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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 825-838, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a serious issue for all patients with classical Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) because it causes severe and life-threatening bleeding. Lentiviral gene therapy (GT) for WAS has shown promising results in terms of immune reconstitution. However, despite the reduced severity and frequency of bleeding events, platelet counts remain low in GT-treated patients. OBJECTIVE: We carefully investigated platelet defects in terms of phenotype and function in untreated patients with WAS and assessed the effect of GT treatment on platelet dysfunction. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 20 patients with WAS/XLT, 15 of them receiving GT. Platelet phenotype and function were analyzed by using electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and an aggregation assay. Platelet protein composition was assessed before and after GT by means of proteomic profile analysis. RESULTS: We show that platelets from untreated patients with WAS have reduced size, abnormal ultrastructure, and a hyperactivated phenotype at steady state, whereas activation and aggregation responses to agonists are decreased. GT restores platelet size and function early after treatment and reduces the hyperactivated phenotype proportionally to WAS protein expression and length of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the coexistence of morphologic and multiple functional defects in platelets lacking WAS protein and demonstrates that GT normalizes the platelet proteomic profile with consequent restoration of platelet ultrastructure and phenotype, which might explain the observed reduction of bleeding episodes after GT. These results are instrumental also from the perspective of a future clinical trial in patients with XLT only presenting with microthrombocytopenia.

2.
Blood ; 132(22): 2362-2374, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254128

RESUMO

ARPC1B is a key factor for the assembly and maintenance of the ARP2/3 complex that is involved in actin branching from an existing filament. Germline biallelic mutations in ARPC1B have been recently described in 6 patients with clinical features of combined immunodeficiency (CID), whose neutrophils and platelets but not T lymphocytes were studied. We hypothesized that ARPC1B deficiency may also lead to cytoskeleton and functional defects in T cells. We have identified biallelic mutations in ARPC1B in 6 unrelated patients with early onset disease characterized by severe infections, autoimmune manifestations, and thrombocytopenia. Immunological features included T-cell lymphopenia, low numbers of naïve T cells, and hyper-immunoglobulin E. Alteration in ARPC1B protein structure led to absent/low expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This molecular defect was associated with the inability of patient-derived T cells to extend an actin-rich lamellipodia upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and to assemble an immunological synapse. ARPC1B-deficient T cells additionally displayed impaired TCR-mediated proliferation and SDF1-α-directed migration. Gene transfer of ARPC1B in patients' T cells using a lentiviral vector restored both ARPC1B expression and T-cell proliferation in vitro. In 2 of the patients, in vivo somatic reversion restored ARPC1B expression in a fraction of lymphocytes and was associated with a skewed TCR repertoire. In 1 revertant patient, memory CD8+ T cells expressing normal levels of ARPC1B displayed improved T-cell migration. Inherited ARPC1B deficiency therefore alters T-cell cytoskeletal dynamics and functions, contributing to the clinical features of CID.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(4): 1272-1284, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, infections, and susceptibility to autoimmunity and malignancies. Thrombocytopenia is a constant finding, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: To dissect the basis of the WAS platelet defect, we used a novel conditional mouse model (CoWas) lacking Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) only in the megakaryocytic lineage in the presence of a normal immunologic environment, and in parallel we analyzed samples obtained from patients with WAS. METHODS: Phenotypic and functional characterization of megakaryocytes and platelets in mutant CoWas mice and patients with WAS with and without autoantibodies was performed. Platelet antigen expression was examined through a protein expression profile and cluster proteomic interaction network. Platelet immunogenicity was tested by using ELISAs and B-cell and platelet cocultures. RESULTS: CoWas mice showed increased megakaryocyte numbers and normal thrombopoiesis in vitro, but WASp-deficient platelets had short lifespan and high expression of activation markers. Proteomic analysis identified signatures compatible with defects in cytoskeletal reorganization and metabolism yet surprisingly increased antigen-processing capabilities. In addition, WASp-deficient platelets expressed high levels of surface and soluble CD40 ligand and were capable of inducing B-cell activation in vitro. WASp-deficient platelets were highly immunostimulatory in mice and triggered the generation of antibodies specific for WASp-deficient platelets, even in the context of a normal immune system. Patients with WAS also showed platelet hyperactivation and increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand levels correlating with the presence of autoantibodies. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings suggest that intrinsic defects in WASp-deficient platelets decrease their lifespan and dysregulate immune responses, corroborating the role of platelets as modulators of inflammation and immunity.

