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1.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0192710, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494636

RESUMO

Globally, the majority of persons born with sickle cell disease do not have access to hydroxyurea or more expensive interventions. The objectives were to estimate the survival in homozygous sickle cell disease, unbiased by symptomatic selection and to ascertain the causes of death in a pre-hydroxyurea population. The utility of early life biomarkers and genetically determined phenotypes to predict survival was assessed. A cohort study based on neonatal diagnosis was undertaken at the Sickle Cell Unit, a specialist clinic delivering care to persons with sickle cell disease in Jamaica. Screening of 100,000 deliveries detected 315 babies with homozygous sickle cell disease of whom 311 have been followed from birth for periods up to 43 years. Pneumococcal prophylaxis and teaching mothers splenic palpation were important, inexpensive interventions. Anticipatory guidance, routine care and out-patient acute care were provided. Each participant was classified as alive, dead, or defaulted (usually emigration). Causes of death were ascertained from clinical records and/or post-mortem reports. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier function. Sex-adjusted Cox semi-parametric proportional hazards and Weibull modelling were used to assess the effects on survival of biomarkers. Survival to 40 years was 55.5% (95% CI 48.7% to 61.7%). Acute Chest Syndrome (n = 31) and septicemia (n = 14) were significant causes of death at all ages. Acute splenic sequestration (n = 12) was the most common cause of early deaths. Survival was significantly shorter in those with lower hemoglobin at 1 year, high total nucleated count at 1 year, and a history of dactylitis ever. In these hydroxyurea naïve patients, survival into midlife was common. Causes of death were often age specific and some may be preventable. Early life biomarkers predictive of decreased survival in SS disease identify a patient group likely to benefit from close clinical supervision and potentially high risk therapies.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
2.
Hemoglobin ; 42(5-6): 294-296, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626236

RESUMO

Over the last 43 years, surveys of over 200,000 subjects in Jamaica have identified ß-thalassemia (ß-thal) mutations. In most, these genes were detected at birth in patients with sickle cell-ß-thal and so the prevalence and distribution would not be influenced by subsequent clinical course. There were two newborn populations, 100,000 deliveries in the corporate area between 1973-1981 and 84,940 in south and western Jamaica between 2008-2016. A third population, which derived from the Manchester Project in central Jamaica, screened 16,612 secondary school children, aged predominantly 15-19 years, and identified 150 students with the ß-thal trait and 11 with sickle cell [Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T)]- or Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A)-ß-thal. The latter patients may have been subject to symptomatic selection, but this should not have affected those with ß-thal trait. Of the 24 different molecular mutations, ß0-thal genes accounted for 10.0-27.0% of these groups and most common was IVS-II-849 (A>G) (HBB: c.316-2A>G). Of the ß+ mutations, seven subjects had severe genes with low levels of ß chain synthesis but the majority were benign mutations in the promoter region. The -29 (A>G) (HBB: c.-79A>G) mutation dominated in the newborn study in Kingston, similar to experiences in Guadeloupe and African Americans but the -88 (C>T) (HBB: c.-138C>T) mutation was more common among school students in central Jamaica. Caribbean populations are genetically heterogeneous but variations within different parts of Jamaica is of potential importance for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. This information may also be useful among the large Jamaican diaspora.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação , Talassemia beta/genética , Adolescente , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Geografia Médica/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
3.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 70: 66-77, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689691

RESUMO

The single base molecular substitution characterizing sickle cell haemoglobin, ß6glu→val, might be expected to result in predictable haematological and clinical features. However, the disease manifests remarkable diversity believed to reflect the interaction with other genetic and environmental factors. Some of the genetic modifiers include the beta globin haplotypes, alpha thalassaemia, factors influencing the persistence of fetal haemoglobin and the effects of the environment are addressed in this review. It is concluded that much of the genetic data present conflicting results. Environmental factors such as climate and infections, and psychological, educational and social support mechanisms also influence expression of the disease. These interactions illustrate how the expression of a 'single gene' disorder may be influenced by a variety of other genetic and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , alfa-Globinas/genética , Globinas beta/genética
4.
Hemoglobin ; 41(3): 216-217, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870138

