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1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(12): 1392-1401, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647580

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity has consistently been shown to improve cardiovascular health and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, only small and heterogeneous studies have investigated the effect of exercise on high-density lipoprotein functions. Our aim is to evaluate, in the largest observational study to date, the association between leisure time physical activity and a range of high-density lipoprotein functional traits. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 296 Spanish adults at high cardiovascular risk. Usual leisure time physical activity and eight measures of high-density lipoprotein functionality were averaged over two measurements, one year apart. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the association between leisure time physical activity (exposure) and each high-density lipoprotein functional trait (outcome), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Higher levels of leisure time physical activity were positively and linearly associated with average levels over one year of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity, high-density lipoprotein capacity to esterify cholesterol and cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals free of type 2 diabetes only. The increased cholesterol esterification index with increasing leisure time physical activity reached a plateau at around 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day. In individuals with diabetes, the relationship with cholesteryl ester transfer protein followed a U-shape, with a decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity from 0 to 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day, but increasing from there onwards. Increasing levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with poorer high-density lipoprotein vasodilatory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In a high cardiovascular risk population, leisure time physical activity was associated not only with greater circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but also with better markers of high-density lipoprotein functionality, namely cholesterol efflux capacity, the capacity of high-density lipoprotein to esterify cholesterol and paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity in individuals free of diabetes and lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5269-5277, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between intake of simple sugars and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality in a prospective cohort study based on the PREDIMED trial conducted from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: Participants were older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Exposures were total sugar, glucose and fructose from solid or liquid sources, and fructose from fruit and 100% fruit juice. Cancer incidence was the primary outcome; cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Multivariable-adjusted, time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used. RESULTS: Of 7447 individuals enrolled, 7056 (94.7%) were included (57.6% women, aged 67.0 ± 6.2 years). 534 incident cancers with 152 cancer deaths and 409 all-cause deaths were recorded after a median follow-up of 6 years. Intake of simple sugars in solid form was unrelated to outcomes. Higher cancer incidence was found per 5 g/day increase in intake of liquid sugars, with multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for total liquid sugar, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.31) for liquid glucose, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.23) for liquid fructose, and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.74) for fructose from fruit juice. Cancer and all-cause mortality increased to a similar extent with intake of all sugars in liquid form. In categorical models, cancer risk was dose-related for all liquid sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Simple sugar intake in drinks and fruit juice was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. This suggests that sugary beverages are a modifiable risk factor for cancer and all-cause mortality.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371982

