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1.
Tumori ; : 3008916211009301, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe smoking behaviours of patients with incident cancer attending an Italian cancer centre and to examine changes in their smoking habits within 12 months from cancer diagnosis, evaluating determinants of smoking cessation. METHODS: A hospital-based prospective cohort included patients hospitalized in an Italian cancer centre (2016-2018). Patients were mostly female (74%) and included a limited proportion of aerodigestive cancers (7%). Face-to-face interviews were performed during hospital stay to gather information on patient characteristics and smoking history. Changes in smoking habits were assessed through telephone interviews at 3, at 6, and at 12 months after cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1011 enrolled patients, 222 (22%) were current smokers at cancer diagnosis. Smoking prevalence was high in male patients (30%), in patients <50 years old (28%), in those with aerodigestive cancers (50%), and in those diagnosed at advanced stages (26%). Among current smokers at cancer diagnosis, 38% quit smoking after 12 months, 26% reduced intensity, and 36% did not modify smoking habits. Smoking cessation was associated with chemotherapy and, although not statistically significant, with female sex, older age, and advanced cancer stage. Patients with gastrointestinal, breast, or genitourinary cancer and those treated with surgery were less likely to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted that 62% of smoking patients with cancer did not quit the habit. Smoking cessation programs targeted to patients with cancer need intensification, particularly for those who may underestimate smoking effects after diagnosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic disadvantage (low education and/or income) and head and neck cancer is well established, with smoking and alcohol consumption explaining up to three-quarters of the risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of and explanations for head and neck cancer risk associated with occupational socioeconomic prestige (a perceptual measure of psychosocial status), occupational socioeconomic position and manual-work experience, and to assess the potential explanatory role of occupational exposures. METHODS: Pooled analysis included 5818 patients with head and neck cancer (and 7326 control participants) from five studies in Europe and South America. Lifetime job histories were coded to: (1) occupational social prestige-Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS); (2) occupational socioeconomic position-International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI); and (3) manual/non-manual jobs. RESULTS: For the longest held job, adjusting for smoking, alcohol and nature of occupation, increased head and neck cancer risk estimates were observed for low SIOPS OR=1.88 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.17), low ISEI OR=1.74 (95% CI: 1.51 to 1.99) and manual occupations OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.64). Following mutual adjustment by socioeconomic exposures, risk associated with low SIOPS remained OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.94). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that low occupational socioeconomic prestige, position and manual work are associated with head and neck cancer, and such risks are only partly explained by smoking, alcohol and occupational exposures. Perceptual occupational psychosocial status (SIOPS) appears to be the strongest socioeconomic factor, relative to socioeconomic position and manual/non-manual work.

3.
Transpl Int ; 34(4): 743-753, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492715

RESUMO

Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are at high risk of second primary malignancies. As HCC has become the leading indication of liver transplant (LT), the aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of HCC before LT could influence the onset of de novo malignancies (DNM). A cohort study was conducted on 2653 LT recipients. Hazard ratios (HR) of DNM development for patients transplanted for HCC (HCC patients) were compared with those of patients without any previous malignancy (non-HCC patients). All models were adjusted for sex, age, calendar year at transplant, and liver disease etiology. Throughout 17 903 person-years, 6.6% of HCC patients and 7.4% of non-HCC patients developed DNM (202 cases). The median time from LT to first DNM diagnosis was shorter for solid tumors in HCC patients (2.7 vs 4.5 years for HCC and non-HCC patients, respectively, P < 0.01). HCC patients were at a higher risk of bladder cancer and skin melanoma. There were no differences in cumulative DNM-specific mortality by HCC status. This study suggests that primary HCC could be a risk factor for DNM in LT recipients, allowing for risk stratification and screening individualization.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430156

RESUMO

Costs of cancer care are increasing worldwide, and sustainability of cancer burden is critical. In this study, the economic impact of rectal cancer on the Italian healthcare system, measured as public healthcare expenditure related to investigation and treatment of rectal cancer patients is estimated. A cross-sectional cohort of 9358 rectal cancer patients is linked, on an individual basis, to claims associated to rectal cancer diagnosis and treatments. Costs refer mainly to years 2010-2011 and are estimated by phase of care, as healthcare needs vary along the care pathway: diagnostic procedures are mainly provided in the first year, surveillance procedures are addressed to chronically ill patients, and end-of-life procedures are given in the terminal status. Clinical approaches and corresponding costs are specific by cancer type and vary by phase of care, stage at diagnosis, and age. Surgery is undertaken by the great majority of patients. Thus, hospitalization is the main cost driver. The evidence produced can be used to improve planning and allocation of healthcare resources. In particular, early diagnosis of rectal cancer is a gain in healthcare budget. Policies raising spreading of and adherence to screening plans, above all when addressed to people living in Southern Italy, should be strongly encouraged.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Neoplasias Retais , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467042