RESUMO

The gene for hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) in the Caribbean is much more common than previously estimated. To avoid labeling persons with the benign syndrome Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T)/HPFH as a disease and wasting scarce resources, parental studies are recommended when newborn screening reveals a pattern consistent with an SS phenotype.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobinopatias/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinopatias/genética , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Fenótipo
5.
Indian J Community Med ; 42(3): 167-169, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a common problem across central India, but its clinical features may differ from that in African populations. There is a need to define the features of sickle cell disease in India, and the current study addresses some features of the bone pain crisis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of the bone pain crisis of sickle cell disease in Gujarat and explore the relationship with infection by Plasmodium vivax. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective review of all admissions in patients with sickle cell disease to a private pediatric institution in Bardoli, Gujarat, in the year 2015. Hemoglobin electrophoresis of all patients was consistent with homozygous sickle cell disease, but family studies indicated that at least seven cases had the severe sickle cell-beta + thalassemia presumed to be the common IVS1-5G>C mutation. Clinical, hematological, and parasitological features were recorded. RESULTS: There were 914 admissions among 654 patients who had between one and seven admissions. The bone pain crisis accounted for 763 (83%) of admissions and increased between July and October coinciding with the monsoon period. Blood smears were examined for malarial parasites in 811 admissions and were positive for P. vivax in 73% patients. There was no evidence that P. vivax infections varied with the cause of admission or increased during the monsoon period. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of P. vivax infection in hospital admissions of sickle cell patients, but the data did not support an etiological role in the bone pain crisis. A trial of malarial prophylaxis might determine its effect on the clinical features and outcome of sickle cell disease.

6.
Indian J Med Res ; 143(4): 405-13, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377495

RESUMO

The sickle cell gene in India represents a separate occurrence of the HbS mutations from those in Africa. Sickle cell disease in India occurs against different genetic and environmental backgrounds from those seen in African patients and there is evidence of clinical differences between the populations. Knowledge of the clinical features of African disease was drawn from the Jamaican Cohort Study, based on prospective follow up of all cases of sickle cell disease detected by the screening of 100,000 consecutive newborns in Kingston, Jamaica, and supplemented by observations from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease in the US. Defining the principal causes of early morbidity in African sickle cell disease led to successful interventions including pneumococcal prophylaxis, parental education in the early diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration, and the early detection by trans-cranial Doppler of cerebral vessel stenosis predictive of stroke but their success depended on early diagnosis, ideally at birth. Although reducing mortality among patients with African forms of SS disease, the question remains whether these interventions are appropriate or justified in Indian patients. This dilemma is approached by comparing the available data in African and Indian forms of SS disease seeking to highlight the similarities and differences and to identify the deficiencies in knowledge of Indian disease. These deficiencies could be most readily addressed by cohort studies based on newborn screening and since much of the morbidity of African disease occurs in the first five years of life, these need not be a daunting prospect for Indian health care personnel. Newborn screening programmes for sickle cell disease are already underway in India and appropriate protocols and therapeutic trials could quickly answer many of these questions. Without this knowledge, Indian physicians may continue to use possibly unnecessary and expensive models of care.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Saúde Pública , África , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Estados Unidos
7.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 203: 16-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess pregnancy and fetal outcomes in Jamaican subjects with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review over 21 years (1992-2012) of all pregnancies in SC disease and a comparison group matched by gender and date of delivery in mothers with a normal haemoglobin (AA) phenotype at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. There were 118 pregnancies in 81 patients with SC disease and 110 pregnancies in 110 in the normal comparison group. Corrections were made for repeat pregnancies from the same mother. Outcome measures included maternal weight at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks gestation, maternal pregnancy complications, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length and were used to analyse possible predictors of birth weight. RESULTS: First antenatal visits occurred later in women with SC disease, who also had lower haemoglobin level and lower systolic blood pressure. The prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, ante-partum or postpartum haemorrhage did not differ between genotypes. Maternal weight gain was significantly lower in SC disease and there was a significantly lower birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy in SC disease is generally benign but mothers had lower weight gain and lower birth weight babies, the difference persisting after correction for gestational age.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Doença da Hemoglobina SC/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Community Genet ; 7(2): 127-32, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26630875

