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1.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(1): 86-92, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-4371

RESUMO

Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity showed and increasing trend over the past few years. The burden of this epidemic represents a public health issue worldwide. Spain, and especially the Canary Islands, are not exempt. Pregnancy is a situation of weight gain, and the amount of such increase during gestation can affect the health status of both the mother and her baby. Thus, an optimal dietary style becomes of importance. Aim: given the benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on various health outcomes, we aimed to study the adherence to this dietary pattern in a sample of Canarian pregnant women, and to investigate its association with their newborn's weight. Methods: adherence to MD as well as clinical history and anthropometrics were assessed in a sample of pregnant women followed at a Canarian hospital. Similarly, their newborn characteristics were studied. Results: our findings showed an overall low adherence to MD, with no association between this trend and birthweight. Conclusions: in conclusion, specific tools should be tailored to the target population to assess adherence to MD, and further efforts should be made to promote a healthy eating pattern and lifestyle among the pregnant population


Introducción: la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad presentó una tendencia al alza en los últimos años. La carga de esta epidemia supone un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. España, y especialmente las Islas Canarias, no es una excepción. El embarazo es una situación en la que se gana peso y la cantidad de peso que se gana durante la gestación puede afectar al estado de salud tanto de la madre como del niño. Por tanto, adquiere importancia seguir un tipo de dieta óptimo. Objetivo: dados los beneficios de la dieta mediterránea (DM) sobre varios resultados de salud, nos propusimos estudiar la adherencia a este patrón dietético en una muestra de embarazadas canarias e investigar su asociación con el peso neonatal. Métodos: la adherencia a la DM, al igual que la historia clínica y la antropometría, se evaluó en una muestra de mujeres embarazadas seguidas en un hospital canario. También se estudiaron las características de los neonatos. Resultados: nuestros hallazgos mostraron una adherencia general baja a la DM, sin ninguna asociación entre esta tendencia y el peso al nacer. Conclusiones: en conclusión, se deben adaptar a la población objeto de este estudio herramientas específicas que sirvan para evaluar la adherencia a la DM, y se deben realizar nuevos esfuerzos para fomentar un patrón alimenticio y un estilo de vida saludables entre la población gestante

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3472, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103064

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to be effective to maintaining cognitive function and delay cognitive decline in the elderly, but physical fitness (PF) could be a better predictor of cognitive function. We aimed to study the association between PA and PF with cognitive function and quality of life using cross-sectional data from 6874 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus trial (64.9 ± 4.9 years, 48.5% female). PF and PA were measured with a Chair Stand Test, the REGICOR and Rapid Assessment Physical Activity questionnaires. Cognitive function was measured with Mini-mental State Examination, Control Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test and Digit Span tests; whereas health-related quality of life was assessed with the SF36-HRQL test. Cognitive and quality of life scores were compared among PF quartiles and PA levels (low, moderate and high) with ANCOVA and with Chair Stand repetitions and energy expenditure from total PA with multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors. PF associated with higher scores in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tests and with lower TMT A time. However, PA was not associated with the neurocognitive parameters evaluated. Both PF and PA levels were strongly associated with a better quality of life. We concluded that PF, but not PA, is associated with a better cognitive function. This trial was retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN89898870, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870?q=ISRCTN89898870&filters=&sort=&offset=1&totalResults=1&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search) on 07/24/2014.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective evidence on the association between physical activity (PA) and inflammation in older adults. Our aim was to assess the associations between changes in PA and changes in the inflammatory profile in older individuals who are overweight or obese. METHODS: This prospective study included 489 men and women, aged 55-75 years, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 18 (IL-18), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), C-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were obtained from fasting blood samples and a composite inflammatory score based on these biomarkers was calculated. Physical activity was measured by a validated questionnaire. All measures were taken at baseline and one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed an association between an increase in total PA and a decrease in the inflammatory score (p = 0.012), which was particularly driven by a decrease in C-peptide (p = 0.037). Similarly, the inflammatory score decreased with increasing moderate PA (p = 0.001), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in total PA, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA were associated with a decrease in the inflammatory profile of obese or overweight older individuals. This finding is relevant for PA recommendations and public health strategies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinical trial identifier: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial 89898870.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968634

