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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4538

RESUMO

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares

2.
Psychol Health ; : 1-20, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607160

RESUMO

Objective: We examine parenting styles (characterized by warmth and strictness, i.e., neglectful, indulgent, authoritarian and authoritative) as either a protective or risk factor for adolescence drinking. Design: Two 4 × 2 × 3 multi-factorial MANOVAs. Sample consisted of 996 underage Spanish adolescents, 532 males (53.4%), ranging from 15 to 17 years old. Main outcome measures: Alcohol use (wine, beer, mixed drinks and liquors) and abuse and motivations for drinking (social acceptance and self-enhancement) and non-drinking (harsh preventive rules and awareness of alcohol's harmful effects). Results: Lower risk of alcohol use and abuse was found in adolescents with indulgent parenting, and higher risk for adolescents with authoritarian parenting. Adolescents from indulgent parenting style homes had equal adjustment (lower self-enhancement and higher harsh preventive rules and awareness of alcohol's harmful effects) or even better (lower social acceptance) than those from authoritative parenting style homes. Consistently, the highest risk parenting styles identified were the authoritarian and neglectful styles (α=.05). Conclusion: At least in some cultures, warmth and reasoning, shared by authoritative and indulgent parenting styles, seem the recommended way to protect offspring from drinking. Effective alcohol prevention and intervention programs should include strategies tailored specifically to this new cultural context where parenting takes place.

3.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(7): 451-464, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295025

RESUMO

The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple adaptations of this instrument have led to versions in different languages (e.g., Arabic and French), and different numbers of items (e.g., from 5 to 16 items instead of the original 14). However, to date, the CIUS has never been simultaneously compared and validated in several languages and different versions. Consequently, the present study tested the psychometric properties of four CIUS versions (i.e., CIUS-14, CIUS-9, CIUS-7, and CIUS-5) across eight languages (i.e., German, French, English, Finnish, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian) to (a) examine their psychometric properties, and (b) test their measurement invariance. These analyses also identified the optimal versions of the CIUS. The data were collected via online surveys administered to 4,226 voluntary participants from 15 countries, aged at least 18 years, and recruited from academic environments. All brief versions of the CIUS in all eight languages were validated. Dimensional, configural, and metric invariance were established across all languages for the CIUS-5, CIUS-7, and CIUS-9, but the CIUS-5 and CIUS-7 were slightly more suitable because their model fitted the ordinal estimate better, while for cross-comparisons, the CIUS-9 was slightly better. The brief versions of the CIUS are therefore reliable and structurally stable instruments that can be used for cross-cultural research across adult populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Comparação Transcultural , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269653

RESUMO

We propose a new paradigm with three historical stages for an optimal parenting style (i.e., indulgent parenting style), which extends the traditional paradigm of only two stages (i.e., authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles). The three stages concur, at the same time, in different environments, context, and cultures. We studied the third stage for optimal parent-child relationships through the offspring's personal and social well-being, with four adolescent samples from 11 to 19 years old (52.2% girls) from Spain (n = 689), the United States (n = 488), Germany (n = 606), and Brazil (n = 672). The offspring's personal well-being was measured through self-esteem (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), while social well-being was measured with the internalization of self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation values (security, conformity, and tradition). The parent-child parenting style was measured through parental warmth and strictness, and the adolescents' parents were classified into one of four groups (indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and neglectful). Remarkably, the greatest personal well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth and lower parental strictness (i.e., indulgent), and the greatest social well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth (i.e., indulgent and authoritative; p < 0.05 for all countries). Consistently, poorer personal well-being and social well-being were associated with less parental warmth (i.e., authoritarian and neglectful). Findings suggest that the parent-child relationships analyzed have a common pattern associated with personal and social well-being that coincide with a proposed third stage.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Autoritarismo , Brasil , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Espanha , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934673

