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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The chronic phase of Chagas disease (CD) is characterised by a low and intermittent parasitaemia. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) presents a variable sensitivity in this stage limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. Despite this, the use of PCR in untreated patients can provide information on the parasite behaviour and its presence in peripheral blood. METHODS: A timely real-time PCR determination was performed on a cohort of 495 untreated chronic CD patients. Also, a subcohort of 29 patients was followed-up by serial real-time PCR during a period from 8 to 12 months in which they could not have access to the treatment due to lack of supply. RESULTS: The positive percentage of real-time PCR in our series was 42%. Nevertheless, real-time PCR positive results were significantly higher in patients with five years or less of residence in Spain (P=.041). The detection of DNA was not related to the existence of cardiac and/or gastrointestinal abnormalities. In the follow-up subgroup, real-time PCR was consistently positive in 13.8% of patients, consistently negative in 31%, and intermittent in 55.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The different real-time PCR results regarding the time of residence suggests the possible relationship of external factors in the parasite presence in peripheral blood. On the other hand, specific host factors may be involved in the behaviour of parasitaemia over time.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008067, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antitrypanosomal treatment with Benznidazole (BZ) or Nifurtimox may be recommended for patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) to reduce the onset or progression of symptoms. However, such treatment has limited efficacy and high level of toxic effects. In addition, the current cure biomarker (serology conversion) precludes any treatment assessment unless a prolonged follow-up is arranged. PCR is thus the most useful, alternative surrogate marker for evaluating responses to treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the usefulness of real-time PCR in monitoring BZ treatment within a large cohort of chronic CD cases in Barcelona. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 370 chronic CD patients were monitored with real-time PCR post-BZ treatment. The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR 2.2-5.3y), with a median of 3 clinical visits (IQR 2-4). Only 8 patients (2.2%) presented with at least one incident of positive real-time PCR after treatment and were therefore considered as treatment failure. Four of those failure patients had completed full course treatment, whereas the remaining cases had defaulted with a statistical difference between both groups (p = 0.02). Half of the failure patients had undergone less than 4 years of follow-up monitoring all presented with parasitemia before treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BZ treatment failure was highly infrequent in our cohort. BZ discontinuation was a risk factor for positive real-time PCR results during clinical follow-up. Regular testing with real-time PCR during follow-up allows for early detection of treatment failure in patients with chronic CD.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 150-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674901

RESUMO

Most human hantavirus infections occur in Asia, but some cases have been described in Europe in travelers returning from Asia. We describe a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a previously healthy traveler occurring shortly after he returned to Spain from Nepal. Serologic tests suggested a Puumala virus-like infection.

4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide information regarding the prevalence of strongyloidiasis among migrants coming from Strongyloides stercoralis-endemic areas who reside in Spain. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies showing prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among migrants from Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia and Oceania who reside in Spain. We included articles published until 30 April 2019 without language restriction. The keywords used for the search included 'Strongyloides stercoralis', 'strongyloidiasis', 'Spain', 'screening' and 'migrants'. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in the review and meta-analysis, comprising 12 386 screened people. Eleven studies (7020 patients) evaluated the presence of S. stercoralis infection only through investigation of larvae in faeces, showing an overall prevalence of 1% (95%CI 1-1%). Thirteen studies (5366 patients) used a serological test, showing an overall prevalence of 14% (95%CI 11-17%). Strongyloidiasis seroprevalence was 20% (95%CI 15-24%) among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, 14% (95%CI 10-18%) among those from Latin America and 8% (95%CI 5-11%) among migrants from North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants coming from strongyloidiasis-endemic areas living in Spain had a high S. stercoralis infection prevalence, particularly those from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. This population should be screened using serology as the most sensitive test for S. stercoralis infection. This could be easily implemented at primary care level.

5.
J Community Health ; 44(4): 704-711, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222620

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CHD) has become a challenge in Spain due to the high prevalence of immigrants coming from endemic areas. One of the main difficulties for its control and elimination is its underdiagnosis. The identification and integral treatment of CHD are key to increasing rates of diagnosis, overcoming psycho-social barriers and avoiding CHD progression. Community interventions with in situ screening have proven to be a useful tool in detecting CHD among those with difficulties accessing health services. To determine the underdiagnosis rate of the population most susceptible to CHD among those attending two different Bolivian cultural events celebrated in Barcelona; to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the people screened; and to analyse the results of the screening. The community interventions were carried out at two Bolivian cultural events held in Barcelona in 2017. Participants were recruited through community health agents. A questionnaire was given to determine the participants' prior knowledge of CHD. In situ screening was offered to those who had not previously been screened. Those who did not wish to be screened were asked for the reason behind their decision. Results were gathered in a database and statistical analyses were performed using STATA v14. 635 interviews were carried out. 95% of the subjects reported prior knowledge of CHD. 271 subjects were screened: 71.2% women and 28.8% men, of whom 87.8% were of Bolivian origin. The prevalence of CHD was 8.9%. Community health interventions with in situ screening are essential to facilitating access to diagnosis.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007399, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported strongyloidiasis is increasingly being diagnosed in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with imported strongyloidiasis in Spain. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational retrospective study that included all patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis registered in the +REDIVI Collaborative Network from 2009 to 2017. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was collected from the +REDIVI database, and extra information regarding microbiological techniques, treatment and follow-up was requested to participant centers. FINDINGS: Overall, 1245 cases were included. Most of them were immigrants (66.9%), and South America was the most frequent area of origin. Detection of larvae in stool samples was observed in 21.9% of the patients, and serological tests allowed making the diagnosis in the rest of the cases. Eosinophilia was present in 82.2% of cases. Treatment with ivermectin (compared with albendazole) was the most strongly associated factor to achieve the cure (OR 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Given the long latency of the infection and the risk of developing a severe presentation, screening of S. stercoralis infection should be mandatory in patients coming from or had traveling to endemic areas, especially in those with immunosuppressant conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , América do Sul , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(9): 550-554, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176831

RESUMO

Introducción: Algunos estudios indican altas prevalencias de infección tuberculosa latente (ITBL) en población inmigrante, lo que es relevante, pues el 5-10% de los casos desarrollaran una tuberculosis activa. El objetivo de este estudio es describir los resultados de una estrategia secuencial en población inmigrante recién llegada para el diagnóstico de ITBL usando la prueba de tuberculina (PT) e IGRAs. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo con inmigrantes entre 6 y 35años de edad de centros de acogida, derivados a una unidad de salud internacional entre julio de 2013 y junio de 2016. Se realizó la PT, y cuando fue ≥ 5 mm, se determinaron los IGRAs. La ITBL se definió como aquellos con IGRAs ≥ 0,35 UI/ml y radiografía de tórax normal. Resultados: De los 184 casos, 138 (75,0%) eran hombres, de 23,0años de edad. Las áreas geográficas de origen más frecuente fueron: 63 (34,2%) de Asia, 42 (22,8%) de Europa del Este y 41 (22,3%) del África subsahariana. La PT fue ≥10mm en 79 (42,9%). La prevalencia de ITBL usando la estrategia secuencial fue de 33/184 (17,9%). El índice kappa de Cohen (entre PT ≥ 10mm e IGRAs) fue de 0,226. Conclusión: Basar el diagnóstico de la ITBL tan solo en la PT puede representar una sobreestimación. Algunos estudios demuestran que el cribado secuencial sería el más coste-efectivo, y ello parece más evidente en las poblaciones vacunadas con BCG


