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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031213, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes are well established, and their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are proven. In spite of this, CR remains underused, especially in lower-resource settings such as Latin America. There is an urgent need to create more accessible CR delivery models to reach all patients in need. This trial aims to evaluate if the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events is not inferior in a hybrid CR programme compared with a standard programme. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A non-inferiority, pragmatic, multicentre, parallel (1:1), prospective, randomised and open with blinded endpoint assessment clinical trial will be conducted. 308 patients with coronary artery disease will be recruited consecutively. Participants will be randomised to hybrid or standard rehabilitation programme. The hybrid CR programme includes 10 supervised exercise sessions and individualised lifestyle counselling by a physiotherapist, with a transition after 4-6 weeks to unsupervised delivery via text messages and phone calls. The standard CR consists of 18-22 supervised exercise sessions, as well as group education sessions about lifestyle. Intervention in both groups is between 8 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is a composite of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisations due to cardiovascular causes. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, muscle strength, heart-healthy behaviour, return-to-work, cardiovascular risk factor, adherence, and exercise-related adverse events. The outcomes will be measured at the end of intervention, at 6 months and at 12 months follow-up from recruitment. The primary outcome will be tracked through the end of the trial. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis will be undertaken.Cox regression model will be used to compare primary outcome among study groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics committees at the sponsor institution and each centre where participants will be recruited approved the study protocol and the Informed Consent. Research findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals; additionally, results will be disseminated among region stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03881150; Pre-results. DATE AND VERSION: 01 October 2019.

2.
J. Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, Jul., 31, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay)were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP)medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years,60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%)58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is na urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia
3.
Medwave ; 19(4): e7635, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150374

RESUMO

Introduction: Ankle instability often seen in people who have suffered repeated ankle sprains. Kinesio Tape is a technique widely applied in recent years, despite not having enough evidence to support its application. Objetive: To determine the functional effectiveness of Kinesio Tape in individuals with ankle instability. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: A systematic search of articles was performed where Kinesio Tape was applied in subjects with ankle instability in the following databases: PubMed Central; PubMed/Medline; Cochrane; Embase; Sciencedirect; Biomed Central; CINAHL; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; SAGE and Wiley-Blackwell. Methods of the review: Only clinical trials were selected, in which patients with ankle instability were intervened by applying Kinesio Tape and which included at least one outcome variable associated with ankle function. Results: 364 articles were found. Ten met the inclusion criteria; five presented high and five moderate methodological quality. In most cases, one article measured more than one variable. Two articles showed improvements in muscle strength. Of four articles that evaluated balance, two observed improvements; one article observe improvements in proprioception; two articles measured postural control, without significant improvements; one article did not observe significant improvements in neuromuscular control. Stability (one article), muscular activity (one article) and functionality (one article) did not report significant improvements with the use of Kinesio Tape. On the other hand, Kinesio tape does not report significant improvements with respect to postural control, neuromuscular control, muscle activity, joint stability and functionality in subjects suffering from ankle instability. Conclusion: Kinesio Tape is effective for improvement of muscle strength, balance and proprioception in subjects with ankle instability. However, Kinesio Tape does not report significant improvement of postural control, neuromuscular control, muscle activity, joint stability and functionality in people with ankle instability.

4.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 9-19, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003633

RESUMO

Resumen: Antecedentes: La Rehabilitación Cardíaca disminuye las complicaciones de la cirugía cardíaca y es mundialmente reconocida. A pesar de esto, en Chile su desarrollo ha sido lento y el reporte de experiencias bajo. Objetivo: Describir la progresión de acuerdo los pasos de rehabilitación y días postoperatorios en pacientes de rehabilitación cardíaca fase I en un hospital público de Temuco, Chile. Metodología: Se analizó una serie de casos de pacientes en rehabilitación cardíaca fase I, participantes de un protocolo basado en hitos motores de seis pasos: movilización en cama (P1); sedente borde cama (P2); marcha de 35 mts (P3); marcha hasta 100 mts (P4); marcha hasta 200 metros más subir/bajar un piso de escaleras (P5); marcha de 300 metros más subir/bajar dos pisos de escaleras (P6). Resultados: Se incluyeron 243 pacientes (1.033 sesiones) con una media de 65.9 años (DS 9.5), mediana de hospitalización 6 días. Del total de atenciones realizadas el día 1, en 53% de ellas se alcanzó el P1; en el día 2, en un 51% se alcanzó el P2 y en un 42% un paso ≥P3; en el día 3, en 44.78% se alcanzó paso ≥P4; en el día 4, en 37.75% se alcanzó ≥P4. En los días 5-7, aproximadamente 50% logró ≥P5. Conclusión: La progresión de los pasos es proporcional al día postcirugía y es más rápida en hombres. Al momento del alta, 75% de los pacientes alcanza una independencia funcional que les permite caminar dos cuadras y subir/bajar un piso de escaleras.