RESUMO

Active commuting (AC) has been proposed as a great opportunity to increase physical activity level (PA) in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study is to determine the associations between AC (walk and cycle commuting) and non-AC (motor vehicle commuting) with PA levels, and with AC and sedentarism in Spanish children and adolescents. A representative Spanish sample of 424 children and adolescents (38% females) was involved in the ANIBES (Anthropometry, Dietary Intake and Lifestyle in Spain) Study in 2013. Data on the levels of AC, non-AC, PA, and sedentarism were obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents. Stepwise backward univariate generalized linear and linear regression models were performed. In girls, walking was associated with playground PA, moderate PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (ß = 0.007, p < 0.05; both ß = 0.007, p < 0.01), respectively. In boys, walking was associated with all PA levels (p < 0.05); while cycling was related to moderate PA and MVPA (both ß = 0.007, p < 0.05). A negative significant association was observed between AC and time spent studying without Internet use in boys (ß = -0.184, p < 0.05). Commuting by walking contributes to increased daily PA in both sexes, whereas cycling was only related to moderate PA and MVPA in boys. Sedentary behaviors are not related to AC, but studying without Internet use was negatively associated with AC in boys.

5.
Circulation ; 141(6): 444-453, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have failed to establish a clear link between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, leading to the hypothesis that the atheroprotective role of HDL lies in its biological activity rather than in its cholesterol content. However, to date, the association between HDL functional characteristics and acute coronary syndrome has not been investigated comprehensively. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) cohort, originally a randomized trial in which participants followed a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Incident acute coronary syndrome cases (N=167) were individually matched (1:2) to control patients by sex, age, intervention group, body mass index, and follow-up time. We investigated 2 individual manifestations (myocardial infarction, unstable angina) as secondary outcomes. We measured the following functional characteristics: HDL cholesterol concentration (in plasma); cholesterol efflux capacity; antioxidant ability, measured by the HDL oxidative-inflammatory index; phospholipase A2 activity; and sphingosine-1-phosphate, apolipoproteins A-I and A-IV, serum amyloid A, and complement 3 protein (in apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma). We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for HDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk factors to estimate odds ratios (ORs) between 1-SD increments in HDL functional characteristics and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Low values of cholesterol efflux capacity (OR1SD, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83) and low levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (OR1SD, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92) and apolipoprotein A-I (OR1SD, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79) were associated with higher odds of acute coronary syndrome. Higher HDL oxidative inflammatory index values were marginally linked to acute coronary syndrome risk (OR1SD, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.99-1.63). Low values of cholesterol efflux capacity (OR1SD, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61), sphingosine-1-phosphate (OR1SD: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40-0.89), and apolipoprotein A-I (OR1SD, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93) were particularly linked to myocardial infarction, whereas high HDL oxidative-inflammatory index values (OR1SD, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33) and low apolipoprotein A-I levels (OR1SD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.88) were associated with unstable angina. CONCLUSIONS: Low cholesterol efflux capacity values, pro-oxidant/proinflammatory HDL particles, and low HDL levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate and apolipoprotein A-I were associated with increased odds of acute coronary syndrome and its manifestations in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

6.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(3): 205-211, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501028

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The Life's Simple 7 strategy of the American Heart Association proposes 7 metrics of ideal cardiovascular health: body mass index (BMI) <25mg/m2, not smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity ≥ 150min/wk, total blood cholesterol <200mg/dL, systolic and diastolic blood pressures <120 and <80mmHg, respectively, and fasting blood glucose <100mg/dL. It is important to assess the combined effect of these 7 metrics in the Spanish population. We prospectively analyzed the impact of baseline Life's Simple 7 metrics on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the PREDIMED cohort (57.5% women, average baseline age, 67 years). METHODS: The healthy diet metric was defined as attaining ≥ 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener. An incident major cardiovascular event was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for successive categories of health metrics. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.8 years in 7447 participants, there were 288 major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, sex, center, and intervention group, HRs (95%CI) were 0.73 (0.54-0.99), 0.57 (0.41-0.78), and 0.34 (0.21-0.53) for participants with 2, 3, and ≥ 4 metrics, respectively, compared with participants with only 0 to 1 metrics. CONCLUSIONS: In an elderly Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to Life's Simple 7 metrics was progressively associated with a substantially lower rate of major cardiovascular events.

