Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 325
Filtrar
1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-28, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618785

RESUMO

Normal cardiac function is directly associated with the maintenance of cerebrovascular health. Whether the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet, designed for the maintenance of neurocognitive health, is associated with cardiac remodeling is unknown. We evaluated 2512 Framingham Offspring Cohort participants who attended the 8th examination cycle and had available dietary and echocardiographic data (mean age 66 years; 55% women). Using multivariable regression, we related the cumulative MIND diet score (independent variable) to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, left atrial emptying fraction, LV mass (LVM), E/e' ratio (dependent variables; primary), global longitudinal strain, global circumferential strain (GCS), mitral annular plane systolic excursion, longitudinal segmental synchrony, LV hypertrophy, and aortic root diameter (secondary). Adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, higher cumulative MIND diet scores were associated with lower values of indices of LV diastolic (E/e' ratio: logß=-0.03) and systolic function (GCS: ß=-0.04), and with higher values of LVM (logß=0.02), all P≤0.01. We observed effect modification by age in the association between the cumulative MIND diet score and GCS. When we further adjusted for clinical risk factors, the associations of the cumulative MIND diet score with GCS in participants ≥66 years (ß=-0.06, P=0.005) and LVM remained significant. In our community-based sample, relations between the cumulative MIND diet score and cardiac remodeling differ among indices of LV structure and function. Our results suggest that favorable associations between a higher cumulative MIND diet score and indices of LV function may be influenced by cardiometabolic and lifestyle risk factors.

2.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020984559, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize cortical superficial siderosis, its determinants and sequel, in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The sample consisted of Framingham (n = 1724; 2000-2009) and Rotterdam (n = 4325; 2005-2013) study participants who underwent brain MRI. In pooled individual-level analysis, we compared baseline characteristics in patients with cortical superficial siderosis to two reference groups: (i) persons without hemorrhagic MRI markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (no cortical superficial siderosis and no microbleeds) and (ii) those with presumed cerebral amyloid angiopathy based on the presence of strictly lobar microbleeds but without cortical superficial siderosis. RESULTS: Among a total of 6049 participants, 4846 did not have any microbleeds or cortical superficial siderosis (80%), 401 had deep/mixed microbleeds (6.6%), 776 had strictly lobar microbleeds without cortical superficial siderosis (12.8%) and 26 had cortical superficial siderosis with/without microbleeds (0.43%). In comparison to participants without microbleeds or cortical superficial siderosis and to those with strictly lobar microbleeds but without cortical superficial siderosis, participants with cortical superficial siderosis were older (OR 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.05, 1.14; p < 0.001 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.00, 1.09; p = 0.058, respectively), had overrepresentation of the APOE ɛ4 allele (5.19, 2.04, 13.25; p = 0.001 and 3.47, 1.35, 8.92; p = 0.01), and greater prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage (72.57, 9.12, 577.49; p < 0.001 and 81.49, 3.40, >999.99; p = 0.006). During a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 42.4% participants with cortical superficial siderosis had a stroke (five intracerebral hemorrhage, two ischemic strokes and four undetermined strokes), 19.2% had transient neurological deficits and 3.8% developed incident dementia. CONCLUSION: Our study adds supporting evidence to the association between cortical superficial siderosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy within the general population. Community-dwelling persons with cortical superficial siderosis may be at high risk for intracerebral hemorrhage and future neurological events.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(577)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472953

RESUMO

Advances in molecular positron emission tomography (PET) have enabled anatomic tracking of brain pathology in longitudinal studies of normal aging and dementia, including assessment of the central model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, according to which TAU pathology begins focally but expands catastrophically under the influence of amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology to mediate neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Initial TAU deposition occurs many years before Aß in a specific area of the medial temporal lobe. Building on recent work that enabled focus of molecular PET measurements on specific TAU-vulnerable convolutional temporal lobe anatomy, we applied an automated anatomic sampling method to quantify TAU PET signal in 443 adult participants from several observational studies of aging and AD, spanning a wide range of ages, Aß burdens, and degrees of clinical impairment. We detected initial cortical emergence of tauopathy near the rhinal sulcus in clinically normal people and, in a subset with longitudinal 2-year follow-up data (n = 104), tracked Aß-associated spread of TAU from this site first to nearby neocortex of the temporal lobe and then to extratemporal regions. Greater rate of TAU spread was associated with baseline measures of both global Aß burden and medial temporal lobe TAU. These findings are consistent with clinicopathological correlation studies of Alzheimer's tauopathy and enable precise tracking of AD-related TAU progression for natural history studies and prevention therapeutic trials.

