Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 282
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767352

RESUMO

A more complete and holistic view on host-microbe interactions is needed to understand the physiological and cellular barriers that affect the efficacy of drug treatments and allow the discovery and development of new therapeutics. Here, we developed a multimodal imaging approach combining histopathology with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and same section imaging mass cytometry (IMC) to study the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the liver of a mouse model using the S. Typhimurium strains SL3261 and SL1344. This approach enables correlation of tissue morphology and specific cell phenotypes with molecular images of tissue metabolism. IMC revealed a marked increase in immune cell markers and localization in immune aggregates in infected tissues. A correlative computational method (network analysis) was deployed to find metabolic features associated with infection and revealed metabolic clusters of acetyl carnitines, as well as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen species, which could be associated with pro-inflammatory immune cell types. By developing an IMC marker for the detection of Salmonella LPS, we were further able to identify and characterize those cell types which contained S. Typhimurium.

2.
Clin Biochem ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, good prognosis and management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 are crucial for developing disease management guidelines and providing a viable healthcare system. We aimed to propose individual outcome prediction models based on binary logistic regression (BLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses of data collected in the first 24 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for patients with COVID-19 infection. We also analysed different variables for ICU patients who survived and those who died. METHODS: Data from 326 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were collected. Data were captured on laboratory variables, demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and hospital stay related information. These data were compared with patient outcomes (survivor and non-survivor patients). BLR was assessed using the Wald Forward Stepwise method, and the ANN model was constructed using multilayer perceptron architecture. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ANN model was significantly larger than the BLR model (0.917 vs 0.810; p < 0.001) for predicting individual outcomes. In addition, ANN model presented similar negative predictive value than the BLR model (95.9% vs 94.8%). Variables such as age, pH, potassium ion, partial pressure of oxygen, and chloride were present in both models and they were significant predictors of death in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study could provide helpful information for other hospitals to develop their own individual outcome prediction models based, mainly, on laboratory variables. Furthermore, it offers valuable information on which variables could predict a fatal outcome for ICU patients with COVID-19.

3.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788052

RESUMO

The L-type amino acid transporter LAT1, involved in many biological processes including the overexpression of some tumors, is considered a potential pharmacological target. The 1,2,3-Dithiazole scaffold was predicted to inhibit LAT1 by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond with the thiolate group of cysteine(s). As a result of the identification of these irreversible covalent inhibitors, we decided to deeply investigate the recognition stage and the covalent interaction, characterizing the chemical structures of the selected ligands. With the aim to provide new insights into the access of the ligands to the binding pocket and to reveal the residues involved in the inhibition, we performed docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory-based investigation of three 1,2,3-dithiazoles against LAT1. Our computational analysis further highlighted the crucial role played by water molecules in the inhibition mechanism. The results here presented are consistent with experimental observations and provide insights that can be helpful for the rational design of new-to-come LAT1's inhibitors.

4.
Neurotherapeutics ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668147

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is one of the most frequent side effects of antineoplastic treatment, particularly of lung, breast, prostate, gastrointestinal, and germinal cancers, as well as of different forms of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Currently, no effective therapies are available for CIPN prevention, and symptomatic treatment is frequently ineffective; thus, several clinical trials are addressing this unmet clinical need. Among possible pharmacological treatments of CIPN, modulation of the endocannabinoid system might be particularly promising, especially in those CIPN types where analgesia and neuroinflammation modulation might be beneficial. In fact, several clinical trials are ongoing with the specific aim to better investigate the changes in endocannabinoid levels induced by systemic chemotherapy and the possible role of endocannabinoid system modulation to provide relief from CIPN symptoms, a hypothesis supported by preclinical evidence but never consistently demonstrated in patients. Interestingly, endocannabinoid system modulation might be one of the mechanisms at the basis of the reported efficacy of exercise and physical therapy in CIPN patients. This possible virtuous interplay will be discussed in this review.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2885-2899, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, advances in genetic techniques have resulted in the identification of rare hereditary disorders of renal magnesium and salt handling. Nevertheless, approximately 20% of all patients with tubulopathy lack a genetic diagnosis. METHODS: We performed whole-exome and -genome sequencing of a patient cohort with a novel, inherited, salt-losing tubulopathy; hypomagnesemia; and dilated cardiomyopathy. We also conducted subsequent in vitro functional analyses of identified variants of RRAGD, a gene that encodes a small Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase). RESULTS: In eight children from unrelated families with a tubulopathy characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, salt wasting, and nephrocalcinosis, we identified heterozygous missense variants in RRAGD that mostly occurred de novo. Six of these patients also had dilated cardiomyopathy and three underwent heart transplantation. We identified a heterozygous variant in RRAGD that segregated with the phenotype in eight members of a large family with similar kidney manifestations. The GTPase RagD, encoded by RRAGD, plays a role in mediating amino acid signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). RagD expression along the mammalian nephron included the thick ascending limb and the distal convoluted tubule. The identified RRAGD variants were shown to induce a constitutive activation of mTOR signaling in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish a novel disease, which we call autosomal dominant kidney hypomagnesemia (ADKH-RRAGD), that combines an electrolyte-losing tubulopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The condition is caused by variants in the RRAGD gene, which encodes Rag GTPase D; these variants lead to an activation of mTOR signaling, suggesting a critical role of Rag GTPase D for renal electrolyte handling and cardiac function.