7.
Clin Nutr ; 39(3): 853-861, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.

8.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(1): 86-92, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876428

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity showed and increasing trend over the past few years. The burden of this epidemic represents a public health issue worldwide. Spain, and especially the Canary Islands, are not exempt. Pregnancy is a situation of weight gain, and the amount of such increase during gestation can affect the health status of both the mother and her baby. Thus, an optimal dietary style becomes of importance. Aim: given the benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on various health outcomes, we aimed to study the adherence to this dietary pattern in a sample of Canarian pregnant women, and to investigate its association with their newborn's weight. Methods: adherence to MD as well as clinical history and anthropometrics were assessed in a sample of pregnant women followed at a Canarian hospital. Similarly, their newborn characteristics were studied. Results: our findings showed an overall low adherence to MD, with no association between this trend and birthweight. Conclusions: in conclusion, specific tools should be tailored to the target population to assess adherence to MD, and further efforts should be made to promote a healthy eating pattern and lifestyle among the pregnant population.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817731

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is, culturally and historically, the nutritional pattern shared by people living in the olive-tree growing areas of the Mediterranean basin. It is of great importance for its potential preventive effect against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a Spanish multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT), was designed to assess the long-term effects of the MD, without any energy restriction, on the incidence of CVD in individuals at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. Since its inception, it gave a great contribution to the available literature on the issue. It is well known that, in the field of the health sciences, RCTs provide the best scientific evidence. Thus, the aim of the present review is to analyse the results of the RCTs performed within the frame of the PREDIMED study. Our findings showed that MD has beneficial effects in the primary prevention of CVDs, diabetes and in the management of metabolic syndrome.

10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 139, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of certain foods is associated with long-term weight gains and abdominal fat accumulation in healthy, middle-aged and young, non-obese participants. Whether the same foods might be associated with changes in adiposity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk is less known. OBJECTIVE: Using yearly repeated measurements of both food habits and adiposity parameters, we aimed to investigate how changes in the consumption of specific foods were associated with concurrent changes in weight or waist circumference (WC) in the PREDIMED trial. DESIGN: We followed-up 7009 participants aged 55-70 years at high cardiovascular risk for a median time of 4.8 years. A validated 137-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment with yearly repeated measurements. We longitudinally assessed associations between yearly changes in food consumption (serving/d) and concurrent changes in weight (kg) or WC (cm). RESULTS: Yearly increments in weight were observed with increased consumption (kg per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) for refined grains (0.32 kg/serving/d), red meat (0.24), potatoes (0.23), alcoholic beverages (0.18), processed meat (0.15), white bread (0.07) and sweets (0.04); whereas inverse associations were detected for increased consumption of low-fat yogurt (- 0.18), and low-fat milk (- 0.06). Annual WC gain (cm per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) occurred with increased consumption of snacks, fast-foods and pre-prepared dishes (0.28), processed meat (0.18), alcoholic beverages (0.13), and sweets (0.08); whereas increased consumption of vegetables (- 0.23), and nuts (- 0.17), were associated with reductions in WC. CONCLUSIONS: In this assessment conducted in high-risk subjects using yearly repeated measurements of food habits and adiposity, some ultra-processed foods, refined carbohydrates (including white bread), potatoes, red meats and alcohol were associated with higher weight and WC gain, whereas increases in consumption of low-fat dairy products and plant foods were associated with less gain in weight and WC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at controlled-trials.com with International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694143

RESUMO

Dietary habits amongst the Spanish population are currently a relevant cause for concern, as macronutrient profiles and micronutrient intakes seem to be inadequate and globally moving away from the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. However, recent food consumption patterns have not been fully assessed. In the present study, our aim was therefore to describe the current food consumption from the "anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain" (ANIBES) study population by assessing data defined by age and gender. The ANIBES study is a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population. A three-day dietary record was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption. The sample comprised 2009 individuals aged 9-75 years, plus a boost sample for the youngest age groups (9-12, 13-17, and 18-24 years, n = 200 per age group). The most consumed food group across all age segments were non-alcoholic beverages followed by milk and dairy products and vegetables. Consumption of cereals and derivatives, milk and dairy products, sugars and sweets, and ready-to-eat meals by children was significantly higher than those by the adult and older adult populations (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, intakes of vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish were significantly higher in adults and older adults (p ≤ 0.05). In order to comply with recommendations, adherence to the Mediterranean dietary patterns should be strengthened, especially amongst younger population groups. Therefore, substantial nutritional interventions may be targeted to improve the Spanish population's dietary patterns nowadays.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694249

RESUMO

Diet-related risk factors and physical inactivity are among the leading risk factors for disability and are responsible for a large proportion of the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are useful tools for nutrition policies and public health strategies to promote healthier eating and physical activity. In this paper, we discuss the process followed in developing the dietary guidelines for the Spanish population by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and further explain the collaboration with primary healthcare practitioners as presented in the context of the NUTRIMAD 2018 international congress of SENC. From a health in all policies approach, SENC convened a group of experts in nutrition and public health to review the evidence on diet-health, nutrient intake and food consumption in the Spanish population, as well as food preparation, determinants and impact of diet on environmental sustainability. The collaborative group drafted the document and designed the graphic icon, which was then subject to a consultation process, discussion, and qualitative evaluation. Next, a collaborative group was established to plan a dissemination strategy, involving delegates from all the primary healthcare scientific societies in Spain. A product of this collaboration was the release of an attractive, easy-to-understand publication.