RESUMO

The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification system, we used baseline data from 5636 participants (48.5% female and 51.5% male, mean age 65.1 ± 4.9) of the PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial. Subjects presented with overweight or obesity and met at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria. Food consumption was classified using a 143-item food frequency questionnaire according to four food processing-based classifications: NOVA, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Food Information Council (IFIC) and University of North Carolina (UNC). Mean changes in nutritional and cardiometabolic markers were assessed according to quintiles of UPF consumption for each system. The association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers was assessed using linear regression analysis. The concordance of the different classifications was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3, overall = 0.51). The highest UPF consumption was obtained with the IARC classification (45.9%) and the lowest with NOVA (7.9%). Subjects with high UPF consumption showed a poor dietary profile. We detected a direct association between UPF consumption and BMI (p = 0.001) when using the NOVA system, and with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.042) blood pressure when using the UNC system. Food classification methodologies markedly influenced the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/classificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 4971-4979, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short dietary assessment tools can be useful to estimate food intake and diet quality in large-scale epidemiological studies with time constraints. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity of the 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean Adherence Screener (er-MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus trial and to analyse its capacity to detect 1-year changes in diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Validation study nested in the PREDIMED-Plus (n = 6760, 55-75 years). Dietary data were collected by the 17-item er-MEDAS and a 143-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. Cardiometabolic risk markers were measured at both time points. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score was derived from both instruments. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing 1-year changes in FFQ-reported dietary intake and cardiometabolic profile changes in relation to changes in er-MEDAS. RESULTS: A moderate to good correlation between the MedDiet score calculated by both measurement instruments was found: r = 0.61 and ICC = 0.60 (both p < 0.001). Agreement of each of the er-MEDAS items ranged from 55.4% to 85.0% with a moderate mean concordance (kappa = 0.41). Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, energy intake measured by the FFQ decreased by 242 kcal, while Mediterranean food consumption increased in participants with the highest increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score. An increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score ratings was associated with a decrease in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.001 for all), and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The er-MEDAS shows a modest to good concurrent validity compared with FFQ data. It shows acceptable construct validity, as a greater er-MEDAS score was associated with more favourable dietary and cardiometabolic profiles over time. TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN89898870; registration date, 24 July 2014. https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation. We hypothesize that metabolites implicated in this pathway may be associated with the risk of heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively analyze the associations of kynurenine-related metabolites with the risk of HF and AF and to analyze a potential effect modification by the randomized interventions of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Two case-control studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were designed. We selected 324 incident HF cases and 502 incident AF cases individually matched with ≤3 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted. Interactions with the intervention were tested for each of the baseline plasma metabolites measured by LC-tandem MS. RESULTS: Higher baseline kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (OR for 1 SD: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) and higher levels of kynurenic acid (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40) were associated with HF. Quinolinic acid was associated with AF (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and HF (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). The MedDiet intervention modified the positive associations of kynurenine (Pinteraction = 0.006), kynurenic acid (Pinteraction = 0.008), and quinolinic acid (Pinteraction = 0.033) with HF and the association between kynurenic acid and AF (Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites were prospectively associated with higher HF risk and to a lesser extent with AF risk. Moreover, an effect modification by MedDiet was observed for the association between plasma baseline kynurenine-related metabolites and the risk of HF, showing that the positive association of increased levels of these metabolites and HF was restricted to the control group.

7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 98, 2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validation of self-reported tools, such as physical activity (PA) questionnaires, is crucial. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and the concurrent, construct, and predictive validity of the short semi-quantitative Physical Activity Unit 7 item Screener (PAU-7S), using accelerometry as the reference measurement. The effect of linear calibration on PAU-7S validity was tested. METHODS: A randomized sample of 321 healthy children aged 8-16 years (149 boys, 172 girls) from the nationwide representative PASOS study completed the PAU-7S before and after wearing an accelerometer for at least 7 consecutive days. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Cronbach alpha was calculated for internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was determined by intra-class correlation (ICC). Concurrent validity was assessed by ICC and Spearman correlation coefficient between moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) derived by the PAU-7S and by accelerometer. Concordance between both methods was analyzed by absolute agreement, weighted kappa, and Bland-Altman statistics. Multiple linear regression models were fitted for construct validity and predictive validity was determined by leave-one-out cross-validation. RESULTS: The PAU-7S overestimated MVPA by 18%, compared to accelerometers (106.5 ± 77.0 vs 95.2 ± 33.2 min/day, respectively). A Cronbach alpha of 0.76 showed an acceptable internal consistency of the PAU-7S. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC 0.71 p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and ICC coefficients of MVPA derived by the PAU-7S and accelerometers increased from 0.31 to 0.62 and 0.20 to 0.62, respectively, after calibration of the PAU-7S. Between-methods concordance improved from a weighted kappa of 0.24 to 0.50 after calibration. A slight reduction in ICC, from 0.62 to 0.60, yielded good predictive validity. Multiple linear regression models showed an inverse association of MVPA with standardized body mass index (ß - 0.162; p < 0.077) and waist to height ratio (ß - 0.010; p < 0.014). All validity dimensions were somewhat stronger in boys compared to girls. CONCLUSION: The PAU-7S shows a good test-retest reliability and acceptable internal consistency. All dimensions of validity increased from poor/fair to moderate/good after calibration. The PAU-7S is a valid instrument for measuring MVPA in children and adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number ISRCTN34251612 .