4.
JAMA ; 325(4): 373-381, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496774

RESUMO

Importance: Accurate estimation of the association between transient ischemic attack (TIA) and risk of subsequent stroke can help to improve preventive efforts and limit the burden of stroke in the population. Objective: To determine population-based incidence of TIA and the timing and long-term trends of stroke risk after TIA. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study (Framingham Heart Study) of prospectively collected data of 14 059 participants with no history of TIA or stroke at baseline, followed up from 1948-December 31, 2017. A sample of TIA-free participants was matched to participants with first incident TIA on age and sex (ratio, 5:1). Exposures: Calendar time (TIA incidence calculation, time-trends analyses), TIA (matched longitudinal cohort). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were TIA incidence rates; proportion of stroke occurring after TIA in the short term (7, 30, and 90 days) vs the long term (>1-10 years); stroke after TIA vs stroke among matched control participants without TIA; and time trends of stroke risk at 90 days after TIA assessed in 3 epochs: 1954-1985, 1986-1999, and 2000-2017. Results: Among 14 059 participants during 66 years of follow-up (366 209 person-years), 435 experienced TIA (229 women; mean age, 73.47 [SD, 11.48] years and 206 men; mean age, 70.10 [SD, 10.64] years) and were matched to 2175 control participants without TIA. The estimated incidence rate of TIA was 1.19/1000 person-years. Over a median of 8.86 years of follow-up after TIA, 130 participants (29.5%) had a stroke; 28 strokes (21.5%) occurred within 7 days, 40 (30.8%) occurred within 30 days, 51 (39.2%) occurred within 90 days, and 63 (48.5%) occurred more than 1 year after the index TIA; median time to stroke was 1.64 (interquartile range, 0.07-6.6) years. The age- and sex-adjusted cumulative 10-year hazard of incident stroke for patients with TIA (130 strokes among 435 cases) was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.39-0.55) and for matched control participants without TIA (165 strokes among 2175) was 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.11); fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 4.37 (95% CI, 3.30-5.71; P < .001). Compared with the 90-day stroke risk after TIA in 1948-1985 (16.7%; 26 strokes among 155 patients with TIA), the risk between 1986-1999 was 11.1% (18 strokes among 162 patients) and between 2000-2017 was 5.9% (7 strokes among 118 patients). Compared with the first epoch, the HR for 90-day risk of stroke in the second epoch was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.33-1.12) and in the third epoch was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14-0.75) (P = .005 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study from 1948-2017, the estimated crude TIA incidence was 1.19/1000 person-years, the risk of stroke was significantly greater after TIA compared with matched control participants who did not have TIA, and the risk of stroke after TIA was significantly lower in the most recent epoch from 2000-2017 compared with an earlier period from 1948-1985.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increasing evidence of SARS-CoV-2 impact on the central nervous system (CNS) raises key questions on its impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementia. METHODS: The Alzheimer's Association and representatives from more than 30 countries-with technical guidance from the World Health Organization-have formed an international consortium to study the short-and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS-including the underlying biology that may contribute to AD and other dementias. This consortium will link teams from around the world covering more than 22 million COVID-19 cases to enroll two groups of individuals including people with disease, to be evaluated for follow-up evaluations at 6, 9, and 18 months, and people who are already enrolled in existing international research studies to add additional measures and markers of their underlying biology. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing evidence and understanding of SARS-CoV-2's impact on the CNS raises key questions on the impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, AD, and other dementia. This program of studies aims to better understand the long-term consequences that may impact the brain, cognition, and functioning-including the underlying biology that may contribute to AD and other dementias.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(4): 1451-1457, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459710

RESUMO

Because of their roles as potential risk factors, we evaluated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity interacts with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in predicting incident dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). In 269 dementia-free participants, IL-6 and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were measured at baseline and incident DAT was surveilled for up to 22.8 years. Cox models revealed a significant interaction: In the lowest IL-6 quartile only, a higher AHI was associated with an elevated risk of DAT. The association between OSA severity and incident DAT might be especially apparent in the absence of inflammation or absence of potential benefits from IL-6.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480172