RESUMO

Screening for haemoglobin genotype was offered to senior school students in Manchester parish in south central Jamaica to test whether this knowledge would influence choice of partner and reduce births with sickle cell disease. Over six academic years, 15,539 students, aged mostly 15-19 years, were screened with voluntary compliance rising from 56 to 92 % over this period. All subjects were given permanent genotype cards and carriers of abnormal genes were offered counselling which explained the reproductive options but avoided recommendations. Prior to screening, all had been offered illustrated lectures on the genetics and clinical features of sickle cell disease. The current study, confined to females with the sickle cell trait, interviewed 763/845 (90.3 %) subjects seeking to assess retention of this knowledge and their response to subsequent boyfriends. Of those interviewed, 42 subjects were excluded (38 emigrated, one died, three received incorrect genotype cards) leaving 721 with complete information. Knowledge of genotype was retained in 95 %, the outcome of future offspring correctly recalled in 91 %, and haemoglobin genotype cards were still possessed by 89 %. A current 'boyfriend' was acknowledged in 403 (56 %) of whom the partner's genotype was known in 88 (74 determined by the project laboratory; 14 by other laboratories) and unknown in 315 (78 %). Offers of free blood tests to all these partners were accepted by only 14 (4 %). Seventeen (2.4 %) were married but the husbands genotype was known in only five (four AA, one AS) of these. Most subjects retain knowledge of their genotype and of its significance for having affected children but the reluctance of partners to be tested was a major obstacle.

11.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med ; 3(10): a011783, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23813607

RESUMO

The term sickle cell disease embraces a group of genetic conditions in which pathology results from the inheritance of the sickle cell gene either homozygously or as a double heterozygote with another interacting gene. The spectrum of resulting conditions is therefore influenced by the geography of individual hemoglobin genes, but in most populations, the commonest genotype at birth is homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease. Because this genotype generally manifests a greater mortality, the relative proportion of sickle cell genotypes is influenced by age as well as the geographical distribution of individual genes.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Adulto , África/etnologia , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Anemia Falciforme/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde Ambiental , Hemoglobina Fetal/fisiologia , Genótipo , Geografia Médica , Hemoglobinas/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Oceano Índico/etnologia , Lactente , Talassemia alfa/complicações
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 170(1): 62-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23746798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess fetal growth and whether lower birthweight to mothers with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease is related to maternal body composition or to clinical events in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 41 pregnant women with SS disease and 41 women with a normal (AA) phenotype attending the antenatal clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. Maternal anthropometry, body composition and fetal sonographic measurements were assessed at 15, 25, and 35 weeks' gestation from December 2005 to April 2008. Birth measurements were performed within 24h of delivery. Differences between maternal genotypes and between their offspring were assessed using 2-sample t-tests. Multiple linear regression was used to control for baby's gender and gestational age at delivery. Fetal growth was compared in SS mothers with and without admission for sickle-related complications including bone pain crisis, acute chest syndrome, pregnancy-induced hypertension and urinary tract infection. RESULTS: Mothers with SS disease had lower weight, body fat, fat mass and lean body mass throughout pregnancy but correlation with birth size did not reach statistical significance. Sonographically, babies of SS mothers had smaller abdominal circumference, femoral length and a lower estimated fetal weight at 35 weeks. Birth measurements confirm lower birthweight, crown-heel length and head circumference but the differences were no longer significant after adjustment for baby gender and gestational age at delivery. Bone pain crisis in pregnancy was associated with a significantly reduced crown-heel length at birth. CONCLUSION: Lower birthweight in babies of mothers with SS disease is largely the result of the lower gestational age. Fetal sonography showed no growth differences by maternal genotype until 35 weeks' gestation and a reduced crown-heel length in offspring of SS mothers was associated with bone pain crises in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Community Genet ; 4(1): 43-7, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23055098