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Acelerometria/normas , Adolescente , Calibragem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sedentário
8.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3982-3991, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between drinking water consumption and adiposity has been poorly explored. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the associations between the frequency of drinking water consumption and body weight and waist circumference changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: A total of 1832 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study with baseline data on drinking water and other beverages assessed by a validated 32-item Spanish fluid-intake questionnaire and with data on body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) at 1-year and 2-year were included in these prospective analyses. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess the ß-coefficients and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BW and WC changes in terms of categories of baseline drinking water consumption (tap water and bottled water). The theoretical effect on BW and WC of replacing several beverages with drinking water was assessed using mathematical models. RESULTS: The baseline frequency of drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 1-year and 2-year changes in BW. ß-coefficients (95%CI) across categories of water consumption (<2.5, 2.5 to <5, 5 to < 7.5, ≥7.5 servings/d) expressed in % of weight changes at 2 years of follow-up were 0.0, -0.80 (-1.48, -0.12), -1.36 (-2.18, -0.54), and -1.97 (-3.09, -0.86), respectively. Individuals in the two highest categories of drinking water consumption (5 to < 7, and ≥7.5 servings/d) also showed a higher decrease in WC (expressed as % of change) after 2 years of follow-up: -1.11 (-1.96, -0.25) and -1.45 (-2.66, -0.24) compared to the reference intake (<2.5 servings/day), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The theoretical replacement of soups, beers, spirits, hot beverages, dairy beverages, and other beverages group with drinking water was associated with greater reductions in BW at one- and two-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 2-year adiposity changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort at high cardiovascular risk. Our results also suggest that the consumption of drinking water instead of energy-containing beverages is associated with lower weight gain. THE TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN89898870.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064328

RESUMO

Clinical data on the direct health effects of energy deficit or surplus beyond its impact on body weight are scarce. We aimed to assess the association with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality of (1) sustained energy deficit or surplus, calculated according to each individual's en-ergy intake (EI) and theoretical energy expenditure (TEE), and (2) mid-term change in total EI in a prospective study. In 7119 participants in the PREDIMED Study (PREvención con DIeta MEDi-terránea) with a mean age of 67 years, energy intake was derived from a 137-item food frequency questionnaire. TEE was calculated as a function of age, sex, height, body weight and physical ac-tivity. The main exposure was the proportion of energy requirement covered by energy intake, cumulative throughout the follow-up. The secondary exposure was the change in energy intake from baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% con-fidence intervals for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 239 deaths (excluding the first 2 years). An energy intake exceeding energy needs was associated with an increase in mortality risk (continuous HR10% over energy needs = 1.10; 95% CI 1.02, 1.18), driven by cardiovascular death (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11, 1.43). However, consum-ing energy below estimated needs was not associated with a lower risk. Increments over time in energy intake were associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR10% increase = 1.09; 95% CI 1.02, 1.17). However, there was no evidence that a substantial negative change in energy intake would reduce mortality risk. To conclude, in an older Mediterranean cohort, energy surplus or increase over a 5-year period was associated with greater risk of mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality. Energy deficit, or reduction in energy intake over time were not associated with mortal-ity risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgically site infections (SSIs) are a major problem that limits the benefits of surgical interventions. The cumulative incidence of SSIs in colon surgery and compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the causes of non-compliance were evaluated. METHODS: Multi-centre prospective surveillance study between 2012 and 2019 in seven hospitals of the Canary Health Service using an active epidemiological surveillance system. SSIs was defined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: In 2019, the cumulative incidence of SSIs was 10.6% (n=80), which implies maintaining the downward trend since 2012. The appearance of SSIs was more frequent during admission (76%). Surgical prophylaxis was adequate in 81.2%, the main causes of inadequacy being the excessive duration of the antimicrobial prescription (49%) and failure in the indication (33%). The incidence was higher in the group of organ-space infections (53.75% of the total) compared to superficial and deep infections. CONCLUSION: The cumulative incidence of SSIs obtained is similar to that calculated in other studies carried out under similar conditions. Preoperative chemoprophylaxis was adequate in most of the interventions.