RESUMO

The concept of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) derives from more than two decades of research indicating that (1) most older individuals with cognitive impairment have post mortem evidence of multiple contributing pathologies and (2) along with the preeminent role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, cerebrovascular disease accounts for a substantial proportion of this contribution. Contributing cerebrovascular processes include both overt strokes caused by etiologies such as large vessel occlusion, cardioembolism, and embolic infarcts of unknown source, and frequently asymptomatic brain injuries caused by diseases of the small cerebral vessels. Cerebral small vessel diseases such as arteriolosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, when present at moderate or greater pathologic severity, are independently associated with worse cognitive performance and greater likelihood of dementia, particularly in combination with AD and other neurodegenerative pathologies. Based on this evidence, the US National Alzheimer's Project Act explicitly authorized accelerated research in vascular and mixed dementia along with frontotemporal and Lewy body dementia and AD itself. Biomarker development has been consistently identified as a key step toward translating scientific advances in VCID into effective prevention and treatment strategies. Validated biomarkers can serve a range of purposes in trials of candidate interventions, including (1) identifying individuals at increased VCID risk, (2) diagnosing the presence of cerebral small vessel disease or specific small vessel pathologies, (3) stratifying study participants according to their prognosis for VCID progression or treatment response, (4) demonstrating an intervention's target engagement or pharmacodynamic mechanism of action, and (5) monitoring disease progression during treatment. Effective biomarkers allow academic and industry investigators to advance promising interventions at early stages of development and discard interventions with low success likelihood. The MarkVCID consortium was formed in 2016 with the goal of developing and validating fluid- and imaging-based biomarkers for the cerebral small vessel diseases associated with VCID. MarkVCID consists of seven project sites and a central coordinating center, working with the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke and National Institute on Aging under cooperative agreements. Through an internal selection process, MarkVCID has identified a panel of 11 candidate biomarker "kits" (consisting of the biomarker measure and the clinical and cognitive data used to validate it) and established a range of harmonized procedures and protocols for participant enrollment, clinical and cognitive evaluation, collection and handling of fluid samples, acquisition of neuroimaging studies, and biomarker validation. The overarching goal of these protocols is to generate rigorous validating data that could be used by investigators throughout the research community in selecting and applying biomarkers to multi-site VCID trials. Key features of MarkVCID participant enrollment, clinical/cognitive testing, and fluid biomarker procedures are summarized here, with full details in the following text, tables, and supplemental material, and a description of the MarkVCID imaging biomarker procedures in a companion paper, "MarkVCID Cerebral small vessel consortium: II. Neuroimaging protocols." The procedures described here address a range of challenges in MarkVCID's design, notably: (1) acquiring all data under informed consent and enrollment procedures that allow unlimited sharing and open-ended analyses without compromising participant privacy rights; (2) acquiring the data in a sufficiently wide range of study participants to allow assessment of candidate biomarkers across the various patient groups who might ultimately be targeted in VCID clinical trials; (3) defining a common dataset of clinical and cognitive elements that contains all the key outcome markers and covariates for VCID studies and is realistically obtainable during a practical study visit; (4) instituting best fluid-handling practices for minimizing avoidable sources of variability; and (5) establishing rigorous procedures for testing the reliability of candidate fluid-based biomarkers across replicates, assay runs, sites, and time intervals (collectively defined as the biomarker's instrumental validity). Participant Enrollment Project sites enroll diverse study cohorts using site-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria so as to provide generalizable validation data across a range of cognitive statuses, risk factor profiles, small vessel disease severities, and racial/ethnic characteristics representative of the diverse patient groups that might be enrolled in a future VCID trial. MarkVCID project sites include both prospectively enrolling centers and centers providing extant data and samples from preexisting community- and population-based studies. With approval of local institutional review boards, all sites incorporate MarkVCID consensus language into their study documents and informed consent agreements. The consensus language asks prospectively enrolled participants to consent to unrestricted access to their data and samples for research analysis within and outside MarkVCID. The data are transferred and stored as a de-identified dataset as defined by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule. Similar human subject protection and informed consent language serve as the basis for MarkVCID Research Agreements that act as contracts and data/biospecimen sharing agreements across the consortium. Clinical and Cognitive Data Clinical and cognitive data are collected across prospectively enrolling project sites using common MarkVCID instruments. The clinical data elements are modified from study protocols already in use such as the Alzheimer's Disease Center program Uniform Data Set Version 3 (UDS3), with additional focus on VCID-related items such as prior stroke and cardiovascular disease, vascular risk factors, focal neurologic findings, and blood testing for vascular risk markers and kidney function including hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol subtypes, triglycerides, and creatinine. Cognitive assessments and rating instruments include the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and most of the UDS3 neuropsychological battery. The cognitive testing requires ≈60 to 90 minutes. Study staff at the prospectively recruiting sites undergo formalized training in all measures and review of their first three UDS3 administrations by the coordinating center. Collection and Handling of Fluid Samples Fluid sample types collected for MarkVCID biomarker kits are serum, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma, platelet-poor plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with additional collection of packed cells to allow future DNA extraction and analyses. MarkVCID fluid guidelines to minimize variability include fasting morning fluid collections, rapid processing, standardized handling and storage, and avoidance of CSF contact with polystyrene. Instrumental Validation for Fluid-Based Biomarkers Instrumental validation of MarkVCID fluid-based biomarkers is operationally defined as determination of intra-plate and inter-plate repeatability, inter-site reproducibility, and test-retest repeatability. MarkVCID study participants both with and without advanced small vessel disease are selected for these determinations to assess instrumental validity across the full biomarker assay range. Intra- and inter-plate repeatability is determined by repeat assays of single split fluid samples performed at individual sites. Inter-site reproducibility is determined by assays of split samples distributed to multiple sites. Test-retest repeatability is determined by assay of three samples acquired from the same individual, collected at least 5 days apart over a 30-day period and assayed on a single plate. The MarkVCID protocols are designed to allow direct translation of the biomarker validation results to multicenter trials. They also provide a template for outside groups to perform analyses using identical methods and therefore allow direct comparison of results across studies and centers. All MarkVCID protocols are available to the biomedical community and intended to be shared. In addition to the instrumental validation procedures described here, each of the MarkVCID kits will undergo biological validation to determine whether the candidate biomarker measures important aspects of VCID such as cognitive function. Analytic methods and results of these validation studies for the 11 MarkVCID biomarker kits will be published separately. The results of this rigorous validation process will ultimately determine each kit's potential usefulness for multicenter interventional trials aimed at preventing or treating small vessel disease related VCID.