RESUMO

Despite the considerable number of studies investigating the Mediterranean diet in prostate cancer (PCa) etiology, very few focused on cancer survival. We assessed the pre-diagnostic diet and physical activity in a cohort of 777 men with PCa diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 in north-eastern Italy; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Hazard ratios (HR) of death with confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the Cox model, adjusting for potential confounders. During 10 years of follow-up, 208 patients (26.8%) died, 75 (9.7%) due to PCa. Patients reporting MDS ≥ 5 showed a higher overall survival than those with MDS < 5 (HR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.99). Although high physical activity was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.59-1.07), the HR for all-cause death was the lowest (HR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38-0.90) for men reporting MDS ≥ 5 and high physical activity compared to those reporting MDS < 5 and low/moderate physical activity. No association emerged for PCa specific survival. Study findings support the beneficial impact of pre-diagnostic adherence to the Mediterranean diet and physical activity on overall survival; they are mainly driven by risk reduction in non-prostate cancer mortality, which however accounts for about 80% of death in men with PCa.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260906

RESUMO

Adherence to Mediterranean diet has been consistently associated with a reduced mortality in the general population, but evidence for women with breast cancer is scanty. METHODS: A cohort of 1453 women with breast cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 in northern Italy was followed-up for vital status for 15 years after diagnosis. The pre-diagnostic habitual diet was assessed through a structured questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through the Mediterranean Diet Score. Hazard ratios (HR) of death with confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox model, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Compared to women who scarcely adhere to the Mediterranean diet (n = 332, 22.8%), those highly adherent (n = 500, 34.4%) reported higher intakes of carbohydrates, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, folate, and carotenoids, and lower intakes of cholesterol and animal proteins. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a better prognosis: 15-year overall survival of 63.1% for high and 53.6% for low adherence, respectively (p = 0.013). HR for all-cause mortality was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.57-0.92) and HR for breast cancer mortality was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.43-0.98) for women 55 years and older. No significant association emerged for breast cancer mortality in the total cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Although dietary habits may have changed after breast cancer diagnosis, these findings indicate that women who ate according to the Mediterranean dietary pattern prior to their diagnosis may have greater chance of a favorable prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis compared to those who did not.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The considerable differences in food consumption across countries pose major challenges to the research on diet and cancer, due to the difficulty to generalise and reproduce the dietary patterns identified in a specific population. METHODS: We analysed data from a multicentric case-control study on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carried out between 1992 and 2009 in three Italian areas and in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, which included 505 cases and 1259 hospital controls. Dietary patterns were derived applying LCA on 24 food groups, controlling for country membership, and non-alcoholic energy intake. A multiple logistic regression model was used to derive odds ratio (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs for ESCC according to the dietary patterns identified, correcting for classification error. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified three dietary patterns. The 'Prudent' pattern was distinguished by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The 'Western' pattern was characterised by low consumption of these food groups and higher intakes of sugar. The 'Lower consumers-combination pattern' exhibited a diet poor in most of the nutrients, preferences for fish, potatoes, meat and a few specific types of vegetables. Differences between Italy and Switzerland emerged for pattern sizes and for specific single food preferences. Compared to the 'Prudent' pattern, the 'Western' and the 'Lower consumers-combination' patterns were associated with an increased risk of ESCC (OR=3.04, 95% CI=2.12-4.38 and OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.65-4.76).

8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031478

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a beneficial role of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in healthy subjects. HRQoL is relevant in cancer therapy and disease outcomes, therefore we investigated the association between adherence to the MedDiet and HRQoL in breast cancer survivors participating in the multicentre trial DEDiCa. Diet and HRQoL were assessed at baseline in a subgroup of 309 women enrolled within 12 months of breast cancer diagnosis without metastasis (stages I-III, mean age 52±1 yrs, BMI 27±7 kg/m2). The 14-item PREDIMED questionnaire was used to analyse adherence to the MedDiet. HRQoL was assessed with three validated questionnaires measuring physical, mental, emotional and social factors: EQ-5D-3L, EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the possible role of the MedDiet on HRQoL. Patients with higher adherence to MedDiet (PREDIMED score >7) showed significantly higher scores for physical functioning (p = 0.02) and lower scores on the symptomatic pain scale (p = 0.04) assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire compared to patients with a lower adherence to MedDiet (PREDIMED score ≤7). Higher scores from the EQ-5D-3L indicating higher well-being were observed mainly in participants with higher MedDiet adherence (p = 0.05). In adjusted multivariate analyses significant positive associations were found between MedDiet, physical functioning (p = 0.001) and EQ 5D-3L score (p = 0.003) while inverse associations were found with pain and insomnia symptoms (p = 0.005 and p = 0.029, respectively). These results suggest that higher adherence to the MedDiet in breast cancer survivors is associated with better aspects of quality of life, specifically higher physical functioning, better sleep, lower pain and generally higher well-being confirming findings in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

10.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962776

RESUMO

An adequate intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is required for protein synthesis and metabolic functions, including insulin metabolism. Emerging studies found positive associations between BCAA and the risk of various diseases sharing aetiological aspects with colorectal cancer (CRC), including type 2 diabetes, obesity and pancreatic cancer. We investigated the relation between dietary BCAA and CRC using data from a multicentric Italian case-control study, including 1953 cases of CRC (of these, 442 of sigmoid colon) and 4154 hospital controls with acute, non-neoplastic diseases. A validated FFQ was used to estimate the participants' usual diet and to assess dietary intakes of various nutrients, including energy, BCAA and Ca. OR and corresponding CI were computed by multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and other confounding factors, including total energy intake. BCAA intake was inversely related to CRC risk (OR for the highest v. the lowest quintile 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·97), but the association was attenuated after adjustment for Ca intake (OR 0·90; 95 % CI 0·65, 1·25). An inverse association with sigmoid colon cancer risk also remained after adjustment for other dietary factors, including Ca intake (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·27, 0·87). This study provides supporting evidence that higher levels of dietary BCAA intake are not associated with an increase of CRC risk, but confirms that they may be related to a reduced risk of sigmoid colon cancer.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated the probability of being cured for cancer patients. This study aims to estimate population-based indicators of cancer cure in Europe by type, sex, age and period. METHODS: 7.2 million cancer patients (42 population-based cancer registries in 17 European countries) diagnosed at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2007 with follow-up to 2008 were selected from the EUROCARE-5 dataset. Mixture-cure models were used to estimate: (i) life expectancy of fatal cases (LEF); (ii) cure fraction (CF) as proportion of patients with same death rates as the general population; (iii) time to cure (TTC) as time to reach 5-year conditional relative survival (CRS) >95%. RESULTS: LEF ranged from 10 years for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients to <6 months for those with liver, pancreas, brain, gallbladder and lung cancers. It was 7.7 years for patients with prostate cancer at age 65-74 years and >5 years for women with breast cancer. The CF was 94% for testis, 87% for thyroid cancer in women and 70% in men, 86% for skin melanoma in women and 76% in men, 66% for breast, 63% for prostate and <10% for liver, lung and pancreatic cancers. TTC was <5 years for testis and thyroid cancer patients diagnosed below age 55 years, and <10 years for stomach, colorectal, corpus uteri and melanoma patients of all ages. For breast and prostate cancers, a small excess (CRS < 95%) remained for at least 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from this analysis should help to reduce unneeded medicalization and costs. They represent an opportunity to improve patients' quality of life.

12.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 408-415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

14.
Oncogene ; 39(40): 6370-6386, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848212

RESUMO

For many tumor types chemotherapy still represents the therapy of choice and many standard treatments are based on the use of platinum (PT) drugs. However, de novo or acquired resistance to platinum is frequent and leads to disease progression. In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) patients, PT-resistant recurrences are very common and improving the response to treatment still represents an unmet clinical need. To identify new modulators of PT-sensitivity, we performed a loss-of-function screening targeting 680 genes potentially involved in the response of EOC cells to platinum. We found that SGK2 (Serum-and Glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 2) plays a key role in PT-response. We show here that EOC cells relay on the induction of autophagy to escape PT-induced death and that SGK2 inhibition increases PT sensitivity inducing a block in the autophagy cascade due to the impairment of lysosomal acidification. Mechanistically we demonstrate that SGK2 controls autophagy in a kinase-dependent manner by binding and inhibiting the V-ATPase proton pump. Accordingly, SGK2 phosphorylates the subunit V1H (ATP6V1H) of V-ATPase and silencing or chemical inhibition of SGK2, affects the normal autophagic flux and sensitizes EOC cells to platinum. Hence, we identified a new pathway that links autophagy to the survival of cancer cells under platinum treatment in which the druggable kinase SGK2 plays a central role. Our data suggest that blocking autophagy via SGK2 inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic strategy to improve patients' response to platinum.

15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(2-3): 145-153, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer (BC) - an early surrogate indicator of effectiveness of mammography screening - among women who attended the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy) screening programme compared to women who did not attend. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. Women invited to the first screening round (2006-2007) were identified from the database of the programme. The cohort was record-linked to the archive of women invited to the second round (2008-2009). The definition of attendance to screening was based on attendance to at least one of the two rounds. The incidence of BC was assessed through record linkage with the FVG cancer registry using an anonymous univocal identifier (end of follow-up: 31st December 2013). Three distinct definitions of advanced stage were used: pT2 or greater (pT2+), positive lymph nodes (pN+), and TNM stage II or greater (stage II+). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: organized mammography screening programme for women aged 50-69 years in the five regional healthcare districts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: incidence rate ratio (IRR) between attenders and non-attenders, adjusted for age and deprivation index, with 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: the cohort included 104,488 attenders and 49,839 non-attenders. During follow-up (median duration 84 months), 2,717 invasive BCs were diagnosed among attenders and 1,149 among non-attenders. Total incidence rate was 13% higher among attenders (IRR 1.13; 95%CI 1.05-1.21). These, conversely, had a 36% lower rate of pT2+ BC (IRR 0.64; 95%CI 0.56-0.72), a 13% lower rate of pN+ BC (IRR 0.87; 95%CI 0.78-0.98), a 22% lower rate of stage II+ BC (IRR 0.78; 95%CI 0.70-0.87), and a 32% lower rate of mastectomy (IRR 0.68; 95%CI 0.60-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: attenders had lower incidence rates of advanced-stage BC. This early effect is suggestive of a future impact of the screening programme on BC mortality.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574216

RESUMO

The cancer risk of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has not been well documented in southern Europe. This study aimed to evaluate the overall pattern of cancer risk among patients with IBD in Friuli Venezia Giulia, northeastern Italy. A population-based cohort study was performed through a record linkage between local healthcare databases and the cancer registry (1995-2013). We identified 3664 IBD patients aged 18-84 years, including 2358 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 1306 with Crohn's disease (CD). Sex- and age-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the cancer incidence of IBD patients with the general population. The cumulative cancer risk among IBD patients reached about 10% after 10 years of follow-up. A total of 246 cancers occurred among UC patients (SIR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.19), and 141 among CD patients (SIR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.41). As compared with the general population, no increased risk of colorectal cancers was observed for either UC or CD patients, whereas the risk of anal cancer was significantly elevated among UC patients (SIR = 6.03, 95% CI: 1.24-17.60). Increased risks were seen for specific extra-intestinal cancers, including corpus uteri (SIR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.07-5.50) and kidney (SIR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.03-3.69) among UC patients; thyroid (SIR = 5.58, 95% CI: 2.41-11.00) and skin non-melanoma (SIR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32-2.55) among CD patients. This population-based study showed that both UC and CD patients had a colorectal cancer risk similar to that of the general population. However, they were at a higher risk of developing certain extra-intestinal cancer types. Although detection biases cannot be excluded, the study findings pointed to a role of long-standing exposures to immunosuppressive therapies, underlying disease status, as well as the interactions with lifestyle factors. Our findings lent additional support to the need for monitoring the cancer burden in this at-risk population.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481645

RESUMO

Limited knowledge is available on dietary patterns and bladder cancer risk. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study carried out between 2003 and 2014, including 690 incident bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital-controls. We derived nutrient-based dietary patterns applying principal component factor analysis on 28 selected nutrients. We categorized factor scores according to quartiles, and estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through logistic regression models, adjusted for major confounding factors. We identified four dietary patterns named "Animal products", "Vitamins and fiber", "Starch-rich", and "Animal unsaturated fatty acids". We found an inverse association between the "Vitamins and fiber" pattern and bladder cancer (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48-0.99, IV versus I quartile category). Inverse relationships of borderline significance were also found for the "Animal products" and the "Animal unsaturated fatty acids" dietary patterns. No significant association was evident for the "Starch-rich" pattern. The current study allowed us to identify major dietary patterns in this Italian population. Our study confirms available evidence and shows that scoring high on a fruit-and-vegetables pattern provides beneficial effects on bladder cancer risk.

18.
Eur J Health Econ ; 21(7): 1003-1013, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate total direct health care costs associated to diagnosis and treatment of women with breast cancer in Italy, and to investigate their distribution by service type according to the disease pathway and patient characteristics. METHODS: Data on patients provided by population-based Cancer Registries are linked at individual level with data on health-care services and corresponding claims from administrative databases. A combination of cross-sectional approach and a threephase of care decomposition model with initial, continuing and final phases-of-care defined according to time occurred since diagnosis and disease outcome is adopted. Direct estimation of cancer-related costs is obtained. RESULTS: Study cohort included 49,272 patients, 15.2% were in the initial phase absorbing 42% of resources, 79.7% in the continuing phase absorbing 44% of resources and 5.1% in the final phase absorbing 14% of resources. Hospitalization was the most important cost driver, accounting for over 55% of the total costs. CONCLUSIONS: This paper represents the first attempt in Italy to estimate the economic burden of cancer at population level taking into account the entire disease pathway and using multiple current health care databases. The evidence produced by the study can be used to better plan resources allocation. The model proposed is replicable to countries with individual health care information on services and claims.

20.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

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