6.
Children (Basel) ; 8(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682120

RESUMO

Pediatric optic neuritis (PON) may be a clinically isolated and self-limiting event or may present in the context of underlying neurologic, infective, or systemic disease. PON has a high impact on the quality of life as it may or may not evolve into other acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADSs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or other syndromes related to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG antibodies (MOG-IgG). These different PON phenotypes present variable clinical and radiological features, plasma and liquor biomarkers, and prognosis. We describe four pediatric cases presenting clinically with ON, with different etiopathogenetic pictures: one case had a probable infective etiology, while the others were associated with different demyelinating disorders (MS, NMO, syndrome related to MOG-IgG). We discuss the possible evolution of presenting ON in other ADSs, based on recent literature. A careful evaluation of the clinical and investigation findings and the natural course of PON is necessary to define its pathogenic pathway and evolution. Further prolonged follow-up studies are needed to highlight the predictors of PON evolution, its potential sequelae, and the best treatment options.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 681448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568012

RESUMO

Background: Reirradiation using brachytherapy (BT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are salvage strategies with locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer. This systematic review describes the oncologic and toxicity outcomes for salvage BT and EBRT [including Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)]. Methods: An International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registered (#211875) study was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched from inception to December 2020. For BT, both low dose rate (LDR) and high dose rate (HDR) BT techniques were included. Two authors independently assessed study quality using the 18-item Modified Delphi technique. Results: A total of 39 eligible studies comprising 1967 patients were included (28 BT and 11 SBRT). In 35 studies (90%), the design was single centre and/or retrospective and no randomised prospective studies were found. Twelve BT studies used LDR only, 11 HDR only, 4 LDR or HDR and 1 pulsed-dose rate only. All EBRT studies used SBRT exclusively, four with Cyberknife alone and 7 using both Cyberknife and conventional linear accelerator treatments. Median (range) modified Delphi quality score was 15 (6-18). Median (range) follow-up was 47.5 months (13-108) (BT) and 25.4 months (21-44) (SBRT). For the LDR-BT studies, the median (range) 2-year and 5-year bRFS rates were 71% (48-89.5) and 52.5% (20-79). For the HDR-BT studies, the median (range) 2-year and 5-year bRFS rates were 74% (63-89) and 51% (45-65). For the SBRT studies, the median (range) 2-year bRFS for the SBRT group was 54.9% (40-80). Mean (range) acute and late grade≥3 GU toxicity rates for LDR-BT/HDR-BT/SBRT were 7.4%(0-14)/2%(0-14)/2.7%(0-8.7) and 13.6%(0-30)/7.9%(0-21.3%)/2.7%(0-8%). Mean (range) acute and late grade≥3 GI toxicity rates for LDR-BT/HDR-BT/SBRT were 6.5%(0-19)/0%/0.5%(0-4%) and 6.4%(0-20)/0.1%(0-0.9)/0.2%(0-1.5). One third of studies included Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs). Conclusions: Salvage reirradiation of radiorecurrent prostate cancer using HDR-BT or SBRT provides similar biochemical control and acceptable late toxicity. Salvage LDR-BT is associated with higher late GU/GI toxicity. Challenges exist in comparing BT and SBRT from inconsistencies in reporting with missing data, and prospective randomised trials are needed.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578843