RESUMO

The sickle cell gene in India reaches its highest prevalence among the tribal people, many of whom are marginalized in the Indian society, living in remote rural areas which are often in the hilly regions of the Deccan plateau. Delivery of all services including health care presents special challenges which are addressed in this study by an outreach program and a mobile clinical unit. Another concern among the tribal people, a suspicion of centrally provided services conceived as being imposed from the outside, has been addressed by the concept of the Sickle Cell Swa (self) Suraksha (protection) Abhiyan (movement), which seeks to educate tribal communities in sickle cell (SS) disease so that the request for screening emanates from the community itself. This program has now screened 7,307 subjects in nine villages, finding the sickle cell trait in 23.7 % (range 18.5-30.9 %) and probable SS disease in 112 subjects. The organization of the program is described along with the delivery of results on a laminated card displaying the hemoglobin genotype, advice related to the genotype, blood group information (specifically requested by the villagers), contacts within the village sickle cell committee, and clinical contacts for medical advice. In addition, a local villager has been given basic health care training to regularly visit and monitor cases of SS disease and refer those with significant complications to the hospital coordinating the screening program. It is too early to determine the success of this program, but it represents a village-based model of detection of the sickle cell gene and care for cases with the disease which is accepted by the affected communities and may have broader implications for sickle cell disease in India.

14.
Dis Markers ; 32(5): 295-300, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22674409

RESUMO

Acute splenic sequestration (ASS) and chronic hypersplenism are common features of homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in the first 5 years of life affecting one-third of subjects in the Jamaican Cohort Study. The risk factors are largely unknown and the current study explores a possible role of genetic factors. We have explored these in subjects who received splenectomy in the management of ASS (n=8) or chronic hypersplenism (n=9) along with age, gender, and genotype matched controls using Luminex Technology to assess 42 human cytokines/chemokines, including IL-1α and CXCL10 (IP-10). Levels of IL-1α (p=0.008) and CXCL10 (p=0.009) were significantly elevated in patients treated by splenectomy compared with the control group. Levels of IL-1α were significantly higher in those with a history of ASS compared with matched normal controls (p=0.028) but not in those treated for hypersplenism (p=0.093). Furthermore, several significant differences were found in the median ratios of some cytokine biomarkers between the splenectomized group and the normal controls. These observations are consistent with acute splenic sequestration having a distinct phenotype which may be helpful in predicting those at risk of this complication and suggest that the mechanism of these differences merit further study.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Homozigoto , Interleucina-1alfa/sangue , Esplenopatias/sangue , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Esplenectomia , Esplenopatias/etiologia , Esplenopatias/genética , Esplenopatias/cirurgia
15.
J Community Genet ; 2(3): 147-51, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22109821

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and June 2010. Children aged 3-15 years were initially screened in the villages by solubility tests on fingerprick samples. Venipuncture was performed on subjects with positive solubility tests, and the samples were transferred to Raipur Medical College for alkaline haemoglobin electrophoresis. The sickle cell trait occurred in 33,467 (9.30%) and an SS phenotype in 747 (0.21%). The gene frequencies were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium most likely due to a deficiency of the SS phenotype failing to enter the sampled population from either sickness or early death. Subjects with abnormal haemoglobin genotypes may factor this information into decisions regarding marriage and avoid the risks of having children with sickle cell disease. The techniques described may be a model for other developing societies with limited resources.

16.
Hemoglobin ; 35(1): 1-12, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21250876

RESUMO

Clinical and hematological features are presented for 261 patients with identified ß-thalassemia (ß-thal) mutations. Mutations causing Hb S [ß6(A3)Glu→Val]-ß(0)-thal were IVS-II-849 (A>G) in 44%, frameshift codon (FSC) 6 (-A) in 14%, Hb Monroe [ß30(B12)Arg→Thr] in 14%, and IVS-II-1 (G>A) in 10%. Mutations causing Hb S-ß(+)-thal with 14-25% Hb A (type III) were -29 (A>G) mutation in 60%, -88 (C>T) in 22% and the polyadenylation signal site (polyA) (T>C) mutation in 14%, and in Hb S-ß(+)-thal with 1-7% Hb A (type I), all had the IVS-I-5 (G>C) mutation. Hematologically, only minor differences occurred between the four Hb S-ß(0)-thal mutations, but among the three mutations causing Hb S-ß(+)-thal type III, levels of Hb A(2), Hb F, hemoglobin (Hb), MCV and MCH were highest in the -88 and lowest in the polyA mutations. Clinically, Hb S-ß(0)-thal and Hb S-ß(+)-thal type I were generally severe, and Hb S-ß(+)-thal type III disease with the -88 mutation was milder than that caused by the polyA mutation.


