficacy for healthy living and pregnancy planning. Satisfaction for the e-book, video, and online survey was moderately high to very high. DISCUSSION: The SGDM intervention is feasible and acceptable in AIAN mother-daughter dyads. These findings informed the SGDM intervention and the randomized controlled trial evaluation protocol.

15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(4): e17328, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several recent trials have examined the feasibility and efficacy of automated SMS text messaging to provide remote breastfeeding support to mothers, but these texting systems vary in terms of design features and outcomes examined. OBJECTIVE: This study examined user engagement with and feedback on a theory-grounded SMS text messaging intervention intended to prevent perceived insufficient milk (PIM)-the single, leading modifiable cause of unintended breastfeeding reduction and cessation. METHODS: We recruited 250 nulliparous individuals intending to breastfeed between 13 and 25 weeks of pregnancy in southwestern Pennsylvania. Participants were randomly assigned with equal allocation to either an SMS intervention to prevent PIM and unintended breastfeeding reduction or cessation (MILK, a Mobile, semiautomated text message-based Intervention to prevent perceived Low or insufficient milK supply; n=126) or a control group receiving general perinatal SMS text messaging-based support via the national, free Text4Baby system (n=124). Participants in both groups received SMS text messages 3 to 7 times per week from 25 weeks of pregnancy to 8 weeks postpartum. The MILK intervention incorporated several automated interactivity and personalization features (eg, keyword texting for more detailed information on topics and branched response logic) as well as an option to receive one-on-one assistance from an on-call study lactation consultant. We examined participant interactions with the MILK system, including response rates to SMS text messaging queries. We also sought participant feedback on MILK content, delivery preferences, and overall satisfaction with the system via interviews and a remote survey at 8 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Participants randomized to MILK (87/124, 70.2% white and 84/124, 67.7% college educated) reported that MILK texts increased their breastfeeding confidence and helped them persevere through breastfeeding problems. Of 124 participants, 9 (7.3%) elected to stop MILK messages, and 3 (2.4%) opted to reduce message frequency during the course of the study. There were 46 texts through the MILK system for individualized assistance from the study lactation consultant (25/46, 54% on weekends or after-hours). The most commonly texted keywords for more detailed information occurred during weeks 4 to 6 postpartum and addressed milk volume intake and breastfeeding and sleep patterns. MILK participants stated a preference for anticipatory guidance on potential breastfeeding issues and less content addressing the benefits of breastfeeding. Suggested improvements included extending messaging past 8 weeks, providing access to messaging for partners, and tailoring content based on participants' pre-existing breastfeeding knowledge and unique breastfeeding trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal and postpartum evidence-based breastfeeding support delivered via semiautomated SMS text messaging is a feasible and an acceptable intervention for first-time mothers. To optimize engagement with digital breastfeeding interventions, enhanced customization features should be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02724969; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02724969.

16.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of sex differences in self-reported mood, sleep quality, daytime function, and excessive daytime sleepiness in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in these subjective sleep outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) either at high risk for OSA or diagnosed with OSA. METHODS: Measures included OSA severity by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and self-reported questionnaires: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), functional outcomes of sleep quality questionnaire (FOSQ), and the profile of mood states (POMS). Relevant individual, social, and health determinants were included as covariates. RESULTS: A total of 350 participants with T2D [Mean A1C 8.0% (SD ±1.8)] had mean age 56.5 (SD ±10.5) and were balanced by sex (51% men) and race (60% white, 40% non-white). Reports of sleep quality and daytime function were worse in women than in men (p <0.05), whereas men had more severe OSA than women (p <0.05). In fully adjusted models, there was no moderation by sex in the relations between AHI and the sleep outcome measures. AHI showed a significant association with ESS but not PSQI, FOSQ, or POMS. CONCLUSION: In participants with T2D at high risk for or diagnosed with OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with OSA severity, but not self-reported sleep quality, daytime function, or mood. While women reported worse outcomes associated with sleep, these outcomes were not associated with OSA severity.

17.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illness perceptions, patients' beliefs about their health condition, may affect medication adherence as well as self-efficacy for managing the condition in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between illness perceptions, self-efficacy, and self-reported medication adherence among persons (≥50 years of age) with T2DM and explore whether the number of comorbid conditions moderates these associations. METHODS: This secondary analysis of cross-sectional data used baseline data from persons with T2DM. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease, and the 4-item Morisky-Green-Levine Medication Adherence Scale, were used. We performed hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Participants (N = 146) were 57.5% female, 67.1% white, and on average 64 years old. Six dimensions of illness perceptions (ie, consequences, personal control, treatment control, identity, concerns, and emotional representations) were associated with self-efficacy for managing T2DM. Five dimensions (ie, timeline, personal control, treatment control, coherence, and emotional representations) were significant predictors of self-reported medication adherence. Whereas the number of comorbid conditions was significantly associated with self-efficacy for managing T2DM in all models (P values < .001), the number of comorbid conditions was not associated with self-reported medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that illness perceptions and comorbid conditions may play a critical role in either self-efficacy or self-reported medication adherence in persons (≥50 years of age) with T2DM. Future research should incorporate an individual's illness perceptions and comorbid conditions into the development of interventions that may improve both self-efficacy and medication adherence in T2DM.