9.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. METHODS: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; P = 4.45×10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P = 7.45×10-4), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; P = 1.27×10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; P = 4.13×10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.

10.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that reduced slow-wave sleep, or N3 sleep, which is thought to underlie the restorative functions of sleep, is associated with MRI markers of brain aging, we evaluated this relationship in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort using polysomnography and brain MRI. METHODS: We studied 492 participants (58.8 ± 8.8 years, 49.4% male) free of neurological diseases who completed a brain MRI scan and in-home overnight polysomnography to assess slow-wave sleep (absolute duration and percentage of total sleep). Volumes of total brain, total cortical, frontal cortical, subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, and white matter hyperintensities were investigated as a percentage of intracranial volume and the presence of covert brain infarcts was evaluated. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, age squared, sex, time interval between polysomnography and MRI (3.3 ± 1.0 years), APOE4 carrier status, stroke risk factors, sleeping pill use, body mass index and depression. RESULTS: Less slow-wave sleep was associated with lower cortical brain volume (absolute duration, ß[standard error]: 0.20[0.08], p=0.015; percentage, 0.16[0.08], p=0.044), lower subcortical brain volume (percentage, 0.03[0.02], p=0.034), and higher white matter hyperintensities volume (absolute duration, -0.12[0.05], p=0.010; percentage -0.10[0.04], p=0.033). Slow-wave sleep duration was not associated with hippocampal volume or the presence of covert brain infarcts. CONCLUSION: Loss of slow-wave sleep might facilitate accelerated brain aging, as evidence by its association with MRI markers suggestive of brain atrophy and injury. Alternatively, subtle injuries and accelerated aging might reduce the ability of the brain to produce slow-wave sleep.