11.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the intake of dietary vitamin D is associated with the incidence of both colorectal cancer (CRC) and colon cancer in the framework of the PREDIMED cohort of older adults at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Baseline consumption of vitamin D was assessed using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC and colon cancer incidence were estimated for quartiles and per 1-SD of baseline vitamin D intake. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, we documented 97 incident CRC cases after the exclusion of subjects with no baseline dietary data and/or outliers of energy intake. A non-significant HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme quartiles (4th vs 1st) of vitamin D intake were observed [0.55 (0.30-1.00), P for trend = 0.072], whereas it was significant for colon cancer incidence alone [0.44 (0.22-0.90), P for trend = 0.032]. However, this association became significant in CRC and colon cancer incidence, after excluding 391 subjects consuming baseline vitamin D and/or calcium medication or prescribed supplements [0.52 (0.28-0.96) and 0.41 (0.12-0.85), respectively]. CONCLUSION: A higher dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803089

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the potential health-related effects of moderate alcohol consumption and, specifically, of beer. This review provides an assessment of beer-associated effects on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors to identify a consumption level that can be considered "moderate". We identified all prospective clinical studies and systematic reviews that evaluated the health effects of beer published between January 2007 and April 2020. Five of six selected studies found a protective effect of moderate alcohol drinking on cardiovascular disease (beer up to 385 g/week) vs. abstainers or occasional drinkers. Four out of five papers showed an association between moderate alcohol consumption (beer intake of 84 g alcohol/week) and decreased mortality risk. We concluded that moderate beer consumption of up to 16 g alcohol/day (1 drink/day) for women and 28 g/day (1-2 drinks/day) for men is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality, among other metabolic health benefits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cerveja , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808041

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess whether long-term adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were associated with a lower initiation of cardiovascular drug use. We studied the association between cumulative average of MedDiet adherence and LTPA and the risk of cardiovascular drug initiation in older adults at high cardiovascular risk (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial participants) non-medicated at baseline: glucose-lowering drugs (n = 4437), antihypertensives (n = 2145), statins (n = 3977), fibrates (n = 6391), antiplatelets (n = 5760), vitamin K antagonists (n = 6877), antianginal drugs (n = 6837), and cardiac glycosides (n = 6954). One-point increases in MedDiet adherence were linearly associated with a decreased initiation of glucose-lowering (HR: 0.76 [0.71-0.80]), antihypertensive (HR: 0.79 [0.75-0.82]), statin (HR: 0.82 [0.78-0.85]), fibrate (HR: 0.78 [0.68-0.89]), antiplatelet (HR: 0.79 [0.75-0.83]), vitamin K antagonist (HR: 0.83 [0.74; 0.93]), antianginal (HR: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]), and cardiac glycoside therapy (HR: 0.69 [0.56-0.84]). LTPA was non-linearly related to a delayed initiation of glucose-lowering, antihypertensive, statin, fibrate, antiplatelet, antianginal, and cardiac glycoside therapy (minimum risk: 180-360 metabolic equivalents of task-min/day). Both combined were synergistically associated with a decreased onset of glucose-lowering drugs (p-interaction = 0.04), antihypertensive drugs (p-interaction < 0.001), vitamin K antagonists (p-interaction = 0.04), and cardiac glycosides (p-interaction = 0.01). Summarizing, sustained adherence to a MedDiet and LTPA were associated with lower risk of initiating cardiovascular-related medications.

14.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(11): 2021-2029, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the associations of high levels of physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with a better inflammatory profile remain unclear. Our objective was to assess the mediating role of changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), as markers of body fat in the association of changes in PA and adherence to the MedDiet, with changes in the inflammatory profile. METHOD: This study included 489 adults, aged 55-75 years, from the PREDIMED-Plus multicenter lifestyle intervention trial. An inflammatory score was calculated, based on 8 blood biomarkers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 18, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1, C-peptide, leptin, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell-expressed and secreted chemokine. Biomarkers, levels of PA, score of MedDiet adherence, BMI, and WC were measured at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Linear regression models were fitted according to the Baron and Kenny framework for mediation analysis. RESULTS: Changes in BMI and WC mediated the association of both changes in PA and changes in the MedDiet adherence with the inflammatory score. Body mass index mediated 26% of the association of changes in total PA with the inflammatory profile, and 27% of the association of changes in the MedDiet, while WC mediated 13% and 12% of these associations, respectively. CONCLUSION: In older adults at high cardiovascular risk, increasing PA levels and adherence to a MedDiet during 1 year were associated with a lower inflammatory score, which was partly mediated by a reduction in body fat. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89898870; registration date July 24, 2014, retrospectively registered.

15.
Value Health ; 24(3): 336-343, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To model the potential impact on obesity of removing butter, cheese, and sugar subsidies in the Canary Islands. METHODS: A simulation model was applied based on a local data set of subsidies and retail prices (2007-2016), data on own-price elasticity estimates, and representative nutritional and health surveys. We estimated marginal obesity prevalence and population attributable fraction to assess the potential impact of the butter, cheese, and sugar subsidies intervention. RESULTS: The intervention was predicted to avoid 10 363 obese adults over the study period, because of the reduction of the obesity prevalence by -0.7 percentage points. Overall, the predicted effect was largest in elderly and male groups, although females with a low socioeconomic status experienced the greatest decrease in the prevalence. The population attributable fraction predicted that 4.0% of population with obesity were attributable to the existence of these subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides policy makers with the predicted impact on obesity of the butter, cheese, and sugar subsidies disposal, enabling them to incorporate this health impact into decision making across policy areas in the economic and health field. This study aims to model the potential impact on obesity of removing industrial subsidies for butter, cheese and sugar in the Canary Islands.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Manteiga/economia , Queijo/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Políticas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Açúcares/economia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669366

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate if screen time and parents' education levels are associated with adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study analyzed a representative sample of 3333 children and adolescents (8 to 16 years) included in the Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS) study in Spain (which ran from March 2019 to February 2020). Data on screen time (television, computer, video games, and mobile phone) per day, Mediterranean diet adherence, daily moderate or vigorous physical activity, and parents' education levels were gathered using questionnaires. A descriptive study of the variables according to sex and parents' education level was performed. Logistic regression models (adjusted by sex and weight status) were fitted to evaluate the independent association between screen time and Kids' level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED) index, as well as some of its items. A greater amount of screen time was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet; a lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts; and a greater consumption of fast food, sweets, and candies. A lower parents' education level was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to promote the responsible, limited use of screen time, especially in children with parents with a lower education level.

17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567733

RESUMO

There is little information on the dietary modulation of thrombosis-related risk factors such as platelet count. We aimed to assess the effects of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on platelet count and related outcomes in an older population at high cardiovascular risk. In participants of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study, we assessed whether an intervention with a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, relative to a low-fat control diet, modulated platelet count (n = 4189), the risk of developing thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia (n = 3086), and the association between these alterations and all-cause mortality (median follow-up time: 3.0 years). Although platelet count increased over time (+0.98·109 units/L·year [95% confidence interval: 0.12; 1.84]), MedDiet interventions moderated this increase, particularly in individuals with near-high baseline count (both MedDiets combined: -3.20·109 units/L·year [-5.81; -0.59]). Thrombocytopenia incidence was lower in the MedDiet interventions (incidence rates: 2.23% in control diet, 0.91% in MedDiets combined; hazard ratio: 0.44 [0.23; 0.83]). Finally, thrombocytopenia was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.71 [2.69; 8.24]), but this relationship was attenuated in those allocated to MedDiet (p-interaction = 0.018). In brief, MedDiet maintained platelet counts within a healthy range and attenuated platelet-related mortality in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Contagem de Plaquetas , Trombocitopenia/prevenção & controle , Trombocitose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Trombocitose/etiologia , Trombocitose/mortalidade
18.
J Hypertens ; 39(6): 1230-1237, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk whether following a Mediterranean diet decreased the necessity of antihypertensive drugs and modulated their associated cardiovascular risk. METHODS: In the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study, we assessed whether volunteers randomly allocated to an intervention with a Mediterranean diet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts (relative to a low-fat control diet) disclosed differences in the risk of: initiating antihypertensive medication in nonusers at baseline (n = 2188); and escalating therapy in participants using one, two, or three drugs at baseline (n = 2361, n = 1579, and n = 554, respectively). We also assessed whether allocation to Mediterranean diet modified the association between antihypertensive drug use and incident cardiovascular events. RESULTS: Participants allocated to Mediterranean diet interventions were associated with lower risk of initiating antihypertensive therapy [5-year incidence rates: 47.1% in the control diet, 43.0% in MedDiets; hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% CI (0.74--0.97), in a model adjusted for age, sex, and recruitment site]. Volunteers using two drugs at baseline in the Mediterranean diet intervention enriched with extra-virgin olive oil decreased their risk of therapy escalation [5-year incidence rates: 22.9% in the control diet, 20.1% in the MedDiet; hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% CI (0.60--0.99)]. Allocation to Mediterranean diet interventions attenuated the association between antihypertensive therapy at baseline and incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (P interaction = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In an older population at high cardiovascular risk, following a Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of initiating or escalating antihypertensive medication and attenuated cardiovascular risk in antihypertensive drug users.

19.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to COVID-19 influenced food habits and lifestyles with potential negative health impact. This study aims to identify patterns of change in eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown in Spain and to identify associations with sociodemographic factors and usual habits. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1155 adults recruited online to answer a 10-section questionnaire. The protocol assessed usual diet by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, usual physical activity (PA) and supplement use, dietary changes, sedentary time, PA, exposure to sunlight, sleep quality, and smoking during confinement. Patterns of dietary change were identified by factor analysis. Factor scores were included in cluster analysis together with change in PA. RESULTS: Six patterns of dietary change were identified that together with PA changes during lockdown defined three clusters of lifestyle change: a cluster less active, a more active cluster, and a third cluster as active as usual. People who were usually less active were more likely to be classified in the cluster that increased physical activity in confinement. Scores of the Healthy Mediterranean-Style dietary pattern were higher in this group. Conclusions: Different patterns of change in lifestyles in confinement suggest the need to tailor support and advice to different population groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Nutr ; 151(1): 50-58, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of carbohydrate consumed, assessed by the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), or carbohydrate quality index (CQI), affects the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, which have been implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether plasma metabolites involved in different biological pathways could provide functional insights into the role of carbohydrate quality indices in health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify plasma metabolomic profiles associated with dietary GI, GL, and CQI. METHODS: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1833 participants with overweight/obesity (mean age = 67 y) from 2 case-cohort studies nested within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. Data extracted from validated FFQs were used to estimate the GI, GL, and CQI. Plasma concentrations of 385 metabolites were profiled with LC coupled to MS and associations of these metabolites with those indices were assessed with elastic net regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 58, 18, and 57 metabolites were selected for GI, GL, and CQI, respectively. Choline, cotinine, γ-butyrobetaine, and 36:3 phosphatidylserine plasmalogen were positively associated with GI and GL, whereas they were negatively associated with CQI. Fructose-glucose-galactose was negatively and positively associated with GI/GL and CQI, respectively. Consistent associations of 21 metabolites with both GI and CQI were found but in opposite directions. Negative associations of kynurenic acid, 22:1 sphingomyelin, and 38:6 phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as positive associations of 32:1 phosphatidylcholine with GI and GL were also observed. Pearson correlation coefficients between GI, GL, and CQI and the metabolomic profiles were 0.30, 0.22, and 0.27, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The GI, GL, and CQI were associated with specific metabolomic profiles in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings may help in understanding the role of dietary carbohydrate indices in the development of cardiometabolic disorders. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Metabolômica , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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