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Pharmaceutics ; 14(3)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336031


To examine antioxidant capacity and the hepatoprotective effect of carob pulp flour, microwave-assisted extraction was performed. The influence of ethanol concentration (0-40% w/w), extraction time (5-25 min) and irradiation power (400-800 W) on DPPH, FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activity of carob pulp flour extract was evaluated. The strongest influence was that of the ethanol concentration, followed by extraction time. Optimal process parameters for maximizing total antioxidant activity were determined, using response surface methodology: ethanol concentration 40%, time 25 min and power 800 W. Carob extract obtained at optimal conditions (CE) was analyzed in vivo using a paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity model in mice. Treatment with CE attenuated the parameters of liver injury, especially aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activity, and prevented paracetamol-induced increase in malondialdehyde levels. Pretreatment with CE reversed the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase enzymes after the high dose of paracetamol in the liver. Hepatotoxicity induced using a toxic dose of paracetamol was also seen through histopathological alterations, which were significantly reduced in the groups treated with CE prior to paracetamol. Still, the number of Kupffer cells and macrophages did not differ among groups. Finally, pretreatment of mice with CE and paracetamol significantly decreased the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in hepatocytes.

J Food Sci Technol ; 59(4): 1429-1439, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250067


Obtaining high-quality value-added bread with extended shelf-life by utilizing food industry by-products that would have minimal negative effect on gluten structure while avoiding the usage of synthetic preservatives, was the challenge of this study. For this purpose the influence of the combination of carob pod flour (C, 0-15%), sugar beet fibers (F, 0-10%) and sugar beet molasses (M, 0-6%) on dough rheology and bread quality was investigated. Selected materials were of good microbiological quality, while carob flour and sugar beet fibers were rich in dietary fibers (43.6% and 67.0%, respectively). The presence of high share of dietary fibers (combination of C and F) increased dough resistance to extension up to 2.5 times, while dough extensibility was reduced by 50%. The addition of molasses had less pronounced single effect on dough properties however its impact in combination with fiber-rich materials outweighed the individual effect (an increase of dough resistance at about 55%). Molasses alone and in combination with other ingredients had positive effect on bread quality. Sample M6F5 attained crumb quality score (6.0 of maximum 7.0) higher than in control sample (5.6). High share of C and F reduced loaf volume and crumb quality of bread up to 56% and 50%, respectively and increased hardness 7.5 times. However, carob flour (7.5%) increased polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity 3 and 4 times, respectively. Moreover, carob flour and molasses and their combination showed inhibitory effect on mold mycelia growth and spores formation. Regarding all of the above, C7.5M3F5 was chosen as optimal sample.

Foods ; 11(3)2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159559


One of the major challenges in sustainable waste management in the agri-food industry following the "zero waste" model is the application of the circular economy strategy, including the development of innovative waste utilization techniques. The conversion of agri-food waste into carriers for the immobilization of enzymes is one such technique. Replacing chemical catalysts with immobilized enzymes (i.e., immobilized/heterogeneous biocatalysts) could help reduce the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability problems of existing chemically catalysed processes. On the other hand, the economics of the process strongly depend on the price of the immobilized enzyme. The conversion of agricultural and food wastes into low-cost enzyme carriers could lead to the development of immobilized enzymes with desirable operating characteristics and subsequently lower the price of immobilized enzymes for use in biocatalytic production. In this context, this review provides insight into the possibilities of reusing food industry wastes, namely, eggshells, coffee grounds, and brown onion skins, as carriers for lipase immobilization.

Food Chem ; 295: 189-197, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174749


The presented study examined the influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), sugar beet fibre (SBF) and apple fibre (AF) incorporation coupled with adequate water levels on gluten-free (GF) batter rheology, bread quality and sensory characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design with independent variables: HPMC quantity (2-4 g/100 g), SBF and AF quantity (3-7 g/100 g) and water quantity (180-230 g/100 g depending on the fibre type) based on a maize flour/starch mixture was applied. GF breads with 4 g/100 g HPMC coupled with 3 g/100 g SBF and 7 g/100 g AF reached the highest specific volumes (2.44 cm3/g and 3.97 cm3/g) accompanied with the lowest crumb hardness (2.29 and 2.10 N, respectively). Appealing crust and crumb colour and good sensory characteristics were achieved in GF breads with 4 g/100 g HPMC and 3, 5 and 7 g/100 g SBF or AF. The corresponding GF breads showed enhanced fibre content (4.56-6.07 g/100 g).

Beta vulgaris/química , Pão , Malus/química , Adulto , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Farinha , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Derivados da Hipromelose , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reologia , Amido , Paladar , Zea mays/química