Abstract Background: Despite advances in cardiovascular disease management and the development of minimally invasive approaches, open cardiac surgery is still a preferred intervention in complicated cases. Phase I Cardiac Rehabilitation decreases complications associated with this intervention. Globally, cardiac rehabilitation is widely recommended. However, in Chile the implementation of this intervention has been slow and there are scarce reports of its result. Objective: To describe the progression according to steps and post-surgery days in cardiac rehabilitation phase I patients in the public hospital in Temuco, Chile. Methodology: We analyzed a series of cases of patients in cardiac rehabilitation phase I, participants of a protocol based on six-step motor levels: (S1) on-bed mobilization, (S2) sitting on the edge of the bed, (S3) Bipedal exercise and 35 meter walking, (S4) 100 meter walking, (P5) 200 meter walking plus going up one floor and down stairs, and (S6) 300 meter walking plus going two floors up and down stairs. Results: 243 patients were included, and 1,033 sessions were performed) Mean age was 65.9years-old (SD 9.5) and hospital stay run for a median of 6 days. From all sessions, on day one, 53% of patients reached S1. On day 2, 51% reached S2 and 36% walked (S3). On day 3, 44.78% reached ≥S4. On day 4, 37.75% reached ≥S4. On days 5-7, approximately 50% achieved ≥S5. Conclusion: the step progression is proportional to number of days after surgery, faster in men than compared to women. At discharge, 75 % of patients show functional independency that allows them to walk two blocks and go one floor up and down stairs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiopatias/terapia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Chile , Terapia por Exercício , Revascularização Miocárdica/reabilitação
5.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 39(3): 168-174, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of 3 models of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) compared with standard care in survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within the public health system in Chile. METHODS: A Markov model was designed using 5 health states: ACS survivor, second ACS, complications, general mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. The transition probabilities between health states for standard care and corresponding relative risk for CR were calculated from a systematic review. Health benefits were measured with the EuroQol 5-dimensional 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) survey. Costs for each health state were quantified using the national cost verification study. The CR cost was estimated with a microcosting methodology. The time horizon was a lifetime and the discount rate was 3% per year for costs and benefits. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were performed. Structural uncertainty was managed by designing 3 scenarios: CR as currently delivered in a specific Chilean public health center, CR as recommended by South American guidelines, and CR as proposed for low-resource settings. RESULTS: Cardiac rehabilitation versus standard care showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the standard model of $722, for the South American model of $1247, and for the low-resource model of $666. The tornado diagram showed higher uncertainty in relative risk for the complications state and for the second ACS state. CONCLUSION: Considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of 1 unit of gross domestic product per capita (∼$19 000), CR is highly cost-effective for the public health system in Chile.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e540-e541, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000119
7.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay) were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP) medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years, 60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%). 58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is an urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517670

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the association of estimated total daily sleep duration and daytime nap duration with deaths and major cardiovascular events. Methods and results: We estimated the durations of total daily sleep and daytime naps based on the amount of time in bed and self-reported napping time and examined the associations between them and the composite outcome of deaths and major cardiovascular events in 116 632 participants from seven regions. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, we recorded 4381 deaths and 4365 major cardiovascular events. It showed both shorter (≤6 h/day) and longer (>8 h/day) estimated total sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome when adjusted for age and sex. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and health status, a J-shaped association was observed. Compared with sleeping 6-8 h/day, those who slept ≤6 h/day had a non-significant trend for increased risk of the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.20]. As estimated sleep duration increased, we also noticed a significant trend for a greater risk of the composite outcome [HR of 1.05 (0.99-1.12), 1.17 (1.09-1.25), and 1.41 (1.30-1.53) for 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively]. The results were similar for each of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Daytime nap duration was associated with an increased risk of the composite events in those with over 6 h of nocturnal sleep duration, but not in shorter nocturnal sleepers (≤6 h). Conclusion: Estimated total sleep duration of 6-8 h per day is associated with the lowest risk of deaths and major cardiovascular events. Daytime napping is associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular events and deaths in those with >6 h of nighttime sleep but not in those sleeping ≤6 h/night.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142131

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of 3 models of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) compared with standard care in survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within the public health system in Chile. METHODS: A Markov model was designed using 5 health states: ACS survivor, second ACS, complications, general mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. The transition probabilities between health states for standard care and corresponding relative risk for CR were calculated from a systematic review. Health benefits were measured with the EuroQol 5-dimensional 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) survey. Costs for each health state were quantified using the national cost verification study. The CR cost was estimated with a microcosting methodology. The time horizon was a lifetime and the discount rate was 3% per year for costs and benefits. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were performed. Structural uncertainty was managed by designing 3 scenarios: CR as currently delivered in a specific Chilean public health center, CR as recommended by South American guidelines, and CR as proposed for low-resource settings. RESULTS: Cardiac rehabilitation versus standard care showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the standard model of $722, for the South American model of $1247, and for the low-resource model of $666. The tornado diagram showed higher uncertainty in relative risk for the complications state and for the second ACS state. CONCLUSION: Considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of 1 unit of gross domestic product per capita (∼$19 000), CR is highly cost-effective for the public health system in Chile.

10.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 22(1): 101-113, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins of the leptin-melanocortin pathway have been associated with obesity. The involvement of these polymorphisms with changes in body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures could also imply a contribution to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic alterations. We evaluated the relationship of leptin-melanocortin system polymorphisms with obesity, MetS, and other metabolic alterations in Southern Chilean individuals. METHODS: Two-hundred individuals were grouped as normoweight (BMI 18.0-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) or according to MetS status. Anthropometric measures (BMI, abdominal circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) and biochemical parameters (glycemia and lipid profile) were evaluated. Polymorphisms LEP rs7799039, LEPR rs1137101, MC3R rs3746619 and rs3827103, and MC4R rs17782313 were evaluated by real-time PCR using allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: LEPR rs1137101 GG genotype was related to reduced risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.79; p = 0.018) and MetS (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.88; p = 0.024), but it was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple tests as compared to the AA genotype (p > 0.01). Moreover, LEPR rs1137101 allele G (AG + GG) was related to lower BMI and WHR (p < 0.01). Further multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that this genotype was also responsible for reduced BMI in 2.44 kg/m2 and WHR in 0.033 units. MC4R rs17782313 allele C (TC + CC) was slightly associated with diminished risk of MetS (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.98; p = 0.040) and reduced BMI values in 1.95 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). Regarding lipid profile, LEPR rs1137101 allele G carriers had lower triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, whereas individuals carrying the MC4R rs17782313 allele C had higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p < 0.01). LEP rs7799039 allele A (GA + AA) was slightly associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that polymorphisms at LEP, LEPR, and MC4R may be useful biomarkers of obesity-related cardiometabolic alterations in our population.


Assuntos
Leptina/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Receptor Tipo 3 de Melanocortina/genética
11.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 22(1): 101-113, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins of the leptin-melanocortin pathway have been associated with obesity. The involvement of these polymorphisms with changes in body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures could also imply a contribution to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic alterations. We evaluated the relationship of leptin-melanocortin system polymorphisms with obesity, MetS, and other metabolic alterations in Southern Chilean individuals.METHODS:Two-hundred individuals were grouped as normoweight (BMI 18.0-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) or according to MetS status. Anthropometric measures (BMI, abdominal circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) and biochemical parameters (glycemia and lipid profile) were evaluated. Polymorphisms LEP rs7799039, LEPR rs1137101, MC3R rs3746619 and rs3827103, and MC4R rs17782313 were evaluated by real-time PCR using allelic discrimination assays. (AU)


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Obesidade , Chile
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 187, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The study aimed to determine and compare the prevalence of COPD in the general population aged 45-74 years old according to fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) thresholds in four cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America. METHODS: The Pulmonary Risk in South America (PRISA) study used a 4-stage stratified sampling method to select 5814 participants from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay). Data on demographic information, medical history, risk factors, pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry were obtained using a standard protocol. According to GOLD, COPD was defined as a post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 70%. The LLN threshold was defined as the lower fifth percentile for predicted FEV1/FVC, and was evaluated as an alternative COPD definition. RESULTS: Overall COPD prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 8.4, 10.2%), and men had a higher prevalence [11.8% (95% CI 10.3, 13.3%)] than women [7.3% (95% CI 6.2, 8.3%)] with the fixed ratio. Overall COPD prevalence using LLN was 4.7% (95% CI 4.1, 5.3%), higher in men: 5.8% (95% CI 4.7, 6.8%) than women: 3.9% (95% CI 3.1, 4.7%). COPD prevalence was significantly higher among those who were older, had

Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Espirometria , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Espirometria/métodos , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0183953, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877254

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as well as associated factors in the adult population of four cities of the Southern Cone of Latin America (SCLA). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study that included 7407 adults between 35 and 74 years old in four cities of the SCLA: Temuco (Chile), Marcos Paz and Bariloche (Argentina), and Pando-Barros Blancos (Uruguay). DM was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or self-reported history of diabetes. Awareness, treatment, and control of DM were defined as subjects self-reporting a DM previous diagnosis, the use of a prescription medication or nonpharmacological intervention for DM, and fasting plasma glucose <126 mg/dl, respectively. RESULTS: Prevalence of DM varied among cities, between 8.4% in Bariloche and 14.3% in Temuco. Prevalence of IFG varied at different sites, from 3.5% in Barros Blancos to 6.8% in Marcos Paz. Of the total number of people with diabetes, 20% were newly diagnosed at the time of the study. Overall, 79.8% of patients with diabetes were aware of their condition. The treatment and control rate were 58.8% and 46.2%, respectively. Older age, family history of diabetes, lower educational attainment, overweight, obesity, central obesity, low physical activity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM and IFG in the adult population of the SCLA is high and varies among cities. These conditions represent a public health challenge since the rates of awareness, treatment, and control are still low.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uruguai/epidemiologia
14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(10): 774-787, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease risk markers in many regions worldwide is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary nutrients on blood lipids and blood pressure, two of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. METHODS: We studied 125 287 participants from 18 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Habitual food intake was measured with validated food frequency questionnaires. We assessed the associations between nutrients (total fats, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, protein, and dietary cholesterol) and cardiovascular disease risk markers using multilevel modelling. The effect of isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids with other fats and carbohydrates was determined overall and by levels of intakes by use of nutrient density models. We did simulation modelling in which we assumed that the effects of saturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease events was solely related to their association through an individual risk marker, and then compared these simulated risk marker-based estimates with directly observed associations of saturated fatty acids with cardiovascular disease events. FINDINGS: Participants were enrolled into the study from Jan 1, 2003, to March 31, 2013. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with higher concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but also with higher HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and lower triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to ApoA1 (all ptrend<0·0001). Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and ApoB, but also with lower HDL cholesterol and ApoA1, and higher triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol, and ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio (all ptrend<0·0001, apart from ApoB [ptrend=0·0014]). Higher intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, and carbohydrates were associated with higher blood pressure, whereas higher protein intake was associated with lower blood pressure. Replacement of saturated fatty acids with carbohydrates was associated with the most adverse effects on lipids, whereas replacement of saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fats improved some risk markers (LDL cholesterol and blood pressure), but seemed to worsen others (HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). The observed associations between saturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease events were approximated by the simulated associations mediated through the effects on the ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio, but not with other lipid markers including LDL cholesterol. INTERPRETATION: Our data are at odds with current recommendations to reduce total fat and saturated fats. Reducing saturated fatty acid intake and replacing it with carbohydrate has an adverse effect on blood lipids. Substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fats might improve some risk markers, but might worsen others. Simulations suggest that ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio probably provides the best overall indication of the effect of saturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk among the markers tested. Focusing on a single lipid marker such as LDL cholesterol alone does not capture the net clinical effects of nutrients on cardiovascular risk. FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Lipídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Lancet ; 390(10107): 2050-2062, 2017 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. FINDINGS: During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], ptrend<0·0001; saturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], ptrend<0·0001; and polyunsaturated fat: HR 0·80 [0·71-0·89], ptrend<0·0001). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with lower risk of stroke (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·64-0·98], ptrend=0·0498). Total fat and saturated and unsaturated fats were not significantly associated with risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality. INTERPRETATION: High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings. FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet ; 390(10113): 2643-2654, 2017 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) in high-income countries, where physical activity is mainly recreational, but it is not known if this is also observed in lower-income countries, where physical activity is mainly non-recreational. We examined whether different amounts and types of physical activity are associated with lower mortality and CVD in countries at different economic levels. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited participants from 17 countries (Canada, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Poland, Turkey, Malaysia, South Africa, China, Colombia, Iran, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe). Within each country, urban and rural areas in and around selected cities and towns were identified to reflect the geographical diversity. Within these communities, we invited individuals aged between 35 and 70 years who intended to live at their current address for at least another 4 years. Total physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPQA). Participants with pre-existing CVD were excluded from the analyses. Mortality and CVD were recorded during a mean of 6·9 years of follow-up. Primary clinical outcomes during follow-up were mortality plus major CVD (CVD mortality, incident myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure), either as a composite or separately. The effects of physical activity on mortality and CVD were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other risk factors taking into account household, community, and country clustering. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2010, 168 916 participants were enrolled, of whom 141 945 completed the IPAQ. Analyses were limited to the 130 843 participants without pre-existing CVD. Compared with low physical activity (<600 metabolic equivalents [MET] × minutes per week or <150 minutes per week of moderate intensity physical activity), moderate (600-3000 MET × minutes or 150-750 minutes per week) and high physical activity (>3000 MET × minutes or >750 minutes per week) were associated with graded reduction in mortality (hazard ratio 0·80, 95% CI 0·74-0·87 and 0·65, 0·60-0·71; p<0·0001 for trend), and major CVD (0·86, 0·78-0·93; p<0·001 for trend). Higher physical activity was associated with lower risk of CVD and mortality in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. The adjusted population attributable fraction for not meeting the physical activity guidelines was 8·0% for mortality and 4·6% for major CVD, and for not meeting high physical activity was 13·0% for mortality and 9·5% for major CVD. Both recreational and non-recreational physical activity were associated with benefits. INTERPRETATION: Higher recreational and non-recreational physical activity was associated with a lower risk of mortality and CVD events in individuals from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. Increasing physical activity is a simple, widely applicable, low cost global strategy that could reduce deaths and CVD in middle age. FUNDING: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Ontario SPOR Support Unit, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, GSK, Novartis, King Pharma, and national and local organisations in participating countries that are listed at the end of the Article.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exercício , Mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 8127814, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698878

RESUMO

The role of gut microbiota in the development of metabolic illnesses has been abundantly demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that gut microbiota alterations may also be related to the development of hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, we aimed to assess differences in the gut bacterial community profiles between hypercholesterolemic subjects and controls. Thirty cases diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia and 27 normocholesterolemic controls were included. A fasting whole blood sample was obtained to determine the lipid profile. In parallel, stool samples were collected and total DNA was isolated to assess the bacterial community profiles by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, the Richness, Shannon-Weaver, and Simpson indexes were used to evaluate the richness and diversity of bacterial communities. As expected, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in the cases compared with controls. Moreover, DGGE analysis showed a lower richness and diversity of bacterial communities in hypercholesterolemic subjects. In conclusion, our results showed differences in the profiles of bacterial communities between hypercholesterolemic subjects and controls, suggesting a possible role of the gut microbiota in the development of hypercholesterolemia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 17(1): 14, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scielo, Lilacs and the Cochrane Central Register, for controlled efficacy, safety and effectiveness studies published between January 2000 until December 2011, on RV5 and RV1 across Latin America (where both vaccines are available since 2006). The primary outcome measures were: rotavirus-related gastroenteritis of any severity; rotavirus emergency department visits and hospitalization; and severe adverse events. RESULTS: The results of the meta-analysis for efficacy show that RV1 reduced the risk of any-severity rotavirus-related gastroenteritis by 65% (relative risk (RR) 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25; 0.50), and of severe gastroenteritis by 82% (RR 0.18, 95%CI 0.12; 0.26) versus placebo. In trials, both vaccines significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization and emergency visits by 85% (RR 0.15, 95%CI 0.09; 0.25) for RV1 and by 90% (RR 0.099, 95%CI 0.012; 0.77) for RV5. Vaccination with RV5 or RV1 did not increase the risk of death, intussusception, or other severe adverse events which were previously associated with the first licensed rotavirus vaccine. Real-world effectiveness studies showed that both vaccines reduced rotavirus hospitalization in the region by around 45-50% for RV5 (for 1 to 3 doses, respectively), and, by around 50-80% for RV1 (for 1 to 2 doses, respectively). For RV1, effectiveness against hospitalization was highest (around 80-96%) for children vaccinated before 12 months of age, compared with 5-60% effectiveness in older children. Both vaccines were most effective in preventing more severe gastroenteritis (70% for RV5 and 80-90% for RV1) and severe gastroenteritis (50% for RV5 and 70-80% for RV1). CONCLUSION: This systematic literature review confirms rotavirus vaccination has been proven effective and well tolerated in protecting children in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
19.
Glob Heart ; 12(4): 305-313, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of evidence-based therapies, there is no information on the use of medications for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in urban and rural community settings in South America. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the use, and its predictors, of effective secondary prevention therapies in individuals with a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. METHODS: In the PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological) study, we enrolled 24,713 individuals from South America ages 35 to 70 years from 97 rural and urban communities in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia. We assessed the use of proven therapies with standardized questionnaires. We report estimates of drug use at national, community, and individual levels and the independent predictors of their utilization through a multivariable analysis model. RESULTS: Of 24,713 individuals, 910 had a self-reported CHD event (at a median of 5 years earlier) and 407 had stroke (6 years earlier). The proportions of individuals with CHD who received antiplatelet medications (30.1%), beta-blockers (34.2%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin-receptor blockers (36.0%), or statins (18.0%) were low; with even lower proportions among stroke patients (antiplatelets 24.3%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers 37.6%, statins 9.8%). A substantial proportion of patients did not receive any proven therapy (CHD 31%, stroke 54%). A minority of patients received either all 4 (4.1%) or 3 proven therapies (3.3%). Male sex, age >60 years, better education, more wealth, urban location, diabetes, and obesity were associated with higher rates of medication use. In a multivariable model, markers of wealth had the largest impact in secondary prevention. CONCLUSIONS: There are large gaps in the use of proven medications for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in South America. Strategies to improve the sustained use of these medications will likely reduce cardiovascular disease burden substantially.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , População Rural , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , População Urbana , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , América do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 86: 111-116, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, the optimal measure and cutoffs in Latin America are not defined. We sought to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with risk factor prevalence and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and to assess if recommended cutoffs apply to the Chilean population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from 2,200 men and 3,216 women from the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare discrimination and estimate optimal cutoffs. Sensitivity, specificity, and net reclassification improvement (NRI) for these cutoffs were compared with values obtained applying international recommendations. RESULTS: WHtR and WC have a higher ROC area for risk factors and CHD risk. BMI and WC optimal cutoffs did not improve net reclassification when compared with international recommendations. A WHtR of 0.55 in men improves NRI compared with proposed values (P < 0.01). A WHtR of 0.6 in women improves NRI when compared with BMI (P > 0.01) but not when compared with WC. CONCLUSION: Central obesity measurements demonstrated the strongest associations with CV risk factors and estimated risk. Optimal cutoffs were similar to those recommended internationally with the exception of WHtR.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Chile , Comorbidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais
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