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) characterized by cardiac remodeling is a condition in which inflammation and fibrosis play a key role. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seems to produce good results. In fact, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and different cardioprotective mechanisms. In particular, following their interaction with the nuclear factor erythropoietin 2 related factor 2 (NRF2), the free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4) receptor, or the G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) fibroblast receptors, they inhibit cardiac fibrosis and protect the heart from HF onset. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs increase the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), reduce global longitudinal deformation, E/e ratio (early ventricular filling and early mitral annulus velocity), soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sST2) and high-sensitive C Reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and increase flow-mediated dilation. Moreover, lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and serum norepinephrine (sNE) are reported and have a positive effect on cardiac hemodynamics. In addition, they reduce cardiac remodeling and inflammation by protecting patients from HF onset after myocardial infarction (MI). The positive effects of PUFA supplementation are associated with treatment duration and a daily dosage of 1-2 g. Therefore, both the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) define dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs as an effective therapy for reducing the risk of hospitalization and death in HF patients. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent studies related to the effect of PUFA supplementation in HF. For that purpose, a PubMed literature survey was conducted with a focus on various in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials from 2015 to 2021.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Fibrose , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/patologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Schizophr Res ; 237: 31-39, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481203

RESUMO

Impairments in a broad range of cognitive domains have been consistently reported in some individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Cognitive deficits can be observed during the prodromal stage. However, the course of cognitive deficits is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify cognitive subgroups over time and to compare their sociodemographic, clinical and functional profiles. A total of 114 patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders were included in the present study. We assessed subjects through psychiatric scales and eight neuropsychological tests at baseline and at two-year follow-up visit. We performed the Partition Around Medoids algorithm with all cognitive variables. Furthermore, we performed a logistic regression to identify the predictors related to the different cognitive clusters at follow-up. Two distinct subgroups were found: the first cluster characterized by cognitive impairment and a second cluster had relatively intact cognition in comparison with norms. Up to 54.7% of patients with cognitive deficits at baseline tended to improve during the first two years of treatment. Patients with intact cognition at follow-up had a higher socioeconomic status, later age of onset, lower negative symptoms and a higher cognitive reserve (CR) at baseline. CR and age of onset were the baseline variables that predicted cognitive impairment. This research allows us to obtain a better understanding of the heterogeneous profile of psychotic disorders. Identifying the characteristics of patients who will present a cognitive impairment could improve early detection and intervention. These results suggest that enhancing CR could contribute to improving the course of the illness.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371986

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia
12.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439593

RESUMO

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is the self-inflicted destruction of body tissues without suicidal intent with a prevalence of 1.5% to 6.7% in the youth population. At present, it is not clear which emotional and behavioral components are specifically associated with it. Therefore, we studied NSSI in a clinical sample of youth using the Ottawa Self-injury Inventory and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the numerical responses provided to the tests. We found 54 patients with NSSI, with a mean age of 17 years. Scores were analyzed in the total sample and in four subgroups. In the total sample, Internal Emotion and External Emotion Regulation, Craving, Non-Planning and Total Impulsivity were significantly associated with NSSI. There were statistically significant differences in Craving between patients with multiple NSSI episodes, suicide attempts and multiple injury modes and patients of other corresponding subgroups, in Internal Emotion Regulation, Sensation Seeking and Motor Impulsivity between NSSI patients with suicide attempts and no suicide attempts, and in Cognitive Impulsivity between NSSI patients with multiple injury modes and one injury mode. It is necessary to carefully evaluate the components underlying NSSI in order to activate personalized treatment options.

13.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) levels by immunoassay is subject to interference by antithyroglobulin antibodies in up to 30% of cases, suggesting a need to find alternative methods for the follow-up of a significant number of thyroid cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: Assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of thyroglobulin messenger RNA (Tg-mRNA) levels measured by quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) in the blood of patients followed for differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: This is a prospective study of Tg-mRNA levels measured with qRT-PCR. A peripheral blood sample was taken in patients with excellent response (n=69) and with structural incomplete response to treatment (n=23). Results were analysed using the Unity Real-Time program and expressed as fg/µg RNA. A Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was constructed to establish Tg-mRNA cut-off values. RESULTS: Tg-mRNA levels were not significantly different between the group with excellent response [0.10fg/µg RNA (0.08-0.17)] and the group with incomplete structural response [0.133fg/µg RNA (0.07-0.33)] (p<0.06). Test sensitivity was 69.6%, specificity was 59.4%, negative predictive value was 85.4% and positive predictive value was 36.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience shows that this technique could be useful as a rule-out test in selected cases, but its low sensitivity and specificity preclude its usefulness as a first-line test.