13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 151, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires the identification of new predictor biomarkers. Biomarkers potentially modifiable with lifestyle changes deserve a special interest. Our aims were to analyze: (a) The associations of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) or pipecolic acid with the risk of T2D or CVD in the PREDIMED trial; (b) the effect of the dietary intervention on 1-year changes in these metabolites, and (c) whether the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions can modify the effects of these metabolites on CVD or T2D risk. METHODS: Two unstratified case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were used. For CVD analyses, we selected 696 non-cases and 221 incident CVD cases; for T2D, we included 610 non-cases and 243 type 2 diabetes incident cases. Metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. RESULTS: In weighted Cox regression models, we found that baseline lysine (HR+1 SD increase = 1.26; 95% CI 1.06-1.51) and 2-AAA (HR+1 SD increase = 1.28; 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were both associated with a higher risk of T2D, but not with CVD. A significant interaction (p = 0.032) between baseline lysine and T2D on the risk of CVD was observed: subjects with prevalent T2D and high levels of lysine exhibited the highest risk of CVD. The intervention with MedDiet did not have a significant effect on 1-year changes of the metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide an independent prospective replication of the association of 2-AAA with future risk of T2D. We show an association of lysine with subsequent CVD risk, which is apparently diabetes-dependent. No evidence of effects of MedDiet intervention on lysine, 2-AAA or pipecolic acid changes was found. Trial registration ISRCTN35739639; registration date: 05/10/2005; recruitment start date 01/10/2003.

14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717390

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717849

RESUMO

Bifenox and Dichlobenil belong to the commonly used in Poland in agriculture group of herbicides and their residues are often detected in the environment. They are poorly known regarding their possible carcinogenic and antibacterial effect at the cellular level. Therefore, we decided to study their activity in bacterial strains Aliivibrio fisheri, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans (yeast) and human cancer ZR-75-1 cells. Compounds under study exhibit stimulatory effect on analyzed bacterial strains. The study performed on mammalian cells better reflects the influence of environmental pollutants on human organism, therefore we evaluated the effect of herbicides on ZR-75-1 cells. Cells viability, apoptosis and selected oxidative stress parameters in ZR-75-1 cells were investigated. Both analyzed substances exhibit stimulatory effects on analyzed parameters, however they do not stimulate apoptosis which correlate positively with the induction of oxidative stress. Bifenox and Dichlobenil enhance oxidative stress parameters by the generation of high levels of ROS, which can lead to their adaptation and resistance to the standard treatment regimen.

16.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(11): 925-934, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4990

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los beneficios cardiovasculares de la dieta mediterránea se han evaluado bajo supuestos de ingesta total de energía ad libitum (sin restricción de energía). En el presente trabajo se estudia basalmente la cohorte de un gran ensayo en marcha denominado PREDIMED-Plus y la asociación entre la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea hipocalórica según la escala de 17 puntos (MedDiet) de este ensayo con la prevalencia inicial de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). Métodos: Evaluación transversal de los participantes de PREDIMED-Plus (6.874 adultos mayores con sobrepeso/obesidad y síndrome metabólico). Se evaluó a los participantes para determinar la prevalencia de 4 FRCV (hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia). Se estimaron diferencias de medias y razones de prevalencia para FRCV individuales y agrupados con modelos multivariables. Resultados: Una mejor adhesión al patrón MedDiet se asoció significativamente con niveles más bajos de triglicéridos, índice de masa corporal y perímetro abdominal. Comparado con una baja adhesión (≤ 7 puntos en el score de 17 puntos), una mejor adhesión a la MedDiet (11-17 puntos) mostró asociaciones inversas con hipertensión (razón de prevalencia=0,97; IC95%, 0,94-1,00) y obesidad (razón de prevalencia=0,96; IC95% 0,92-1,00), pero se observaron asociaciones positivas con diabetes (razón de prevalencia=1,19; IC95% 1,07-1,32). Comparado con el tercil más bajo de adhesión, las mujeres en el tercil superior mostraron un riesgo menor para la agrupación de 3 o más FRCV (razón de prevalencia=0,91; IC95% 0,83-0,98). Conclusiones: Entre participantes con alto riesgo cardiovascular, la mejor adhesión a MedDiet se asoció a mejores perfiles lipídicos y medidas de adiposidad, y entre las mujeres mostró asociaciones inversas significativas con la agregación de FRCV