4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 103(3): 577-590, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851742

RESUMO

Microthrombocytopenia is the clinical hallmark of WAS, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency that is characterized by eczema, autoimmunity, and cancer susceptibility. This disease is caused by mutations in the WAS gene, which is expressed in hematopoietic cells and regulates actin cytoskeleton remodeling thereby modulating various cellular functions, including motility, immunologic synapse assembly, and signaling. Despite extensive studies that have provided great insight into the relevance of this molecule to innate and cellular immunity, the exact mechanisms of microthrombocytopenia in WAS are still unknown. This review focuses on the recent progress made in dissecting the pathogenesis of platelet defects in patients with WAS and their murine counterparts. In parallel, we will provide an overview of the state-of-the art platelets as immune modulators at the interface between hemostasis and the immune system, which suggests that these cells may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of immune dysregulation in WAS.

5.
Front Immunol ; 8: 490, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512459

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene encoding the hematopoietic-specific WAS protein (WASp). WAS is frequently associated with autoimmunity, indicating a critical role of WASp in maintenance of tolerance. The role of B cells in the induction of autoreactive immune responses in WAS has been investigated in several settings, but the mechanisms leading to the development of autoimmune manifestations have been difficult to evaluate in the mouse models of the disease that do not spontaneously develop autoimmunity. We performed an extensive characterization of Was-/- mice that provided evidence of the potential alteration in B cell selection, because of the presence of autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA, platelets, and tissue antigens. To uncover the mechanisms leading to the activation of the potentially autoreactive B cells in Was-/- mice, we performed in vivo chronic stimulations with toll-like receptors agonists (LPS and CpG) and apoptotic cells or infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. All treatments led to increased production of autoantibodies, increased proteinuria, and kidney tissue damage in Was-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that a lower clearance of pathogens and/or self-antigens and the resulting chronic inflammatory state could cause B cell tolerance breakdown leading to autoimmunity in WAS.