Introduction: Some studies indicate high prevalences of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the immigrant population, which is relevant because 5-10% of cases will develop active tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to describe the results of a sequential strategy in the newly-arrived immigrant population for the diagnosis of LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRAs. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out with immigrants between 6 and 35years of age from shelters, referred to an international health unit between July 2013 and June 2016. The TST was performed and when it was ≥ 5mm, IGRAs were conducted. LTBI was defined as an IGRA ≥ 0.35IU/ml and normal chest X-ray. Results: Of the 184 cases, 138 (75.0%) were men, 23.0 years of age. The most common geographical areas were: 63 (34.2%) from Asia, 42 (22.8%) from Eastern Europe and 41 (22.3%) from sub-Saharan Africa. The TST was ≥ 10mm in 79 cases (42.9%). The prevalence of LTBI using the sequential strategy was 33/184 (17.9%). Cohen's Kappa index (between TST ≥ 10mm and IGRAs) was 0.226. Conclusion: Basing LTBI screening on the TST alone could give rise to an overestimation. Some studies show that sequential screening would be the most cost-effective; this seems most evident in BCG-vaccinated populations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Latente/etnologia , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(9): 550-554, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some studies indicate high prevalences of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the immigrant population, which is relevant because 5-10% of cases will develop active tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to describe the results of a sequential strategy in the newly-arrived immigrant population for the diagnosis of LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRAs. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out with immigrants between 6 and 35years of age from shelters, referred to an international health unit between July 2013 and June 2016. The TST was performed and when it was ≥5mm, IGRAs were conducted. LTBI was defined as an IGRA ≥0.35IU/ml and normal chest X-ray. RESULTS: Of the 184 cases, 138 (75.0%) were men, 23.0 years of age. The most common geographical areas were: 63 (34.2%) from Asia, 42 (22.8%) from Eastern Europe and 41 (22.3%) from sub-Saharan Africa. The TST was ≥10mm in 79 cases (42.9%). The prevalence of LTBI using the sequential strategy was 33/184 (17.9%). Cohen's Kappa index (between TST≥10mm and IGRAs) was 0.226. CONCLUSION: Basing LTBI screening on the TST alone could give rise to an overestimation. Some studies show that sequential screening would be the most cost-effective; this seems most evident in BCG-vaccinated populations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Populações Vulneráveis , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Vacina BCG , Análise Custo-Benefício , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/economia , Tuberculose Latente/etnologia , América Latina/etnologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Espanha/epidemiologia , Teste Tuberculínico/economia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(1): 300-307, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165223

RESUMO

The rising rate of conflicts and the unsafe situation caused by reasons of ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, political opinion, or nationality entail an increase in the number of migratory movements. The goal of this article is to describe the health status of asylum seekers visited in an international health center. We conducted a retrospective study of the asylum seekers visited between July 2013 and June 2016. A total of 303 cases were included. The median age was 28.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-35), and 203 (67.0%) were men. Of the total, 128 cases (42.2%) were from Asia, 82 (27.1%) from Eastern Europe, 42 (13.9%) from sub-Saharan Africa, 34 (11.2%) from America, and 17 (5.6%) from Maghreb. The majority, 287 (94.7%), were asymptomatic. Seventy of the 303 (23.1%) cases were diagnosed with at least one infection, this being more prevalent in men; migrants from sub-Saharan Africa; and in those who took a land-maritime migratory route. Eight of the 303 (2.6%) cases were referred to the transcultural psychiatric department. Two important challenges of the study were the communication barriers and the legal or social situation that condition the psychological symptoms. In 48 of the 303 (15.8%) cases, there was diagnosed a noncommunicable diseases. The process of care was completed by 82.5%; although 21.9% completed the vaccination for hepatitis B. The asylum seekers in this study were in general healthy young men, although special attention was given to infectious diseases with certain geoepidemiological backgrounds. Unstable living arrangements, linguistic, and cultural barriers could account for the failure of the course of care.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 617-623, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169560

RESUMO

Algunas enfermedades infecciosas han adquirido más relevancia por el aumento de los movimientos poblacionales. La eosinofilia es un hallazgo frecuente en inmigrantes y en viajeros. Una de las causas más frecuentes de eosinofilia es la infección por helmintos y algunos protozoos intestinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos con eosinofilia y su asociación con la presencia de parásitos en la red de datos REDIVI. Se trata de un estudio observacional multicéntrico prospectivo, donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados de eosinofilia registrados en la Red cooperativa para el estudio de las infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes (+REDIVI) desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2012. Se registraron en la red un total de 5.255 episodios durante el periodo de estudio, y la eosinofilia fue un hallazgo en el 8,1 al 31,3% de los casos (dependiendo del tipo migratorio). Fueron hombres el 60,2%, con una mediana de 31,0años, inmigrantes el 72,4% y asintomáticos el 81,2%. Los parásitos más frecuentemente identificados fueron S.stercoralis(34,4%), Schistosoma sp. (11,0%) y uncinarias (8,6%). Existía asociación entre eosinofilia y presencia de parásitos para todos los helmintos (excepto para larva migrans cutánea). La sintomatología y la duración del viaje no determinaron significativamente la presencia de eosinofilia. Ante una eosinofilia en una persona que ha vivido en zonas endémicas de helmintiasis es aconsejable realizar estudios dirigidos para su diagnóstico, independientemente del tipo migratorio, la duración de la estancia o la presencia de sintomatología (AU)


The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travelers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicenter prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travelers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Viajante , Fatores de Risco , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Eosinofilia/microbiologia , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia
11.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(1): 62-78, feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159565

RESUMO

Los datos sobre prevalencia de la eosinofilia importada entre viajeros e inmigrantes la sitúan entre un 8%-28,5%. El estudio etiológico es en ocasiones complejo, y en función de lo exhaustivo del estudio y de la población analizada, se ha podido identificar una causa parasitaria en el 17%-75,9% de los individuos. Entre las dificultades que se encuentran para comparar los estudios están la heterogeneidad de las poblaciones estudiadas, el tipo de recogida (prospectiva/retrospectiva) y distintos protocolos diagnósticos. En este documento se detallan las recomendaciones del grupo de expertos de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional (SEMTSI) para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la eosinofilia importada (AU)


According to published data, prevalence of imported eosinophilia among travellers and immigrants is set between 8% and 28.5%. Etiological diagnosis is often troublesome, and depending on the depth of the study and on the population analyzed, a parasitic cause is identified in 17% to 75.9% of the individuals. Among the difficulties encountered to compare studies are the heterogeneity of the studied populations, the type of data collection (prospective/retrospective) and different diagnostic protocols. In this document the recommendations of the expert group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI) for the diagnosis and treatment of imported eosinophilia are detailed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/terapia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintos , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde do Viajante , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Eosinofilia/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Western Blotting , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas
12.
Euro Surveill ; 22(1)2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080959

RESUMO

We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014). We were able to characterise dengue viruses imported from regions where currently no virological surveillance data are available. Up to 36% of travellers infected with dengue while travelling returned during the acute phase of the infection (up to 7 days after symptom onset) or became symptomatic after returning to Europe, and 58% of the patients with acute dengue infection were viraemic when seeking medical care. Epidemiological and virological data from dengue-infected international travellers can add an important layer to global surveillance efforts. A considerable number of dengue-infected travellers are viraemic after arrival back home, which poses a risk for dengue introduction and autochthonous transmission in European regions where suitable mosquito vectors are prevalent.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Viagem , África/epidemiologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/métodos
13.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 617-623, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032297

RESUMO

The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicentre prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travellers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Viagem , África/etnologia , Américas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Protozoários/sangue , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(2): 355-357, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895270

RESUMO

Finding Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in human feces is exceptional and there are few prevalence data available. True infection occurs after accidental ingestion of ants containing metacercariae and spurious infection through the consumption of infected animal liver. Differential diagnosis between true and pseudo-infections is performed through stool examination after a diet free of liver. In addition, microscopy can help to differentiate the type of infection. We report six cases, all from sub-Saharan Africa, detection of this fluke at the Tropical Medicine Unit Vall d'Hebron-Drassanes (Barcelona, Spain). Dicrocoelium dendriticum transit eggs were visualized in five cases and there were no subsequent visualizations after diet, which reinforces that all these cases were false parasitism. In one case, few embryonated eggs were observed and the patient was treated for a possible true parasitism. There is a need to investigate the prevalence of D. dendriticum in our country focusing on the distinction between true and spurious infections.


Assuntos
Dicrocelíase/diagnóstico , Dicrocoelium , Adulto , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Mali/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/etnologia , Senegal/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34 Suppl 3: 25-31, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474244

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(supl.3): 25-31, jul. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170851

RESUMO

Las enfermedades parasitarias pueden suponer un importante problema de salud en individuos provenientes de zonas de alta endemicidad, por lo que deben descartarse adecuadamente. Generalmente son asintomáticas, pero en situaciones favorables se pueden reactivar y producir manifestaciones clínicas y/o complicaciones. Aunque no muy frecuentemente, existe también la posibilidad de transmisión en el país de acogida. El diagnóstico precoz, mediante protocolos de cribado adecuados, permitirá un tratamiento específico que beneficie tanto al individuo como a la comunidad. Estas técnicas serán seleccionadas según criterios geoepidemiológicos como el origen del paciente, la ruta migratoria o el tiempo transcurrido fuera del área endémica; pero también deben considerarse otros factores como su sensibilidad y especificidad, la experiencia en su implementación y su disponibilidad. Dada su alta prevalencia y considerando estos criterios, deben descartarse las parasitosis intestinales mediante estudio coproparasitológico. Por su potencial gravedad, es aconsejable el cribado de la malaria utilizando técnicas muy sensibles como la PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). El cribado serológico de la enfermedad de Chagas está indicado en todos los inmigrantes de origen latinoamericano, excepto en aquellos procedentes de las islas del Caribe. Otras parasitosis importantes, como la filariasis y la esquistosomiasis urinaria, serán descartadas mediante examen microscópico. El objetivo de este trabajo es la revisión de las distintas técnicas de cribado de enfermedades parasitarias y su indicación dentro de los protocolos de atención a la población inmigrante asintomática (AU)


Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções Assintomáticas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 21(5): 590-6, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. RESULTS: Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. CONCLUSIONS: Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Natimorto/epidemiologia
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(4): 392-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common cause of consultation about children traveling to or coming from developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal syndrome in children who travel. METHODS: A prospective observational analytical and multicenter study was performed within +Redivi, a Spanish Tropical Medicine network on imported infections, from January 2009 to December 2013. All participants aged 16 years and younger were included in the analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from all the participating centers. RESULTS: A total of 606 children ≤16 years of age were registered in the +Redivi database during the study period. Median age was 8.7 years (interquartile range, 4.4-12.4 years), 65.8% (399/606) were immigrants, 90% were >2 years old and 54% were male. Median travel duration, excluding immigrants, was 50 days (interquartile range, 30-150 days). Children with gastrointestinal symptoms represented 13.5% (82/606) of total consultations. A significant association was found in bivariate analysis between gastrointestinal disorder and age <2 years (P < 0.01) and travel duration (P = 0.046). Immigrants had less gastrointestinal disorders than tourists (P < 0.05). The most prevalent infection was protozoan in 23.4% (142/606), and Giardia intestinalis was the most common pathogen in 10.1% (61/606) of total children. Independent risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms were tourist and traveler child visiting friends and relatives (P = 0.03), travel duration <90 days (P = 0.008) and bacterial cause (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Traveling children who developed a gastrointestinal syndrome represented 13.5% of the total pediatric consultations in +Redivi. Independent risk factors were tourist or traveler visiting friends and relatives, travel duration <90 days and bacterial infection. G. intestinalis was the most common infectious agent causing a gastrointestinal disorder in the traveler children.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Viagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 94(4): 750-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880782

RESUMO

Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Criança , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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