Introduction and objectives: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (≤ 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio=0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio=1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio=0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). Conclusions: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures

17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635237

RESUMO

The prevention of bone mass loss and related complications associated with osteoporosis is a significant public health issue. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is favorably associated with bone health, a potentially modifiable risk factor. The objective of this research was to determine MD adherence in a sample of women with and without osteoporosis. In this observational case-control study of 139 women (64 women with and 75 without osteoporosis) conducted in a primary-care health center in Girona (Spain), MD adherence, lifestyle, physical exercise, tobacco and alcohol consumption, pathological antecedents, and FRAX index scores were analyzed. Logistic multilinear regression modeling to explore the relationship between the MD and bone fracture risk indicated that better MD adherence was associated with a lower bone risk fracture. Non-pharmacological preventive strategies to reduce bone fracture risk were also reviewed to explore the role of lifestyle and diet in bone mass maintenance and bone fracture prevention.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581518

RESUMO

Diet is one of the key modifiable behaviors that can help to control and prevent non-communicable chronic diseases. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the overall diet composition of the population through non-invasive and independent indexes or scores as diet quality indexes (DQIs). The primary aim of the present work was to estimate the adequacy of the intake of critical nutrients in the Spanish "Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study" (ANIBES) (n = 2285; 9-75 years), considering, as a reference, the European Food Scientific Authority (EFSA) values for nutrients for the European Union. We also assessed the quality of the diet for adults and older adults using four internationally accepted DQIs, namely the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), the Mediterranean Diet Score-modified (MDS-mod), and the Mediterranean-Diet Quality Index (MED-DQI), as well as the ANIBES-DQI, stratified by education and income. The ANIBES-DQI was based on compliance with EFSA and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations for a selected group of nutrients (i.e., total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), simple sugars, fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin A), with a total range of 0-7. Misreporting was assessed according to the EFSA protocol, which allowed us to assess the DQIs for both the general population and plausible reporters. The majority of the Spanish population had high intakes of SFAs and sugars and low intakes of fiber, folate, and vitamins A and C. In addition, about half of the population had low DQI scores and exhibited low adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern. Overall, older adults (>65-75 years) showed better DQIs than adults (18-64 years), without major differences between men and women. Moreover, primary education and low income were associated with low MDS and ANIBES-DQI scores. For the ANIBES-DQI, the percentage of the population with low scores was higher in the whole population (69.5%) compared with the plausible energy reporters (49.0%), whereas for medium and high scores the percentages were higher in plausible reporters (41.2% vs. 26.2% and 9.8% vs. 4.3%, respectively). In conclusion, the present study adds support to marked changes in the Mediterranean pattern in Spain, and low education and income levels seem to be associated with a low-quality diet. Additionally, the misreported evaluation in the ANIBES population suggests that this analysis should be routinely included in nutrition surveys to give more precise and accurate data related to nutrient intake and diet quality.

19.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615065

RESUMO

Excessive sodium consumption is associated with adverse health effects. An elevated dietary intake of salt (sodium chloride) has been related to high blood pressure or hypertension, a major but modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, as well as to other ill health conditions. In the present work, our aim was to describe the contribution of foods to sodium consumption within the Spanish population in a representative sample from the "anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain" (ANIBES) study (9-75 years), to identify high consumer groups, as well as the major food groups that contribute to sodium intake in the Spanish diet. Intakes were assessed by 3-day food records collected on a tablet device. Sodium intakes across the ANIBES study population exceeded recommendations, as total intakes reached 2025 ± 805 mg of sodium per day, that is approximately 5.06 g/day of salt (excluding discretionary salt, added at the table or during cooking). Sodium intakes were higher in males than in females and within the youngest groups. Main dietary sources of sodium were meat and meat products (27%), cereals and grains (26%), milk and dairy products (14%) and ready-to-eat meals (13%). Given the established health benefits of dietary salt reduction, it would be advisable to continue and even improve the current national initiatives of awareness and educational campaigns and particularly food reformulation to decrease overall salt intakes across the Spanish population.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.

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