6.
J Immunol ; 194(9): 4144-53, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25825446

RESUMO

The immune and the skeletal system are tightly interconnected, and B lymphocytes are uniquely endowed with osteo-interactive properties. In this context, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in lymphoid tissue formation and bone homeostasis. Although murine models lacking RANK or RANKL show defects in B cell number, the role of the RANKL-RANK axis on B physiology is still a matter of debate. In this study, we have characterized in detail B cell compartment in Rankl(-/-) mice, finding a relative expansion of marginal zone B cells, B1 cells, and plasma cells associated with increased Ig serum levels, spontaneous germinal center formation, and hyperresponse to CD40 triggering. Such abnormalities were associated with an increased frequency of regulatory B cells and augmented B cell-derived IL-10 production. Remarkably, in vivo IL-10-R blockade reduced T cell-triggered plasma cell differentiation and restrained the expansion of regulatory B cells. These data point to a novel role of the RANKL-RANK axis in the regulation of B cell homeostasis and highlight an unexpected link between IL-10 CD40 signaling and the RANKL pathway.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Ligante RANK/deficiência , Ligante RANK/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(3): 692-702.e2, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and susceptibility to autoimmunity and lymphomas. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice; however, administration of WAS gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative therapeutic approach. OBJECTIVE: Because B-cell homeostasis is perturbed in patients with WAS and restoration of immune competence is one of the main therapeutic goals, we have evaluated reconstitution of the B-cell compartment in 4 patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cells transduced with lentiviral vector after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen combined with anti-CD20 administration. METHODS: We evaluated B-cell counts, B-cell subset distribution, B cell-activating factor and immunoglobulin levels, and autoantibody production before and after gene therapy (GT). WAS gene transfer in B cells was assessed by measuring vector copy numbers and expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. RESULTS: After lentiviral vector-mediated GT, the number of transduced B cells progressively increased in the peripheral blood of all patients. Lentiviral vector-transduced progenitor cells were able to repopulate the B-cell compartment with a normal distribution of B-cell subsets both in bone marrow and the periphery, showing a WAS protein expression profile similar to that of healthy donors. In addition, after GT, we observed a normalized frequency of autoimmune-associated CD19(+)CD21(-)CD35(-) and CD21(low) B cells and a reduction in B cell-activating factor levels. Immunoglobulin serum levels and autoantibody production improved in all treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that lentiviral vector-mediated GT induces transgene expression in the B-cell compartment, resulting in ameliorated B-cell development and functionality and contributing to immunologic improvement in patients with WAS.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Lentivirus/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Transdução Genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/imunologia , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/patologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/imunologia
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 153(6): 781-9, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16322383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HIV lipodystrophy is a common complication of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, characterized by both metabolic and morphological features. The most feared morphological feature is body fat redistribution leading to HIV lipodystrophy. GH is known to induce reduction of visceral obesity and body fat redistribution in adults. DESIGN: A crossover, double-blind protocol of GH treatment (6 months of recombinant human GH (rhGH) at 0.2 IU/kg per week) vs placebo (6 months of placebo with a 2 month wash-out between periods) was performed. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Thirty HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy were recruited in the Outpatient Clinic of the Division of Infectious Diseases of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: Our data demonstrate an effect of low-dose rhGH administration in reducing trunk adiposity in HIV patients with lipodystrophy (Delta from basal: -394 +/- 814 g, P = 0.048 with respect to placebo. Data are given as mean +/- standard deviation). A trend to an increase of arm depots was also shown (Delta from basal: +43 +/- 384 g, P = NS with respect to placebo). Interestingly, no detrimental metabolic effects on glucose tolerance and lipid levels were found following the administration of 0.2 IU/kg per week of rhGH for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose GH administration is an effective treatment in reducing trunk obesity in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Lipodistrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipodistrofia/etiologia , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
10.
Diabetes Care ; 27(11): 2716-22, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15505010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to ascertain whether insulin resistance with respect to protein metabolism is an additional primary metabolic abnormality affecting insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic parents, along with insulin resistance with respect to glucose and lipid metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 18 young, nonobese offspring of type 2 diabetic parents and 27 healthy matched (by means of dual-energy X-ray absorption) individuals with the bolus plus continuous infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose and [1-(13)C]leucine in combination with the insulin clamp (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1)). RESULTS: Fasting plasma leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and glutamine concentrations, as well as the glucose and leucine turnover (reciprocal pool model: 155 +/- 10 vs. 165 +/- 5 micromol x kg lean body mass(-1) x h(-1) in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients and healthy matched individuals, respectively), were also not different. During the clamp, glucose turnover rates were significantly reduced in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients (7.1 +/- 0.5) in comparison with healthy matched individuals (9.9 +/- 0.6 mg x kg lean body mass(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.01). Also, the suppression of leucine turnover was impaired in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients (12 +/- 1%) in comparison with healthy matched individuals (17 +/- 1%; P = 0.04) and correlated with the degree of the impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism (R(2) = 0.13; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Nonobese, nondiabetic, insulin-resistant offspring of type 2 diabetic patients were characterized by an impairment of insulin-dependent suppression of protein breakdown, which was proportional to the impairment of glucose metabolism. These results demonstrate that in humans, a primary in vivo impairment of insulin action affects glucose and fatty acid metabolism as previously shown and also protein/amino acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Homeostase/genética , Insulina/farmacologia , Leucina/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 286(1): E129-35, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12824085