18.
JMIR Aging ; 3(1): e15995, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported older adults' perceptions of using health monitors; however, no studies have examined the actual use of multiple health monitors for lifestyle changes over time among older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the actual use of multiple health monitors for lifestyle changes over 3 months among older adults with T2D. The secondary aim was to explore changes in caloric intake and physical activity (PA) over 3 months. METHODS: This was a single-group study lasting 3 months. The study sample included participants who were aged ≥65 years with a diagnosis of T2D. Participants were recruited through fliers posted at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. Participants attended five 60-min, biweekly group sessions, which focused on self-monitoring, goal setting, self-regulation to achieve healthy eating and PA habits, and the development of problem-solving skills. Participants were provided with the Lose It! app to record daily food intake and devices such as a Fitbit Alta for monitoring PA, a Bluetooth-enabled blood glucose meter, and a Bluetooth-enabled digital scale. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: Of the enrolled participants (N=9), the sample was white (8/9, 89%) and female (4/9, 44%), with a mean age of 76.4 years (SD 6.0; range 69-89 years), 15.7 years (SD 2.0) of education, 33.3 kg/m2 (SD 3.1) BMI, and 7.4% (SD 0.8) hemoglobin A1c. Over the 84 days of self-monitoring, the mean percentage of days using the Lose It!, Fitbit Alta, blood glucose meter, and scale were 82.7 (SD 17.6), 85.2 (SD 19.7), 65.3 (SD 30.1), and 53.0 (SD 34.5), respectively. From baseline to completion of the study, the mean daily calorie intake was 1459 (SD 661) at week 1, 1245 (SD 554) at week 11, and 1333 (SD 546) at week 12, whereas the mean daily step counts were 5618 (SD 3654) at week 1, 5792 (SD 3814) at week 11, and 4552 (SD 3616) at week 12. The mean percentage of weight loss from baseline was 4.92% (SD 0.25). The dose of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin was reduced in 55.6% (5/9) of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the pilot study are encouraging and suggest the need for a larger study to confirm the outcomes. In addition, a study design that includes a control group with educational sessions but without the integration of technology would offer additional insight to understand the value of mobile health in behavior changes and the health outcomes observed during this pilot study.

19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 91: 105958, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring food intake and physical activity (PA) is positively related to weight loss and the addition of feedback (FB) messages has been shown to reinforce behavior change. Moreover, the more immediate the delivery of reinforcing FB messages, the more likely they will promote the desired behaviors. PURPOSE: Describe design and rationale of SMARTER, a National Institute of Heart, Lung, and Blood (NHLBI)-sponsored randomized, controlled trial, which compares the differential efficacy of two weight loss treatments among 530 adults, ages 18 and older. METHODS: Single-site, 2-group design trial with subjects randomized 1:1 to either: 1) self-monitoring (SM), where participants self-monitor diet, PA, and weight using a commercial smartphone application (app); or 2) SM + FB, where participants self-monitor and receive real-time, tailored feedback (FB) as pop-up messages up to 3 times/day for 12 months. Daily FB messages address diet and PA behaviors and a weekly FB message addresses self-weighing. We hypothesize that subjects assigned to SM + FB will show greater weight loss at 6 and 12 months and greater sustained engagement in the program than the SM group, measured by adherence to the study's lifestyle and SM protocol. We will explore temporal relationships of the frequency, timing, and type of FB delivered and subsequent lifestyle behaviors through examination of serially collected real-time SM (diet, PA, weight) data over 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: If efficacious, this fully scalable intervention could be efficiently translated and disseminated to reach large numbers of individuals through commercial apps at lower cost than existing in-person weight loss programs.

20.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 35(6): 550-557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is a widely used tool to triage patients in emergency departments. The ESI tool is used to assess all complaints and has significant limitation for accurately triaging patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the accuracy of ESI in predicting serious outcomes in suspected ACS and aimed to assess the incremental reclassification performance if ESI is supplemented with a clinically validated tool used to risk-stratify suspected ACS. METHODS: We used existing data from an observational cohort study of patients with chest pain. We extracted ESI scores documented by triage nurses during routine medical care. Two independent reviewers adjudicated the primary outcome, incidence of 30-day major adverse cardiac events. We compared ESI with the well-established modified HEAR/T (patient History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, but without Troponin) score. RESULTS: Our sample included 750 patients (age, 59 ± 17 years; 43% female; 40% black). A total of 145 patients (19%) experienced major adverse cardiac event. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ESI score for predicting major adverse cardiac event was 0.656, compared with 0.796 for the modified HEAR/T score. Using the modified HEAR/T score, 181 of the 391 false positives (46%) and 16 of the 19 false negatives (84%) assigned by ESI could be reclassified correctly. CONCLUSION: The ESI score is poorly associated with serious outcomes in patients with suspected ACS. Supplementing the ESI tool with input from other validated clinical tools can greatly improve the accuracy of triage in patients with suspected ACS.

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