Assuntos
Talassemia beta/genética , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Criança , Códon , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobina A2/genética , Hemoglobinas Anormais/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Triagem Neonatal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taxa de Sobrevida , Talassemia beta/mortalidade , Talassemia beta/fisiopatologia
17.
Br J Haematol ; 151(5): 425-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20955412

RESUMO

The first formal report of sickle cell disease occurred 100 years ago. This review traces the early historical reports, the evolution of understanding of the genetics, the molecular and chemical basis of sickle haemoglobin, and the advances made over the last 30-40 years in improving the management. Newborn screening and close follow-up, especially early in life, has significantly improved survival but these advances require resources and sophisticated infrastructure. In sub-Saharan Africa over 250 000 births annually suggest that these advances are unlikely to be implemented within the foreseeable future. Prevention of the disease where possible, could reduce the numbers of new patients allowing better facilities for the care of others. As the disease results from the inheritance of abnormal haemoglobin genes from both parents, it is eminently preventable. The unanswered question, whether genotype detection and counselling will influence reproductive decisions, is currently being addressed by a project in central Jamaica.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/história , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 114(4): 825-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19888041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document an increased prevalence of retained placenta in mothers with homozygous sickle cell disease. METHODS: A retrospective review (January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2005) at the University Hospital of the West Indies revealed 174 singleton deliveries in women with sickle cell disease who were matched by delivery date and age 1:1 with 174 mothers with normal hemoglobin phenotype. Cesarean delivery in 62 mothers (36%) with sickle cell and in 41 women with normal hemoglobin (24%) left 112 sickle cell and 133 normal hemoglobin pregnancies with spontaneous deliveries. Retained placenta was defined by an interval of at least 30 minutes. Duration and details of the third stage of delivery were obtained by review of records. Duration of delivery stages was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival charts and tested using the log rank test. Known risk factors were sought by logistic regression or exact logistic regression when the number of outcomes was small. RESULTS: First-stage duration was similar in maternal genotypes (sickle cell 470 minutes [median] compared with normal hemoglobin 335 minutes [median]), but in sickle cell disease, the second stage was slightly delayed (sickle cell 16 minutes compared with normal hemoglobin 15 minutes) and the third stage (sickle cell 7 minutes compared with normal hemoglobin 6 minutes). Retained placenta occurred in 20 mothers (17.9%) with sickle cell (interval 30-340 minutes) compared with four among the women in the control group (3.0%, 30-107 minutes). Apart from a weak association with combined oxytocin and misoprostol, there were no significant associations with known risk factors or with hematologic indices within sickle cell disease. CONCLUSION: Retained placenta is common among mothers with sickle cell disease, and the lack of association with known risk factors suggests that maternal sickle cell disease may be a risk factor. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Placenta Retida/etiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Segunda Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Intern Med ; 167(7): 701-8, 2007 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17420429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease is supranormal in childhood but falls steeply with age, often culminating in renal failure. The risk factors underlying these observations are unclear. We therefore sought to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and urinary albumin excretion in subjects with SS disease and matched controls with a normal AA genotype (hereinafter, controls) as a prelude to intervention studies. METHODS: Serum creatinine level, GFR, effective renal plasma flow, blood pressure, and urinary albumin and creatinine excretion rates were measured in Jamaican individuals with SS disease aged 18 to 23 years and in controls followed from birth in a cohort study. RESULTS: Compared with controls, subjects with SS disease showed lower blood pressure and normal or supranormal GFR and effective renal plasma flow. Urinary albumin excretion exceeded 20 microg/min in 26% of subjects with SS disease and correlated positively with GFR and systolic blood pressure and negatively with hematocrit. A higher GFR and increased tubular secretion of creatinine combined to lower serum creatinine levels in patients with SS disease, giving an upper limit of the reference range of 0.90 mg/dL (80 micromol/L) in men and 0.77 mg/dL (68 micromol/L) in women. In addition, creatinine clearance measurements were consistently greater than GFR in subjects with SS disease. CONCLUSIONS: The GFR remained within reference range or elevated in patients with SS disease aged 18 to 23 years. The higher GFR in patients with albuminuria was consistent with the hypothesis that high glomerular flows cause renal damage. Lower serum creatinine levels characterize patients with SS disease, and a revised clinical definition based on serum creatinine level alone is proposed.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/etiologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Circulação Renal
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