RESUMO

Extrahepatic glucose release was evaluated during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation in 14 recipients for localized hepatocarcinoma with mild or absent cirrhosis, who received a bolus of [6,6-2H2]glucose and l-[3-13C]alanine or l-[1,2-13C2]glutamine to measure glucose kinetics and to prove whether gluconeogenesis occurred from alanine and glutamine. Twelve were studied again 7 mo thereafter along with seven healthy subjects. At the beginning of the anhepatic phase, plasma glucose was increased and then declined by 15%/h. The right kidney released glucose, with an arteriovenous gradient of -3.7 mg/dl. Arterial and portal glucose concentrations were similar. The glucose clearance was 25% reduced, but glucose uptake was similar to that of the control groups. Glucose production was 9.5 +/- 0.9 micromol.kg-1. min-1, 30% less than in controls. Glucose became enriched with 13C from alanine and especially glutamine, proving the extrahepatic gluconeogenesis. The gluconeogenic precursors alanine, glutamine, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol, insulin, and the counterregulatory hormones epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone, and glucagon were increased severalfold. Extrahepatic organs synthesize glucose at a rate similar to that of postabsorptive healthy subjects when hepatic production is absent, and gluconeogenic precursors and counterregulatory hormones are markedly increased. The kidney is the main, but possibly not the unique, source of extrahepatic glucose production.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Adulto , Alanina/metabolismo , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Transplantation ; 76(4): 697-702, 2003 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12973112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of hepatogenous diabetes and influences the prognosis of chronic liver diseases. In vivo assessment of insulin resistance in humans is expensive; therefore, surrogate indices based on a fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (HOMA-IS, QUICKI) were proposed. This study aimed to test whether these simple indices are reliable measures of insulin sensitivity in patients with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation (LTx). METHODS: HOMA-IS and QUICKI were compared with insulin sensitivity as assessed with the gold standard technique (insulin clamp) in 20 patients with liver cirrhosis, in 36 patients after LTx, and in 25 matched healthy subjects (predominantly men). To test whether these indices may be applied also in prospective studies, 10 patients with liver cirrhosis were studied longitudinally before and 2 years after LTx. RESULTS: Both HOMA-IS and QUICKI were associated with insulin sensitivity in patients with liver cirrhosis (r=0.63, P=0.005 and r=0.60, P=0.009) and in LTx patients (r=0.41, P=0.02 and r=0.46, P=0.05). Both were able to detect the improvement of insulin sensitivity after LTx in the patients studied prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: HOMA-IS and QUICKI are simple reliable tools to assess insulin sensitivity in clinical and epidemiologic investigations of chronic liver disease before and after LTx.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 285(6): E1174-81, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12933352