11.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of incident epilepsy among participants with prevalent dementia, and the risk of incident dementia among participants with prevalent epilepsy in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data in the Original and Offspring FHS cohorts. To determine the risk of developing epilepsy among participants with dementia and the risk of developing dementia among participants with epilepsy we used separate, nested, case-control designs and matched each case to 3 age-, sex- and FHS cohort-matched controls. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for sex and age. In secondary analysis, we investigated the role of education level and apolipoprotein ε4 allele status in modifying the association between epilepsy and dementia. RESULTS: A total of 4,906 participants had information on epilepsy and dementia and dementia follow-up after age 65. Among 660 participants with dementia and 1,980 dementia-free controls there were 58 incident epilepsy cases during follow-up. Analysis comparing epilepsy risk among dementia cases vs controls yielded HR = 1.82 [95% CI:1.05-3.16], p = 0.034. Among 43 participants with epilepsy and 129 epilepsy-free controls there were 51 incident dementia cases. Analysis comparing dementia risk among epilepsy cases vs controls yielded HR = 1.99 [1.11-3.57], p = 0.021. In this group, among participants with any post-high school education, prevalent epilepsy was associated with a nearly 5-fold risk for developing dementia (HR = 4.67 [1.82-12.01], p = 0.001) compared to controls of the same educational attainment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a bi-directional association between epilepsy and dementia with either condition carrying a nearly 2-fold risk of developing the other when compared to controls.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030307

RESUMO

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are characterized by the aging neurovascular unit being confronted with and failing to cope with biological insults due to systemic and cerebral vascular disease, proteinopathy including Alzheimer's biology, metabolic disease, or immune response, resulting in cognitive decline. This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations from a working group convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke to evaluate the state of the field in VCID research, identify research priorities, and foster collaborations. As discussed in this report, advances in understanding the biological mechanisms of VCID across the wide spectrum of pathologies, chronic systemic comorbidities, and other risk factors may lead to potential prevention and new treatment strategies to decrease the burden of dementia. Better understanding of the social determinants of health that affect risks for both vascular disease and VCID could provide insight into strategies to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in VCID.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e014659, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921207

RESUMO

Background GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) may offer promise as biomarkers for cognitive outcomes, including dementia. We determined the association of these biomarkers with cognitive outcomes in a community-based cohort. Methods and Results Plasma GDF15 (n=1603) and NT-proBNP levels (n=1590) (53% women; mean age, 68.7 years) were measured in dementia-free Framingham Offspring cohort participants at examination 7 (1998-2001). Participants were followed up for incident dementia. Secondary outcomes included Alzheimer disease dementia, magnetic resonance imaging structural brain measures, and neurocognitive performance. During a median 11.8-year follow-up, 131 participants developed dementia. On multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analysis, higher circulating GDF15 was associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause and Alzheimer disease dementia (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increment in natural log-transformed biomarker value, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.22-1.95] and 1.37 [95% CI, 1.03-1.81], respectively), whereas higher plasma NT-proBNP was also associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.65). Elevated GDF15 was associated with lower total brain and hippocampal volumes, greater white matter hyperintensity volume, and poorer cognitive performance. Elevated NT-proBNP was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume and poorer cognitive performance. Addition of both biomarkers to a conventional risk factor model improved dementia risk classification (net reclassification improvement index, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05-0.45). Conclusions Elevated plasma GDF15 and NT-proBNP were associated with vascular brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging, poorer neurocognitive performance, and increased risk of incident dementia in individuals aged >60 years. Both biomarkers improved dementia risk classification beyond that of traditional clinical risk factors, indicating their potential value in predicting incident dementia.

14.
Stroke ; 51(11): 3356-3360, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The genetic contribution to ischemic stroke may include rare- or low-frequency variants of high-penetrance and large-effect sizes. Analyses focusing on early-onset disease, an extreme-phenotype, and on the exome, the protein-coding portion of genes, may increase the likelihood of identifying such rare functional variants. To evaluate this hypothesis, we implemented a 2-stage discovery and replication design, and then addressed whether the identified variants also associated with older-onset disease. METHODS: Discovery was performed in UMD-GEOS Study (University of Maryland-Genetics of Early-Onset Stroke), a biracial population-based study of first-ever ischemic stroke cases 15 to 49 years of age (n=723) and nonstroke controls (n=726). All participants had prior GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) and underwent Illumina exome-chip genotyping. Logistic-regression was performed to test single-variant associations with all-ischemic stroke and TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) subtypes in Whites and Blacks. Population level results were combined using meta-analysis. Gene-based aggregation testing and meta-analysis were performed using seqMeta. Covariates included age and gender, and principal-components for population structure. Pathway analyses were performed across all nominally associated genes for each stroke outcome. Replication was attempted through lookups in a previously reported meta-analysis of early-onset stroke and a large-scale stroke genetics study consisting of primarily older-onset cases. RESULTS: Gene burden tests identified a significant association with NAT10 in small-vessel stroke (P=3.79×10-6). Pathway analysis of the top 517 genes (P<0.05) from the gene-based analysis of small-vessel stroke identified several signaling and metabolism-related pathways related to neurotransmitter, neurodevelopmental notch-signaling, and lipid/glucose metabolism. While no individual SNPs reached chip-wide significance (P<2.05×10-7), several were near, including an intronic variant in LEXM (rs7549251; P=4.08×10-7) and an exonic variant in TRAPPC11 (rs67383011; P=5.19×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Exome-based analysis in the setting of early-onset stroke is a promising strategy for identifying novel genetic risk variants, loci, and pathways.