14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1805-1816, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076121

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the prevalence of leprosy and verify the factors associated with multibacillary clinical types in a Family Health Strategy priority setting to control and monitor the disease in northeastern Brazil. This cross-sectional study used data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System related to leprosy cases notified in Imperatriz, Maranhão, between 2008 and 2017. The prevalence was determined yearly and for the period. Poisson regression models with a significance level of 5% were employed to associate the variables and the multibacillary clinical types. Most of the 2,476 leprosy cases analyzed referred to multibacillary clinical types. The prevalence ranged from 7.8 and 15.6/10,000 inhabitants, with high and very high endemicity levels. The variables male, age groups between 30 and 59 years and ≥60 years, schooling <8 years, level 2 physical disability, types 1 and 2 reactive episodes, and urban residence area showed significant associations (p≤0.05) with multibacillary clinical types. Such findings can serve as a basis for elaborating and implementing leprosy control and surveillance measures, gearing actions to the most vulnerable groups, and becoming more effective.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Hanseníase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 16(3): 395-401, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140867

RESUMO

Objective: Digestive symptoms are the most common complaints among patients who seek primary healthcare services. This study aims to identify digestive symptoms and determine their association with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients treated at a public endoscopy centre in Northeast Brazil. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 751 patients with digestive symptoms who had an indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We identified the association between these variables through Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test and calculated the odds ratio. Results: Epigastric pain occurred in 83%, post-prandial plenitude in 72.6%, and heartburn in 72.3% of the patients. Women were more likely to present with epigastric pain (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.47), post-prandial plenitude (p = 0.001; OR = 1.21; CI = 1.06-1.37), retrosternal pain or burning (p = 0.03; OR = 1.11; CI = 1.004-1.24), heartburn (p = 0.04; OR = 1.10; CI = 0.98-1.24), unintentional weight loss (p = 0.01; OR = 1.12; CI = 1.02-1.24), and dysphagia (p = 0.01; OR = 1.14; CI = 1.03-1.25). There was no statistically significant association between digestive symptoms and endoscopic findings of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there was no significant association between digestive symptoms and abnormalities detected by endoscopy. Conclusion: Dyspeptic symptoms of epigastric pain, post-prandial fullness, and heartburn were the most common symptoms in patients referred for endoscopy. Dyspepsia, heartburn, and dysphagia were more common in women than in men. Digestive symptoms were not associated with positive endoscopy findings or abnormalities detected by endoscopy.

16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(5): 1805-1816, maio 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249513

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo objetivou descrever a prevalência da hanseníase e verificar os fatores associados às formas clínicas multibacilares em cenário da Estratégia Saúde da Família, prioritário para o controle e a vigilância da doença no nordeste brasileiro. Trata-se de estudo transversal, que utilizou dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação relativos aos casos de hanseníase notificados em Imperatriz, Maranhão, entre 2008 e 2017. Determinaram-se as prevalências a cada ano e para o período. Para associar as variáveis e as formas clínicas multibacilares, utilizaram-se modelos de regressão de Poisson, com nível de significância de 5%. Dos 2.476 casos de hanseníase analisados, a maioria referiu-se às formas clínicas multibacilares. A prevalência variou entre 15,6 e 7,8/10 mil habitantes, encontrando-se níveis alto e muito alto de endemicidade. As variáveis sexo masculino, faixas etárias entre 30 e 59 anos e ≥60 anos, escolaridade <8 anos, grau 2 de incapacidade física, episódio reacional tipos 1 e 2 e zona de residência urbana apresentaram associações significativas (p≤0,05) com as formas clínicas multibacilares. Tais achados podem servir de base para elaboração e implementação de medidas de controle e vigilância da hanseníase, direcionando as ações para os grupos mais vulneráveis e tornando-se mais efetivas.


Abstract This study aimed to describe the prevalence of leprosy and verify the factors associated with multibacillary clinical types in a Family Health Strategy priority setting to control and monitor the disease in northeastern Brazil. This cross-sectional study used data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System related to leprosy cases notified in Imperatriz, Maranhão, between 2008 and 2017. The prevalence was determined yearly and for the period. Poisson regression models with a significance level of 5% were employed to associate the variables and the multibacillary clinical types. Most of the 2,476 leprosy cases analyzed referred to multibacillary clinical types. The prevalence ranged from 7.8 and 15.6/10,000 inhabitants, with high and very high endemicity levels. The variables male, age groups between 30 and 59 years and ≥60 years, schooling <8 years, level 2 physical disability, types 1 and 2 reactive episodes, and urban residence area showed significant associations (p≤0.05) with multibacillary clinical types. Such findings can serve as a basis for elaborating and implementing leprosy control and surveillance measures, gearing actions to the most vulnerable groups, and becoming more effective.