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor of type 2 diabetes (T2DM); in contrast, in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) it is considered a secondary alteration. Increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content accumulation and reduced plasma adiponectin were suggested to be pathogenic events of insulin resistance in T2DM. This study was designed to assess whether IMCL content and plasma adiponectin were also associated with the severity of insulin resistance in T1DM. We studied 18 patients with T1DM, 7 older and overweight/obese patients with T2DM, and 15 nondiabetic, insulin-resistant offspring of T2DM parents (OFF) and 15 healthy individuals (NOR) as appropriate control groups matched for anthropometric features with T1DM patients by means of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with the infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscles. T1DM and T2DM patients showed reduced insulin-stimulated glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR: 5.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.8 ml x kg(-1) min(-1)) similar to OFF (5.3 +/- 0.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) compared with NOR (8.5 +/- 0.5 ml x kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.001). Soleus IMCL content was increased in T1DM (112 +/- 15 AU), T2DM (108 +/- 10 AU) and OFF (82 +/- 13 AU) compared with NOR (52 +/- 7 AU, P < 0.05) and the result was inversely proportional to the MCR (R2 = 0.27, P < 0.001); an association between IMCL content and Hb A1c was found only in T1DM (R2 = 0.57, P < 0.001). Fasting plasma adiponectin was reduced in T2DM (7 +/- 1 microg/ml, P = 0.01) and OFF (11 +/- 1 microg/ml, P = 0.03) but not in T1DM (25 +/- 6 microg/ml), whose plasma level was increased with respect to both OFF (P = 0.03) and NOR (16 +/- 2 microg/ml, P = 0.05). In conclusion, in T1DM, T2DM, and OFF, IMCL content was associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating that IMCL accretion is a marker of insulin resistance common to both primary genetically determined and secondary metabolic (chronic hyperglycemia) alterations. The increased adiponectin levels in insulin-resistant patients with T1DM, in contrast to the reduced levels found in patients with T2DM and in OFF, demonstrated that the relationship of adiponectin to insulin resistance in humans is still unclear.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adiponectina , Adulto , Tornozelo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas/análise , Estatística como Assunto
15.
Diabetes Care ; 26(7): 2112-8, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12832322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myotonic dystrophy (MyD), the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy, is often complicated by diabetes. MyD is dominantly inherited and is due to heterozygosity for a trinucleotide repeat expansion mutation in a protein kinase gene able to induce derangement of RNA metabolism responsible of an aberrant insulin receptor expression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To assess insulin sensitivity and secretion before the onset of diabetes, we studied 10 MyD patients, 10 offspring of type 2 diabetes (OFF), and 10 healthy subjects with no family history of diabetes (control subjects) with dual X-ray energy absorption, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/[m(2). min]) combined with infusion of [6,6-D(2)]-glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: MyD had reduced lean body mass, but peripheral insulin sensitivity was not different to that of control subjects in contrast to OFF, which showed insulin resistance. Insulin secretion, obtained by deconvolution of OGTT data, was also shown to be comparable with that of OFF and control subjects (index of beta-cell function = Phi; P = 0.91) even if increased parameters of insulin secretion were found during the first 30 min (Phi(30); P = 0.05) of the oral glucose challenge. Fasting plasma proinsulin concentrations (P = 0.01) and the ratio to insulin (P = 0.01) were increased in MyD patients. The proinsulin levels also failed to be suppressed during the clamp and showed exaggerated response after the OGTT. Increased proinsulin levels were shown to be peculiar of MyD patients when compared with OFF. CONCLUSIONS: In nondiabetic, young MyD patients, insulin sensitivity was preserved, and an increased early secretory response to oral glucose was detected. Abnormal plasma proinsulin levels in the fasting state, during the clamp, and during the OGTT were shown to be secretory dysfunctions peculiar of MyD patients and may be more important than insulin resistance in determining the high risk to develop diabetes in these patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Distrofia Miotônica/complicações , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Cinética , Masculino , Distrofia Miotônica/sangue , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Familiar
16.
Transplantation ; 75(12): 2018-23, 2003 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12829904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A corticosteroid (CS)-free immunosuppressive regimen may be considered less diabetogenic than treatments including CSs principally after pancreas transplantation. METHODS: To test whether a CS-free immunosuppressive treatment is metabolically superior to a regimen including CSs, we prospectively studied 19 CS-free simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant recipients (body mass index=22+/-1 kg/m2; cyclosporine dose=400+/-19 mg/kg/day; azathioprine dose=77+/-8 mg/day; basal plasma C-peptide=1.3+/-0.12 ng/mL) and 12 matched CS-treated SPK transplant recipients (prednisone dose=9+/-1 mg/day; basal C-peptide=2.2+/-0.2 ng/mL) by means of the 6,6-2H(2)-glucose infusion and the euglycemic insulin clamp (1 mU/kg/min, insulin infusion rate). In addition, six renal transplant recipients receiving a CS-free regimen were also studied as a control group. RESULTS: In the postabsorptive state, CS-treated SPK transplant recipients demonstrated comparable plasma glucose levels but higher plasma insulin levels than CS-free SPK transplant recipients. Plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in CS-treated SPK patients than in CS-free SPK patients (1.16+/-0.16 mg/dL vs. 0.88+/-0.08; P<0.05). High-density lipoprotein and apoprotein A(1) levels were similar in both groups. No difference was observed in pyruvate, lactate, beta-OH-butyrate, and basal endogenous glucose production in all three groups of patients studied. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, the inhibition of endogenous glucose production and the stimulation of tissue glucose disposal were not statistically different among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: SPK recipients receiving chronic low-dose CS maintenance therapy do not present a lower glucose disposal than CS-free recipients. Nonetheless, this is obtained at the expense of a higher endogenous insulin secretion, which can cause an alteration of the triglyceride profile.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/cirurgia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/fisiologia , Transplante de Pâncreas/fisiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo C/sangue , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/imunologia , Cinética , Masculino , Transplante de Pâncreas/imunologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico
17.
Diabetes Care ; 25(12): 2207-11, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12453962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether simple indexes of insulin sensitivity based on a fasting blood sample may be reliable measures of insulin sensitivity in combined kidney-pancreas- transplanted patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Estimates of insulin sensitivity based on fasting plasma glucose, insulin (homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity [HOMA-IS], Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index [QUICKI]), and free fatty acid (revised QUICKI) concentrations were compared with insulin sensitivity as assessed with the gold standard technique (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) in 22 patients who had undergone kidney-pancreas transplantation (KP-Tx) and 18 matched healthy subjects (NOR). RESULTS: In KP-Tx patients, indexes based on the glucose-insulin product, HOMA-IS (r = 0.47, P = 0.03) and QUICKI (r = 0.47, P = 0.03), were shown to be reliable measures of insulin sensitivity. The introduction of fasting plasma free fatty acid concentration in the revised QUICKI (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001) considerably improved the power of prediction of the clamp-based measure of insulin sensitivity as observed in the healthy control subjects (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in KP-Tx patients, HOMA-IS and QUICKI are reliable measures of insulin sensitivity; the additional incorporation of fasting plasma free fatty acid concentration into the glucose-insulin product (revised QUICKI) resulted in a considerably more powerful index.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Transplante de Rim/fisiologia , Transplante de Pâncreas/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejum , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Valores de Referência
18.
Diabetes ; 51(6): 1690-8, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12031954

RESUMO

Alanine and glutamine are interorgan nitrogen/carbon carriers for ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis, which are mainly but not necessarily only hepatic. The liver is central to alanine and glutamine metabolism, but most organs can produce and use them. We studied amino acid kinetics after liver removal to depict initial events of liver failure and to provide a model to study extrahepatic gluconeogenesis and nitrogen disposal in humans. We measured amino acid kinetics with [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]leucine and [3-(13)C]alanine or [1,2-(13)C(2)]glutamine tracers in 21 subjects during and after the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation: 12 were at 7 months posttransplantation, and 7 were healthy control subjects. Anhepatic leucine kinetics, including proteolysis, was unchanged. Alanine plasma and whole-body contents increased 3x and 2x, with a halved metabolic clearance and a doubled production, 2% greater than disposal. Free whole-body glutamine decreased 25% but increased 50% in plasma. Glutamine clearance was halved, and the production decreased by 25%, still 2% greater than disposal. Liver replacement decreased alanine and glutamine concentrations, leaving leucine unchanged. Liver removal caused doubled alanine fluxes, minor changes in glutamine, and no changes in leucine. The initial events after liver removal are an accumulation of three-carbon compounds, an acceleration of alanine turnover, and limited nitrogen storage in alanine and glutamine.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado , Fígado/metabolismo , Alanina/sangue , Alanina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Isótopos de Carbono , Deutério , Eletrólitos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Gluconeogênese , Glutamina/sangue , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glicerol/sangue , Hematócrito , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Leucina/sangue , Leucina/metabolismo , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxigênio/sangue , Ácido Pirúvico/sangue
19.
Diabetes Care ; 25(3): 530-6, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11874942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the metabolic effects of heart transplantation in patients in end-stage cardiac failure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients after heart transplantation for end-stage heart disease (age 47 +/- 3 years; transplant age 5.5 +/- 1.5 years; BMI 25.8 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2); cyclosporin A 4.2 +/- 0.6 mg/[kg.day]; azathioprine 0.87 +/- 0.31 mg/[kg.day]), 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (D-Tx), and 6 patients without type 2 diabetes (Tx) were studied by means of 1) an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to assess the beta-cell secretory response, 2) a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1 mU/[kg.min]) clamp combined with indirect calorimetry and a primed continuous infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and [1-13C]leucine to measure postabsorptive and insulin-stimulated carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and 3) 1H-NMR spectroscopy of the calf muscles to measure intramyocellular triglyceride (IMCL) content. The patients were selected from 480 transplant patients in whom there was a 6% prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Five healthy subjects matched for anthropometric parameters served as control subjects (CON). RESULTS: Tx had postabsorptive and insulin-stimulated glucose, leucine, and free fatty acid metabolism, as well as IMCL content, similar to that of CON. D-Tx were characterized by a reduced secretory response during the OGTT and peripheral insulin resistance with respect to glucose metabolism, which was paralleled by increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations and IMCL content. A defective insulin-dependent suppression of the endogenous leucine flux (index of proteolysis) was also evident during the clamp in D-Tx. CONCLUSIONS: Heart transplantation, notwithstanding the immunosuppressive therapy, was characterized by a normal postabsorptive and insulin-stimulated glucose, leucine, and free fatty acid metabolism in Tx. In contrast, insulin resistance with respect to glucose, free fatty acids, and protein metabolism was present in D-Tx regardless of whether diabetes was preexisting or consequent to heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Transplante de Coração/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Peptídeo C/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucagon/sangue , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia
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