15.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 707-714, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755403

RESUMO

The duration and lifetime pattern of hypertension is related to risk of stroke and dementia. In turn, cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the most frequent form of cerebrovascular disease underlying dementia and stroke. Thus, study of the relation of mid to late life hypertension trends with CSVD late in life will help understand hypertension's role and inform preventive efforts of CSVD consequences. We studied 1686 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort participants free of stroke and dementia, who were examined in mid and late life, and had available brain magnetic resonance imaging during late life. We related hypertension trends between mid and late life (normotension-normotension N-N, normotension-hypertension N-H, hypertension-hypertension H-H) to cerebral microbleeds and covert brain infarcts (CBI), overall and stratified by brain topography. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratio and 95% CIs for CSVD measures. The prevalence of CSVD in late life was 8% for cerebral microbleeds and 13% for covert brain infarcts and increased with longer hypertension exposure across all brain regions. Compared with the trend pattern of N-N, both N-H and H-H trends had higher odds of mixed cerebral microbleeds (2.71 [1.08-6.80], and 3.44 [1.39-8.60], respectively); H-H also had higher odds of any cerebral microbleeds or covert brain infarcts (1.54 [1.12-2.20]), and any covert brain infarcts (1.55 [1.08-2.20]). The burden of CSVD also increased with longer hypertension exposure. Our results highlight hypertension having a major role in subclinical CSVD, across subtypes and brain regions, and call attention to improve recognition and treatment of hypertension early in life.

16.
Sleep ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860698

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, moderates the association between sleep and incident dementia. METHODS: We studied Framingham Heart Study participants who completed at baseline a serum CRP assessment and in-home polysomnography to measure sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings, arousal index, and apnea-hypopnea index. Participants were divided into groups according to their CRP level: low (<1 mg/L), average (1-3 mg/L), high inflammation (>3 mg/L). Surveillance for outcomes (incident all-cause and Alzheimer's disease dementia) commenced at baseline and continued up to 22.5 years. RESULTS: In 291 participants (mean age 67.5 ± 4.9 years, 51.6% men) followed for 13.4 ± 5.4 years, we observed 43 cases of all-cause dementia, 33 of which were clinically consistent with Alzheimer's disease. Whereas no direct association between CRP or sleep exposures was observed with incident dementia, CRP levels interacted with nighttime wakefulness when predicting both incident all-cause and Alzheimer's disease dementia. In the high CRP group, longer wake after sleep onset (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; 95%CI, 1.31-6.34) and more nighttime awakenings (HR, 4.55; 95%CI, 1.19-17.38) were associated with higher risk of incident dementia. In the low CRP group, fewer nighttime awakenings were associated with a higher risk of incident dementia (HR, 0.07; 95%CI, 0.01-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inflammation moderates the association between sleep, particularly nighttime wakefulness, and dementia risk. The presence of inflammation may be an important determinant in evaluating how sleep disturbances relate to neurodegeneration.