18.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 49: 54-68, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857739

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of family environment styles and psychiatric family history on functioning of patients presenting first-episode psychosis (FEP). Patients with FEP and healthy controls (HC) were assessed at baseline and after 2 years. The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST) was used to assess functional outcome and the Family Environment Scale (FES) to evaluate family environment. Linear regressions evaluated the effect that family environment exerts on functioning at baseline and at 2-year follow-up, when FEP patients were diagnosed according to non-affective (NA-PSYCH) or affective psychoses (A-PSYCH). The influence of a positive parents' psychiatric history on functioning was evaluated through one-way between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models, after controlling for family environmental styles. At baseline, FEP patients presented moderate functioning impairment, significantly worse than HC (28.65±16.17 versus 3.25±7.92; p<0.001, g = 1.91). At 2-year follow-up, the functioning of NA-PSYCH patients was significantly worse than in A-PSYCH (19.92±14.83 versus 12.46±14.86; p = 0.020, g = 0.50). No specific family environment style was associated with functioning in FEP patients and HC. On the contrary, a positive psychiatric father's history influenced functioning of FEP patients. After 2 years, worse functioning in NA-PSYCH patients was associated with lower rates of active-recreational and achievement orientated family environment and with higher rates of moral-religious emphasis and control. In A-PSYCH, worse functioning was associated with higher rates of conflict in the family. Both family environment and psychiatric history influence psychosocial functioning, with important implications for early interventions, that should involve both patients and caregivers.

19.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670930

RESUMO

The real burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in non-hospitalized patients is largely unknown. This is a 3-year prospective, observational study of ambulatory CAP in adults, conducted in 24 Spanish primary care centers between 2016-2019. Sociodemographic and clinical variables of patients with radiographically confirmed CAP were collected. Pneumococcal etiology was assessed using the Binax Now® test. Patients were followed up for 10 ± 3 days. A total of 456 CAP patients were included in the study. Mean age was 56.6 (±17.5) years, 53.5% were female, and 53.9% had ≥1 comorbidity. Average incidence of CAP was 1.2-3.5 cases per 1000 persons per year. Eighteen patients (3.9%) were classified as pneumococcal CAP. Cough was present in 88.1% of patients at diagnosis and fever in 70.8%. Increased pulmonary density (63.3%) and alveolar infiltrates with air bronchogram (16.6%) were the most common radiographic findings. After 14.6 ± 6.0 days (95% CI = 13.9-15.3), 65.4% of patients had recovered. Hospitalization rate was 2.8%. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were quinolones (58.7%) and ß-lactams (31.1%). In conclusion, one-third of CAP patients did not fully recover after two weeks of empiric antibiotic therapy and 2.8% required hospitalization, highlighting the significant burden associated with non-hospitalized CAP in Spain.

20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 47: 112-129, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531261

RESUMO

The extreme variability in symptom presentation reveals that individuals diagnosed with a first-episode psychosis (FEP) may encompass different sub-populations with potentially different illness courses and, hence, different treatment needs. Previous studies have shown that sociodemographic and family environment factors are associated with more unfavorable symptom trajectories. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional structure of symptoms and to identify individuals' trajectories at early stage of illness and potential risk factors associated with poor outcomes at follow-up in non-affective FEP. One hundred and forty-four non-affective FEP patients were assessed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. A Principal component analysis has been conducted to identify dimensions, then an unsupervised machine learning technique (fuzzy clustering) was performed to identify clinical subgroups of patients. Six symptom factors were extracted (positive, negative, depressive, anxiety, disorganization and somatic/cognitive). Three distinct clinical clusters were determined at baseline: mild; negative and moderate; and positive and severe symptoms, and five at follow-up: minimal; mild; moderate; negative and depressive; and severe symptoms. Receiving a low-dose antipsychotic, having a more severe depressive symptomatology and a positive family history for psychiatric disorders were risk factors for poor recovery, whilst having a high cognitive reserve and better premorbid adjustment may confer a better prognosis. The current study provided a better understanding of the heterogeneous profile of FEP. Early identification of patients who could likely present poor outcomes may be an initial step for the development of targeted interventions to improve illness trajectories and preserve psychosocial functioning.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...