RESUMO

This study examines the correlates of authoritative (warmth and strictness), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting with short- and long-term socialization outcomes in adolescents and adults, with and without poor school performance during adolescence. Short- and long-term socialization outcomes were captured by multidimensional self-esteem (academic/professional, emotional, and family), psychological maturity (self-competence, social competence, and empathy), and emotional maladjustment (nervousness, emotional instability, and hostility). Participants (1195 female and 874 male) consisted of a community sample of adolescents (n = 602), young adults (n = 610), middle-aged adults (n = 469) and older adults (n = 388). Design was a 4 × 3 × 2 × 4 MANOVA (parenting style × school performance × sex × age). Results indicated that the relationship between parenting styles and children's socialization outcomes does not vary as a function of school performance. The link between parenting styles and socialization outcomes shares a common short- and long- term pattern in adolescents and adults: Indulgent parenting was related to equal or even better socialization outcomes than authoritative parenting, whereas authoritarian and neglectful styles were associated with the worst socialization outcomes.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos , Idoso , Autoritarismo , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Socialização , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641982

RESUMO

Recent research that relates parenting with adolescent adjustment has shown the importance of considering the cultural context of the relationship. New results are emerging when considering the classical four-typologies model of parental socialization in some European and South-American countries. Among the instruments used in this emergent research is the Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29. This scale is a bi-dimensional parenting instrument that was specifically developed to measure the four parenting typologies, through the dimensions of acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition. This study examines the good fit of the orthogonal bi-factor model based on the ESPA29 versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models, with three adolescent samples from 12 to 17 years old (53.4% girls), from Spain (N = 826), Portugal (N = 752), and Brazil (N = 628). We applied structural equation models (SEMs) to analyze the fit of the models to the data. The results confirm a better fit to the data for the orthogonal bi-factor model versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models across country, adolescent sex, and the three age groups. Additionally, the convergent validity of the scale was proved by showing the relation of the two parenting dimensions with self-concept. The results guarantee the adequacy of the ESPA29 to measure parenting styles.


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Socialização , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Portugal , Autoimagem , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518818426, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547714

RESUMO

Families can play an essential role in preventing violent and antisocial behaviors, which are considered a significant public health issue. However, some studies argue that most children are antisocial only during adolescence, and even teenagers can mimic antisocial behavior in ways that are normative and well-adjusted. This study analyzed patterns of competence and adjustment in young adults with and without an antisocial tendency during adolescence from authoritative (characterized by warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) families. Emergent research has indicated that in a European context, the indulgent parenting style is optimal. Offspring's competence and adjustment were captured through self-esteem (academic and family), psychosocial development (self-competence and empathy), and low emotional maladjustment (nervousness and hostility). Participants consisted of a community sample of 489 Spanish young adults, 191 men (39.1%) and 298 women (60.9%), aged 18 to 34 years old. The design was a 4 × 2 × 2 × 2 MANOVA (parenting style × antisocial tendency × sex × age). Analysis of main effects showed that youths with an antisocial tendency have less self-esteem and psychosocial development, but more emotional maladjustment. Regardless of the parenting style, an antisocial tendency during adolescence is consistently associated with worse adjustment in young adults. Both the authoritative and indulgent parenting styles are consistently associated with better outcomes (higher self-esteem and psychosocial development, and lower emotional maladjustment) than the authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles. However, there are interactions between the parenting style and the antisocial tendency. For young adults without an antisocial tendency, only indulgent parenting is associated with less emotional maladjustment. These results support the idea that in Europe the indulgent parenting style performs better than the authoritative style, but only when raising adolescents without an antisocial tendency. For young adults with an antisocial tendency, indulgent and authoritative parenting are equally optimal for all the studied outcomes.

8.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2250, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515120

RESUMO

Self-concept is widely conceptualized as multidimensional (Shavelson et al., 1976). The Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5, García and Musitu, 2009) assesses five specific dimensions (i.e., academic, social, emotional, family, and physical). It is a psychometrically sound questionnaire, developed, and normed in Spain, which is widely used with Spanish-speaking samples. The validation of the AF5 in Brazil would expand its potential, and would facilitate cross-cultural research. To validate the Brazilian version of the AF5, the present study apply confirmatory factor analysis and multi-sample invariance analysis across sex (women vs. men), age (11-18 years old), and language (Brazilian [Portuguese] vs. Spanish). The sample consisted of 4,534 students (54.6%, women, 53.7%, Spanish) ranging in age from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.61, SD = 2.09). The findings of the present study confirmed that the five-dimensional AF5 factorial structure provided the better fit to the data compared to alternative one-dimensional and orthogonal five-dimensional structures. The 30 items loaded appropriately on the five dimensions. Multi-group analysis for invariance between sex, age, and language groups showed equal loading in the five factors, equal covariation between the five dimensions, and equal error variances of items. Additionally, in order to obtain an external validity index, the five AF5 factors were related to both acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition parenting dimensions. These results provide an adequate basis for meaningful comparative studies on a highly relevant construct, multidimensional self-concept, between male and female adolescents of different ages, and Brazilian (Portuguese) and Spanish-speaking samples. These results validate the instrument and confirm its suitability in cross-cultural research.

9.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 27(3): 153-161, dic. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182412

RESUMO

In this study, the association between parenting styles and short- and long-term socialization outcomes was analyzed using a two-dimensional model of four types of parenting styles. The socialization outcomes analyzed were self-esteem and internalization of social values. Participants were a sample of Spanish adolescents (n = 571) and older adults (n = 527). Results showed that both adolescents and older adults from indulgent families reported equal or even higher self-esteem than those from authoritative households, whereas those from neglectful and authoritarian homes were consistently associated with the lowest levels of self-esteem. Regarding internalization of social values, adolescents and older adults raised in indulgent and authoritative families prioritized self-transcendence values (universalism and benevolence) and conservation values (security, conformity, and tradition) as compared to those from authoritarian and neglectful homes, whereas those from neglectful and authoritarian families showed lower scores in all internalization of social values measures. These results suggest that the combination of high levels of parental warmth and involvement and low levels of strictness and imposition (i.e., indulgent parenting style) is an optimum parenting strategy in the cultural context where the study was conducted, and that the link between parenting styles and socialization outcomes share a common short- and long- term pattern


En este estudio se analizaron los estilos parentales de socialización familiar y sus resultados a corto y largo plazo aplicando el modelo de dos dimensiones y cuatro tipologías de socialización. Los resultados de la socialización parental analizados en los hijos fueron la autoestima y la internalización de los valores sociales. Los participantes fueron adolescentes (n = 571) y adultos mayores (n = 527) españoles. Los resultados indicaron que tanto los adolescentes como los adultos mayores de las familias indulgentes mostraron igual e incluso mayor autoestima que los de las familias autorizativas, mientras que los de las familias autoritarias y negligentes se asociaban de manera consistente a los niveles de autoestima más bajos. Respecto a la internalización de los valores sociales, los adolescentes y adultos mayores de familias indulgentes y autorizativas priorizaron los valores de autotrascendencia (universalismo y benevolencia) y conservación (seguridad, conformidad y tradición) en comparación con los de hogares autoritarios y negligentes y los de las familias negligentes y autoritarias mostraron puntuaciones más bajas en todas las medidas de internalización de valores sociales. Estos resultados sugieren que la combinación de altos niveles de aceptación e implicación, junto con bajos niveles de severidad e imposición (el estilo parental indulgente), constituye la estrategia parental óptima en el contexto cultural donde se ha realizado el estudio y que la relación entre los estilos parentales y los resultados de la socialización comparten un mismo patrón a corto y largo plazo


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Socialização , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagem , Valores Sociais , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho
10.
An. psicol ; 34(3): 536-544, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177954

RESUMO

This study analyzes adolescents' vulnerability based on self-esteem and substance use, with parenting style as a protective or risk factor. The sample was composed of 1445 Spanish adolescents (59.4% females), 600 early (41.5%, from 12 to 15 years old) and 845 late (58.5%, from 16 to 17 years old) adolescents. Families were classified in one of four typologies: Indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful. Adolescents’ adjustment was captured through self-esteem (emotional, family, and physical) and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and synthetic drugs). Results showed that vulnerability was greater in late adolescence than in early adolescence. An interaction was found between the adolescent stage and gender. Male late adolescents had higher substance use of cannabis and synthetic drugs. The lowest emotional self-esteem corresponded to female late adolescents, and the lowest family self-esteem corresponded to male late adolescents. The parenting style did not interact with the stage of adolescence or gender. The indulgent parenting style was associated with equal or even greater protection than the authoritative parenting style against psychosocial maladjustment problems in adolescence, whereas the authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles acted as risk factors


Este estudio analiza la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a partir de la autoestima y el consumo de sustancias, y la protección o riesgo del estilo de socialización. La muestra fue de 1445 adolescentes españoles (59.4% mujeres), 600 tempranos de 12 a 15 años (41.5%) y 845 tardíos de 16 a 17 años (58.5%). Las familias se clasificaron en una de las cuatro tipologías: indulgente, autorizativa, autoritaria y negligente. El ajuste de los hijos se midió con autoestima (emocional, familiar y física) y consumo de sustancias (alcohol, tabaco, cannabis y drogas de síntesis). Los resultados mostraron que en la adolescencia tardía la vulnerabilidad fue mayor que en la temprana. Se encontró una interacción entre la etapa de la adolescencia y el sexo. Los adolescentes tardíos presentaron mayor consumo de sustancias (aunque no las adolescentes) en cannabis y drogas de síntesis. La menor autoestima emocional correspondió a las adolescentes tardías y la menor autoestima familiar a los adolescentes tardíos. El estilo parental no interactuó con la etapa de la adolescencia ni con el sexo. El estilo indulgente igualó, o incluso mejoró, la protección respecto del autorizativo, mientras que los estilos parentales autoritario y negligente actuaron como factores de riesgo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Socialização , Autoimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Variância , Análise Multivariada
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890709

RESUMO

The prevalence of mobile phone use across the world has increased greatly over the past two decades. Problematic Mobile Phone Use (PMPU) has been studied in relation to public health and comprises various behaviours, including dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use. These types of problematic mobile phone behaviours are typically assessed with the short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ⁻SV). However, to date, no study has ever examined the degree to which the PMPU scale assesses the same construct across different languages. The aims of the present study were to (i) determine an optimal factor structure for the PMPUQ⁻SV among university populations using eight versions of the scale (i.e., French, German, Hungarian, English, Finnish, Italian, Polish, and Spanish); and (ii) simultaneously examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the PMPUQ⁻SV across all languages. The whole study sample comprised 3038 participants. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were extracted from the demographic and PMPUQ-SV items. Individual and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses alongside MI analyses were conducted. Results showed a similar pattern of PMPU across the translated scales. A three-factor model of the PMPUQ-SV fitted the data well and presented with good psychometric properties. Six languages were validated independently, and five were compared via measurement invariance for future cross-cultural comparisons. The present paper contributes to the assessment of problematic mobile phone use because it is the first study to provide a cross-cultural psychometric analysis of the PMPUQ-SV.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Perigoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Uso do Telefone Celular/legislação & jurisprudência , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Prevalência , Psicometria , Traduções
12.
J Behav Addict ; 6(2): 168-177, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425777

RESUMO

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Scand J Psychol ; 56(3): 273-82, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752333

RESUMO

Emerging adulthood is a transitional period which has been examined in relatively few studies in Southern European countries. This study has two aims: (1) to determine the features of emerging adulthood in Spain based on criteria for adulthood and experiential dimensions; and (2) to explore whether variations in these criteria are related to gender and adult status (self-classification as an adult and adult role adoption). Participants included 347 young Spanish people, aged 18-30, who completed a questionnaire about their conceptions of adulthood. They used similar criteria for adulthood to other Western countries, placing an extremely strong emphasis on psychological maturity criteria in comparison with role transition indicators. Important variations were observed in both the importance and achievement of criteria for adulthood according to gender and adult status. The results likewise suggest there may be different psychosocial profiles associated with each adult status group. The relevance of this classification to future research in the field of emerging adulthood is discussed.


Assuntos
Logro , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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