17.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 456, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820227

RESUMO

Perturbations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism as well as thinning of the cerebral cortex have been associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Predominant FAs in the brain are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). Approximately 2-8% of esterified DHA and 3-5% of esterified ARA in the brain are replaced daily. DHA and ARA are derivatives of 18-carbon essential FAs, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, that must be imported into the brain from the circulation. In blood, FAs are primarily transported in triacylglycerols (TAGs) from which they can be released at the blood-brain-barrier and transported inside the brain. We show that circulating levels of TAGs carrying 18-carbon FAs are positively associated with cortical thickness in middle-aged adults. These associations are stronger in cortical regions with higher expression of genes regulating long-chain FA metabolism and cellular membranes, and cortical thickness in the same regions may be related to cognitive performance.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e17851, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes and Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) are the seventh and sixth leading causes of death in the United States, respectively, and they coexist in many older adults. Caring for a loved one with both ADRD and diabetes is challenging and burdensome. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore diabetes-related topics in the Alzheimer's Association ALZConnected caregiver forum by family caregivers of persons living with ADRD. METHODS: User posts on the Alzheimer's Association ALZConnected caregiver forum were extracted. A total of 528 posts related to diabetes were included in the analysis. Of the users who generated the 528 posts, approximately 96.1% (275/286) were relatives of the care recipient with ADRD (eg, child, grandchild, spouse, sibling, or unspecified relative). Two researchers analyzed the data independently using thematic analysis. Any divergence was discussed among the research team, and an agreement was reached with a senior researcher's input as deemed necessary. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed 7 key themes. The results showed that comorbidities of ADRD were common topics of discussions among family caregivers. Diabetes management in ADRD challenged family caregivers. Family caregivers might neglect their own health care because of the caring burden, and they reported poor health outcomes and reduced quality of life. The online forum provided a platform for family caregivers to seek support in their attempts to learn more about how to manage the ADRD of their care recipients and seek support for managing their own lives as caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The ALZConnected forum provided a platform for caregivers to seek informational and emotional support for caring for persons living with ADRD and diabetes. The overwhelming burdens with these two health conditions were apparent for both caregivers and care recipients based on discussions from the online forum. Studies are urgently needed to provide practical guidelines and interventions for diabetes management in individuals with diabetes and ADRD. Future studies to explore delivering diabetes management interventions through online communities in caregivers and their care recipients with ADRD and diabetes are warranted.

19.
Neurology ; 95(5): e519-e531, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the incidence of dementia between 1988 and 2015. METHODS: This analysis was performed in aggregated data from individuals >65 years of age in 7 population-based cohort studies in the United States and Europe from the Alzheimer Cohort Consortium. First, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates for all-cause dementia, and then defined nonoverlapping 5-year epochs within each study to determine trends in incidence. Estimates of change per 10-year interval were pooled and results are presented combined and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 49,202 individuals, 4,253 (8.6%) developed dementia. The incidence rate of dementia increased with age, similarly for women and men, ranging from about 4 per 1,000 person-years in individuals aged 65-69 years to 65 per 1,000 person-years for those aged 85-89 years. The incidence rate of dementia declined by 13% per calendar decade (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-19%), consistently across studies, and somewhat more pronouncedly in men than in women (24% [95% CI 14%-32%] vs 8% [0%-15%]). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of dementia in Europe and North America has declined by 13% per decade over the past 25 years, consistently across studies. Incidence is similar for men and women, although declines were somewhat more profound in men. These observations call for sustained efforts to finding the causes for this decline, as well as determining their validity in geographically and ethnically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Neurology ; 95(10): e1341-e1350, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the joint role of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) and genetic risk on risk of dementia. METHODS: We categorized CVH on the basis of the American Heart Association Ideal CVH Index and genetic risk through a genetic risk score (GRS) of common genetic variants and the APOE ε4 genotype in 1,211 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) offspring cohort participants. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the association between CVH, genetic risk, and incident all-cause dementia with up to 10 years of follow-up (mean 8.4 years, 96 incident dementia cases), adjusting for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: We observed that a high GRS (>80th percentile) was associated with a 2.6-fold risk of dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] of hazard ratio [HR] 1.23-5.29; p = 0.012) compared with having a low GRS (<20th percentile); carrying at least 1 APOE ε4 allele was associated with a 2.3-fold risk of dementia compared with not carrying an APOE ε4 allele (95% CI of HR 1.49-3.53; p = 0.0002), and having a favorable CVH showed a 0.45-fold lower risk of dementia (95% CI of HR 0.20-1.01; p = 0.0527) compared to having an unfavorable CVH when all 3 components were included in the model. We did not observe an interaction between CVH and GRS (p = 0.99) or APOE ε4 (p = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that both genetic risk and CVH contribute additively to dementia risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA