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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20928, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686732

RESUMO

Gender significantly influences sociodemographic, medical, psychiatric and addiction variables in cocaine outpatients. Educational level may be a protective factor showing less severe addictive disorders, longer abstinence periods, and better cognitive performance. The aim was to estimate gender-based differences and the influence of educational level on the clinical variables associated with cocaine use disorder (CUD). A total of 300 cocaine-consuming patients undergoing treatments were recruited and assessed using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Women developed CUD later but exhibited more consumption of anxiolytics, prevalence of anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and major depressive disorders. Alcohol and cannabis use disorders were more frequent in men. A predictive model was created and identified three psychiatric variables with good prognosis for distinguishing between women and men. Principal component analysis helped to describe the different profile types of men and women who had sought treatment. Low educational levels seemed to be a risk factor for the onset, development, and duration of CUD in both genders. Women and men exhibited different clinical characteristics that should be taken into account when designing therapeutic policies. The educational level plays a protective/risk role in the onset, development and progression of CUD, thus prolonging the years of compulsory education and implementing cognitive rehabilitation programmes could be useful.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful episodes and high alcohol consumption during adolescence are considered major risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Identification of mechanisms underlying these early events, which enhanced vulnerability to mental illness, is essential for both their prevention and treatment. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used to investigate the long-term effects of early restraint stress and intermittent alcohol exposure (intragastric administration of 3 g/kg ethanol; 4 days/week for 4 weeks during adolescence) on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of signaling systems associated with emotional behaviors [e.g., corticosterone, fatty acid-derived molecules and endocannabinoid enzymes, glutamate receptor subunits, corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2) and neuropeptide Y receptors (NPY1R and NPYR2)] in the blood and amygdala. RESULTS: Overall, both stress and alcohol exposure during adolescence induced anxiogenic-like behaviors, increased plasma levels of corticosterone and increases in the amygdalar expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and certain subunits of glutamate receptors (i.e., mGluR1, mGluR5 and NMDAR1) in young adult rats. In addition, there were specific main effects of alcohol exposure on the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and NPY2R in the amygdala, and significant increases were observed in rats exposed to alcohol. Interestingly, there were significant interaction effects between restraint stress and alcohol exposure on the expression of plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), and both CRHR1,2 and NPY1R in the amygdala. Thus, the restraint stress was associated with increased 2-AG levels, which was not observed in rats exposed to alcohol. The alcohol exposure was associated with an increased expression of CRHR1,2 but the restraint stress prevented these increases (stress alcohol rats). In contrast, NPY1R was only increased in rats exposed to stress and alcohol. Finally, we did not observe any potentiation of the behavioral and molecular effects by the combination of stress and alcohol, which is concordant with an overall ceiling effect on some of the variables. CONCLUSION: Separate and combined early stress and alcohol induced a common anxious phenotype with increased corticosterone in adulthood. However, there were differences in the amygdalar expression of signaling systems involved in maladaptive changes in emotional behavior. Therefore, our results suggest the existence of partially different mechanisms for stress and alcohol exposures.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572393

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an endogenous lysophospholipid and a bioactive lipid that is synthesized by the enzyme autotaxin (ATX). The ATX-LPA axis has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and inflammatory diseases, mainly in a range of nonalcoholic liver diseases. Recently, preclinical and clinical evidence has suggested a role of LPA signaling in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and AUD-related cognitive function. However, the ATX-LPA axis has not been sufficiently investigated in alcoholic liver diseases. An exploratory study was conducted in 136 participants, 66 abstinent patients with AUD seeking treatment for alcohol (alcohol group), and 70 healthy control subjects (control group). The alcohol group was divided according to the presence of comorbid liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver/steatosis, alcoholic steatohepatitis, or cirrhosis). All participants were clinically evaluated, and plasma concentrations of total LPA and ATX were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Data were primarily analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) while controlling for age, body mass index, and sex. Logistic regression models were created to assess the association of the ATX-LPA axis and AUD or liver disease. LPA and ATX were log10-transformed to fit the assumptions of parametric testing.The main results were as follows: total LPA and ATX concentrations were dysregulated in the alcohol group, and patients with AUD had significantly lower LPA (F(1,131) = 10.677, p = 0.001) and higher ATX (F(1,131) = 8.327, p = 0.005) concentrations than control subjects; patients with AUD and liver disease had significantly higher ATX concentrations (post hoc test, p < 0.05) than patients with AUD but not liver disease; significant correlations between AUD-related variables and concentrations of LPA and ATX were only found in the non-liver disease subgroup (the duration of alcohol abstinence with LPA and ATX (r = +0.33, p < 0.05); and the severity of AUD with ATX (rho = -0.33, p < 0.05)); and a logistic regression model with LPA, ATX, and AUD-related variables showed an excellent discriminative power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.915, p < 0.001) for distinguishing patients with AUD and comorbid liver disease. In conclusion, our data show that the ATX-LPA axis is dysregulated in AUD and suggest this lipid signaling, in combination with relevant AUD-related variables, as a reliable biomarker of alcoholic liver diseases.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15583, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341419

RESUMO

Cognitive reserve (CR) is the capability of an individual to cope with a brain pathology through compensatory mechanisms developed through cognitive stimulation by mental and physical activity. Recently, it has been suggested that CR has a protective role against the initiation of substance use, substance consumption patterns and cognitive decline and can improve responses to treatment. However, CR has never been linked to cognitive function and neurotrophic factors in the context of alcohol consumption. The present cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the association between CR (evaluated by educational level), cognitive impairment (assessed using a frontal and memory loss assessment battery) and circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our results indicated that lower educational levels were accompanied by earlier onset of alcohol consumption and earlier development of alcohol dependence, as well as impaired frontal cognitive function. They also suggest that CR, NT-3 and BDNF may act as compensatory mechanisms for cognitive decline in the early stages of AUD, but not in later phases. These parameters allow the identification of patients with AUD who are at risk of cognitive deterioration and the implementation of personalized interventions to preserve cognitive function.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Escolaridade , Neurotrofina 3/sangue , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Curva ROC
5.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(7): 2243-2264, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236532

RESUMO

Preclinical studies on the effects of abrupt cessation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a medication often prescribed in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with depression, results in alcohol consumption escalation after resuming drinking. However, a potential neuroinflammatory component on this escalation remains unexplored despite the immunomodulatory role of serotonin. Here, we utilized a rat model of 14-daily administration of the SSRI fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) along alcohol self-administration deprivation to study the effects of fluoxetine cessation on neuroinflammation after resuming alcohol drinking. Microglial morphology and inflammatory gene expression were analyzed in prelimbic cortex, striatum, basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus. Results indicated that alcohol drinking reinstatement increased microglial IBA1 immunoreactivity and altered morphometric features of activated microglia (fractal dimension, lacunarity, density, roughness, and cell area, perimeter and circularity). Despite alcohol reinstatement, fluoxetine cessation modified microglial morphology in a brain region-specific manner, resulting in hyper-ramified (spatial complexity of branching), reactive (lower heterogeneity and circularity)-like microglia. We also found that microglial cell area correlated with changes in mRNA expression of chemokines (Cx3cl1/fractalkine, Cxcl12/SDF1α, Ccl2/MCP1), cytokines (IL1ß, IL6, IL10) and the innate immune toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in dorsal hippocampus. Specifically, TLR4 correlated with microglial spatial complexity assessed by fractal dimension in striatum, suggesting a role in process branching. These findings suggest that alcohol drinking reinstatement after fluoxetine treatment cessation disturbs microglial morphology and reactive phenotype associated with a TLR4/inflammatory response to alcohol in a brain region-specific manner, facts that might contribute to alcohol-induced damage through the promotion of escalation of alcohol drinking behavior.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13629, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211033

RESUMO

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has raised much interest because of its role in cocaine addiction in preclinical models. We explored the plasma concentrations of G-CSF in patients diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and highly comorbid psychiatric disorders. In particular, we investigated the association between G-CSF concentrations and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with cocaine and alcohol use disorders (CUD and AUD, respectively). Additionally, patients with MDD but not SUD were included in the study. Three hundred and eleven participants were enrolled in this exploratory study: 136 control subjects, 125 patients with SUD (SUD group) from outpatient treatment programs for cocaine (N = 60, cocaine subgroup) and alcohol (N = 65, alcohol subgroup), and 50 patients with MDD but not SUD (MDD group) from primary-care settings. Participants were assessed based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, and a blood sample was collected to examine the plasma concentrations of G-CSF. G-CSF concentrations were negatively correlated with age in the entire sample (r = - 0.233, p < 0.001) but not in the patients with MDD. G-CSF concentrations were lower in patients with SUD than in controls (p < 0.05), specifically in the cocaine subgroup (p < 0.05). Patients with SUD and comorbid MDD had lower G-CSF concentrations than patients with SUD but not comorbid MDD or controls (p < 0.05). In contrast, patients with MDD but not SUD showed no differences compared with their controls. The negative association between G-CSF concentrations and age in the sample was not observed in patients with MDD. G-CSF concentrations were decreased in patients with SUD and comorbid MDD but not in patients with MDD. Therefore, G-CSF may be useful to improve the stratification of patients with dual diagnosis seeking treatment. Further investigation is needed to explore the impact of sex and type of drug on the expression of G-CSF.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/sangue , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/sangue , Adulto , Alcoolismo/sangue , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/sangue , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
7.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(2): 551-557, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410990

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The emergence of the consumption of highly potent synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (spice drugs) that produce important neurological symptoms has prompted the research on the consequences of acute and chronic use of these new psychoactive substances. Most studies on cannabinoid dependence have been performed in male animals, and there is a need of studies using female subjects. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated only in female animals the role of dopamine D1 receptors in the behavioral responses induced by acute and repeated stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, including the development of physical dependence, since cannabinoid CB1 receptors are co-localized with dopamine D1 receptors on GABAergic neurons projecting to the substantia nigra. METHODS: To this end, female dopamine D1 receptor-deficient mice and wild-type littermates were treated with HU-210, a potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist. RESULTS: Mutant mice displayed an enhanced response to acute motor and hypothermic effects to HU-210 when compared with wild-type females. The administration of SR141716A precipitated behavioral signs of withdrawal in mice treated subchronically with HU-210. Severity of cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome was potentiated in dopamine D1-deficient female mice. Indeed, 4 of 6 abstinence signs were increased in mutant mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results support for a role of dopamine D1 receptors in the acute, chronic, and withdrawal actions of spice drugs.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Dronabinol/análogos & derivados , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Rimonabanto/farmacologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia
8.
Neurobiol Stress ; 14: 100293, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490317

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of the stress response, but the relative contribution of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and their mechanisms have to be elucidated. In this study, we compared the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of the two major endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) for AEA and 2-AG, respectively] on stress-coping [forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST)] and anxiety-like [elevated-plus maze (EPM) and light-dark test (LDT)] behaviors in wild-type and FAAH knockout mice. In vivo microdialysis estimated the effects of FAAH and MAGL inhibition on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during an FST. Mice were treated with PF-3845 (FAAH inhibitor), JZL184 (MAGL inhibitor), JZL195 (dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor) or vehicle. Our data showed that PF-3845 increased latency to immobility and decreased total immobility time in FST, but no effects were observed in TST compared with vehicle-treated wild-type mice. By contrast, JZL184 decreased latency and increased immobility in TST and FST. JZL195 in wild-type mice and JZL184 in FAAH knockout mice reproduced the same passive coping behaviors as JZL184 in wild-type mice in TST and FST. In the microdialysis experiment, FST was associated with increased DA and 5-HT levels in the mPFC. However, JZL184-treated wild-type mice displayed a significant attenuation of forced swim stress-induced DA release compared with vehicle-treated wild-type mice and PF-3845-treated wild-type mice. Finally, FAAH and/or MAGL inhibitors induced robust and consistent anxiolytic-like effects in EPM and LDT. These results suggested differences between FAAH and MAGL inhibition in stress-coping behaviors. Notably, MAGL inhibition induced a consistent avoidant coping behavior and attenuated the stress-induced mPFC DA response in FST. However, more investigation is needed to elucidate the functional association between DA and 2-AG signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanism in the regulation of passive coping strategies during inescapable stress.

9.
J Comp Neurol ; 529(8): 1724-1742, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047300

RESUMO

Adult neurogenesis in rodents is modulated by dopaminergic signaling and inhibited by cocaine. However, the sex-specific role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (D1R, D2R) in the deleterious effect of cocaine on adult neurogenesis has not been described yet. Here, we explored sex differences in (a) cell proliferation (5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine [BrdU]), (b) neural precursor (nestin), (c) neuronal phenotype (BrdU/ß3-tubulin), and (d) neuronal maturity (NeuN) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and striatum of mice with genetic deletion (D1-/- , D2-/- ) or pharmacological blockage (SCH23390: 0.1 mg/kg/day/5 days; Raclopride: 0.3 mg/kg/day/5 days) of D1R and D2R, and treated (10 mg/kg/day/5 days) and then challenged (5 mg/kg, 48 hr later) with cocaine. Results indicated that hyperactivity responses to cocaine were absent in D1-/- mice and reduced in SCH23390-treated mice. Activity responses to cocaine were reduced in D2-/- males, but absent in D2-/- females and increased in Raclopride-treated females. D1R deletion blocked the deleterious effect of cocaine on SVZ cell proliferation in males. Cocaine-exposed D1-/- males also had reduced neuronal phenotype of SVZ newborn cells and increased striatal neuronal maturity. D2-/- mice had lower proliferative and neural precursor responses. Cocaine in D2-/- females or coadministered with Raclopride in wild-type females improved SVZ cell proliferation, an effect that positively correlated with plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. In conclusion, the sex-specific D1R and D2R signaling on SVZ cell proliferation, neural progenitor and neuronal maturity is differentially perturbed by cocaine, and BDNF may be required to link D2R to neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction in females.

10.
Addict Biol ; 26(3): e12957, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815666

RESUMO

Major depression (MD) is a frequent comorbidity in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. Antidepressant prescription is often limited by poor clinical outcomes or unwanted side effects in comorbid AUD-MD patients. Recent studies suggest that abrupt cessation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressant treatment increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) is not known. Here, we report that interruption of subchronic (14 days) treatment with the SNRIs reboxetine (15 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally) resulted in escalation of ethanol intake when the animals resume alcohol self-administration. This effect of reboxetine treatment cessation was associated with a profound deactivation of the endocannabinoid/acylethanolamide signaling system in the prefrontal cortex but not in the dorsal hippocampus, as reflected by the decrease in the protein expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, the PPARα receptor, the 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesizing enzymes DAGLα and DGALß, and the endocanabinoid degrading enzyme MAGL. This was associated with dysregulation of the expression of glutamic acid receptors GluN1, GluA1, and mGlu5 in the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus of the animals exposed to reboxetine. The present results further support the idea that abrupt cessation of antidepressant therapy along alcohol deprivation time can boost alcohol intake after relapse through mechanisms associated with endocannabinoid/glutamate signaling dysregulation. This finding might be relevant for patients suffering AUD/MD comorbidity where antidepressant therapy must be monitored with caution for avoiding unwanted side effects if adherence to the treatment is not fully achieved.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17163, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051508

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species are bioactive lipids participating in neurodevelopmental processes. The aim was to investigate whether the relevant species of LPA were associated with clinical features of alcohol addiction. A total of 55 abstinent alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients were compared with 34 age/sex/body mass index-matched controls. Concentrations of total LPA and 16:0-LPA, 18:0-LPA, 18:1-LPA, 18:2-LPA and 20:4-LPA species were quantified and correlated with neuroplasticity-associated growth factors including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-2, and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). AUD patients showed dysexecutive syndrome (22.4%) and memory impairment (32.6%). Total LPA, 16:0-LPA, 18:0-LPA and 18:1-LPA concentrations, were decreased in the AUD group compared to control group. Total LPA, 16:0-LPA, 18:2-LPA and 20:4-LPA concentrations were decreased in men compared to women. Frontal lobe functions correlated with plasma LPA species. Alcohol-cognitive impairments could be related with the deregulation of the LPA species, especially in 16:0-LPA, 18:1-LPA and 20:4-LPA. Concentrations of BDNF correlated with total LPA, 18:2-LPA and 20:4-LPA species. The relation between LPA species and BDNF is interesting in plasticity and neurogenesis functions, their involvement in AUD might serve as a biomarker of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/sangue , Alcoolismo/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurotrofina 3/metabolismo , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Plasma/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(11): 2158-2165, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) self-administration is particularly sensitive to the modulation of CB1 signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, and EtOH consumption increases extracellular levels of the endogenous cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in this brain region. Stimulation of CB1 receptor with agonists increases EtOH consumption, suggesting that EtOH-induced increases in 2-AG might sustain motivation for EtOH intake. METHODS: In order to further explore this hypothesis, we analyzed the alterations in operant EtOH self-administration induced by intra-NAc shell infusions of 2-AG itself, the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A, the 2-AG clearance inhibitor URB602, anandamide, and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide. RESULTS: Surprisingly, self-administration of 10% EtOH was dose-dependently reduced by either intra-NAc shell SR141716A or 2-AG infusions. Similar effects were found by intra-NAc shell infusions of URB602, suggesting again a role for accumbal 2-AG on the modulation of EtOH intake. Intra-NAc shell anandamide did not alter EtOH self-administration, pointing to a specific role for 2-AG in the modulation of EtOH self-administration. Finally, the inhibitory effect of intra-NAc shell 2-AG on EtOH intake was significantly reversed by pretreatment with nimesulide, suggesting that oxidative metabolites of 2-AG might mediate these inhibitory effects on operant self-administration. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that 2-AG signaling in the NAc exerts an inhibitory influence on EtOH consumption through a non-CB1 receptor mechanism involving the COX-2 pathway.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endocanabinoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicerídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Rimonabanto/farmacologia , Autoadministração , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
13.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650579

RESUMO

To characterize the metabolic actions of D-Pinitol, a dietary inositol, in male Wistar rats, we analyzed its oral pharmacokinetics and its effects on (a) the secretion of hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, IGF-1, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin), (b) insulin signaling in the liver and (c) the expression of glycolytic and neoglucogenesis enzymes. Oral D-Pinitol administration (100 or 500 mg/Kg) resulted in its rapid absorption and distribution to plasma and liver compartments. Its administration reduced insulinemia and HOMA-IR, while maintaining glycaemia thanks to increased glucagon activity. In the liver, D-Pinitol reduced the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of the enzymes AKT and GSK-3. These observations were associated with an increase in ghrelin concentrations, a known inhibitor of insulin secretion. The profile of D-Pinitol suggests its potential use as a pancreatic protector decreasing insulin secretion through ghrelin upregulation, while sustaining glycaemia through the liver-based mechanisms of glycolysis control.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Grelina/sangue , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão Química , Grelina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Inositol/isolamento & purificação , Inositol/farmacocinética , Inositol/farmacologia , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Psychopharmacol ; 34(11): 1250-1260, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption can modulate the immune system by directly activating natural immunity and triggering inflammatory processes in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs, such as the liver and pancreas. Patients with alcohol use disorders have an elevated frequency of comorbid mental disorders and gut diseases (i.e. fatty liver and pancreatitis) that complicate diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. AIMS: The present study aims to explore possible associations in circulating plasma cytokine concentrations in abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol use disorders. METHODS: To this end, 85 abstinent subjects with alcohol use disorders from an outpatient setting and 55 healthy subjects were evaluated for both substance and mental disorders. The plasma levels of cytokines interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 4, interleukin 6, interleukin 17A, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis alpha were determined and their association with (a) history of alcohol consumption, (b) psychiatric comorbidity and (c) liver/pancreas comorbidities was explored. RESULTS: We found that plasma concentrations of interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis alpha were increased, whereas plasma concentrations of interleukin 4, interleukin 17A and interferon gamma were decreased in abstinent alcohol use disorder patients as compared with control subjects. Moreover, we found that changes in interleukin 6 and interleukin 17A plasma concentrations in alcohol use disorder patients were associated with the presence of liver and pancreatic diseases. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest alcohol use disorder is associated with alterations of plasma cytokines, being interleukin 6 and interleukin 17A potential biomarkers of the presence of comorbidities of digestive organs. The clinical relevance of these findings is discussed in the context of alcohol-induced inflammatory processes.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536865

RESUMO

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that promote ligand-dependent transcription of target genes that regulate energy production, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. The PPAR superfamily comprises three subtypes, PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARß/δ, with differential tissue distributions. In addition to their different roles in the regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, an emerging function of PPARs includes normal homeostasis of intestinal tissue. PPARα activation represses NF-κB signaling, which decreases the inflammatory cytokine production by different cell types, while PPARγ ligands can inhibit activation of macrophages and the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and Il-1ß. In this regard, the anti-inflammatory responses induced by PPAR activation might restore physiopathological imbalances associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, PPARs and their ligands have important therapeutic potential. This review briefly discusses the roles of PPARs in the physiopathology and therapies of the most important IBDs, ulcerative colitis (UC), and Crohn's disease (CD), as well some new experimental compounds with PPAR activity as promising drugs for IBD treatment.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in tryptophan (TRP) metabolism has been linked to drug exposure and mental disorders. However, most of studies have been performed without considering the co-occurrence of both disorders in the context of addiction. This cross-sectional study examines TRP metabolism through the serotonin (5-HT) and kynurenine (KYN) pathways in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: For this purpose, male and female abstinent AUD patients (N = 130) and healthy controls (N = 80) were clinically evaluated for substance use and mental disorders, and blood samples were collected to determine plasma concentrations of TRP, 5-HT, KYN and kynurenic acid (KA) using high performance liquid chromatography. Clinical and biochemical variables were analyzed for potential associations considering AUD, psychiatric comorbidity and sex. RESULTS: TRP concentrations were significantly associated with an interaction effect between AUD diagnosis and sex (p < .01): TRP concentrations were lower in male AUD patients but higher in female AUD patients compared with their controls. KYN and KA concentrations were significantly associated with AUD diagnosis (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). Thus, AUD patients showed significantly higher KYN concentrations and lower KA concentrations than controls. Regarding 5-HT concentrations, there were sex differences in the alcohol group (p < .05) and female AUD patients showed lower 5-HT concentrations than male AUD patients. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between psychiatric comorbidity and sex on TRP concentrations in the alcohol group (p < .01). Whereas male patients with both comorbid substance use and mental disorders showed lower TRP concentrations than male non-comorbid patients, female patients with comorbid mental disorders showed higher TRP concentrations than female non-comorbid patients. CONCLUSION: While alterations in the KYN pathway appear to be directly associated with a history of AUD, altered TRP concentrations are associated with the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Finally, sex differences in TRP metabolism must be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Triptofano/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Alcoolismo/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serotonina/sangue , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(14): 3309-3326, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Protective mechanisms of the endogenous cannabinoid system against drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are actively being investigated regarding the differential regulatory role of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in liver fibrogenesis and inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-related signalling receptors and enzymatic machinery, and inflammatory/fibrogenic factors were investigated in the liver of a mouse model of hepatotoxicity induced by acute and repeated overdoses (750 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) of paracetamol (acetaminophen), previously treated with selective CB1 (ACEA) and CB2 (JWH015) agonists (10 mg·kg-1 ), or lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors. KEY RESULTS: Acute paracetamol increased the expression of CB2 , ABHD6 and COX-2, while repeated paracetamol increased that of CB1 and COX-2 and decreased that of DAGLß. Both acute paracetamol and repeated paracetamol decreased the liver content of acylglycerols (2-AG, 2-LG and 2-OG). Human liver samples from a patient suffering APAP hepatotoxicity confirmed CB1 and CB2 increments. Acute paracetamol-exposed CB2 KO mice had higher expression of the fibrogenic αSMA and the cytokine IL-6 and lower apoptotic cleaved caspase 3. CB1 deficiency enhanced the repeated APAP-induced increases in αSMA and cleaved caspase 3 and blocked those of CYP2E1, TNF-α, the chemokine CCL2 and the circulating γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT). Although JWH015 reduced the expression of αSMA and TNF-α in acute paracetamol, ACEA increased the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and CCL2 in repeated paracetamol. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The differential role of CB1 versus CB2 receptors on inflammatory/fibrogenic factors related to paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered for designing alternative therapies against DILI.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1078, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974503

RESUMO

How the presence of inflammation has repercussions for brain function is a topic of active research into depression. Signals released from immune system-related cells, including chemokines, might be indicative of active depression and can, hypothetically, serve as biomarkers of response to interventions, both pharmacological and psychological. The objective of this study is to analyze the peripheral plasma concentrations of CXCL12, CCL11, CX3CL1 and CCL2 in a cohort of depressed primary-care patients, as well as their evolution after an internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention. The concentrations of those chemokines were measured in 66 primary-care patients with mild and moderate depression, before and after the intervention, as well as 60 controls, using multiplex immunoassays. Concentrations of CXCL12 and CCL2 were significantly higher in the clinical sample in comparison with controls. A stable multivariate discriminative model between both groups was found. Concentrations of all chemokines decreased after the internet-based psychological intervention. These findings support the implication of chemokines in depression, even in a sample of patients with mild and moderate severity. Furthermore, they demonstrate the need for further multidisciplinary research that confirms how biomarkers such as plasma chemokines can serve as a marker for depression and are sensitive to non-pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/sangue , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Telemedicina , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuropharmacology ; 162: 107840, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704270

RESUMO

Cocaine induces neuroinflammatory response and interleukin-1 beta (IL1ß) is suggested a final effector for many cocaine-induced inflammatory signals. Recently, the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) has been reported to regulate hippocampus-dependent neuroinflammation and synaptic plasticity via CX3C-receptor 1 (CX3CR1), but little is known about the impact of cocaine. This study is mainly focused on the characterization of CX3CL1, IL1ß and relevant inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hippocampus in acute and repeated cocaine-treated male mice. Complementarily, the rewarding properties of cocaine were also assessed in Cx3cr1-knockout (KO) mice using a conditioned place preference (CPP). We observed significant increases in CX3CL1 and IL1ß concentrations after cocaine, although repeated cocaine produced an enhancement of CX3CL1 concentrations. CX3CL1 and IL1ß concentrations were positively correlated in acute (r = +0.61) and repeated (r = +0.82) cocaine-treated mice. Inflammatory signal transduction pathways were assessed. Whereas acute cocaine-treated mice showed transient increases in p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 and p-p65/p65 NFκB ratios after cocaine injection, repeated cocaine-treated mice showed transient increases in p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2, p-p38/p38 MAPK, p-NFκB p65/NF-κB p65 and p-CREB/CREB ratios. Baseline p-p38/p38 MAPK and p-CREB/CREB ratios were downregulated in repeated cocaine-treated mice. Regarding the cocaine-induced CPP, Cx3cr1-KO mice showed a notably impaired extinction but no differences during acquisition and reinstatement. These results indicate that cocaine induces alterations in CX3CL1 concentrations, which are associated with IL1ß concentrations, and activates convergent inflammatory pathways in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling could mediate the processes involved in the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CX3CL1/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocaína/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Quimiocina CX3CL1/genética , Quimiocina CX3CL1/metabolismo , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição RelA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16842, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727978

RESUMO

The lack of effective treatments and a high rate of relapse in cocaine addiction constitute a major health problem. The present study was conducted to examine the expression of tryptophan-derived metabolites in the context of cocaine addiction and psychiatric comorbidity, which is common in addicted subjects. Abstinent patients with cocaine use disorder (CUD) and control subjects were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed with a semi-structured diagnostic interview (PRISM) based on DSM-IV-TR for substance and mental disorders. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan metabolites and their association with relevant CUD-related variables and psychiatric comorbidity were explored. We observed decreased plasma kynurenic acid concentrations in the cocaine group, however no associations between CUD-related variables and tryptophan-derived metabolites were found. In contrast, 5-HT concentrations were increased in CUD-patients and the diagnosis of different psychiatric disorders in the cocaine group was related to higher plasma 5-HT concentrations compared with non-comorbid patients. Therefore, while changes in plasma kynurenic acid concentrations appear to be directly associated with lifetime CUD, changes in 5-HT concentrations are associated with psychiatric comorbidity. These results emphasize the need to find potential biomarkers for a better stratification of cocaine-addicted patients in order to develop therapeutic approaches to prevent cocaine relapse.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Serotonina/sangue , Triptofano/química , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Triptofano/sangue
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