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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins possess pleiotropic effects, which potentially benefit noncardiovascular conditions. Previous work suggests that statins reduce inflammation and prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome and infections. However, there is a paucity of data regarding potential benefits of statins on respiratory and infectious complications, particularly after noncardiac surgery. We therefore evaluated respiratory and other complications in noncardiac surgery patients taking or not taking statins preoperatively. METHODS: We obtained data from the Cleveland Clinic Perioperative Health Documentation System and evaluated medical records of 92,139 inpatients who had noncardiac surgery. Among these, 31,719 patients took statins preoperatively. Statin patients were compared to nonstatin patients on incidence of intraoperative use of albuterol and postoperative respiratory complications for primary analysis. Infectious complications, cardiovascular complications, in-hospital mortality, and duration of hospitalization were compared for secondary analyses, using inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: Statin use was associated with lower odds of intraoperative albuterol treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.97; P = .001; number needed to treat [NNT] = 216). Postoperative respiratory complications were also less common (OR = 0.82; 98.75% CI, 0.78-0.87; P < .001). Secondarily, statin use was associated with lower odds of infections, cardiovascular complications, in-hospital mortality, and shorter duration of hospitalization. The interaction between statin use and sex was significant (with significance criteria P < .10) for all primary and secondary outcomes except intraoperative use of albuterol. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative statin use in noncardiac surgical patients was associated with slightly reduced odds of postoperative respiratory, infectious, and cardiovascular complications. However, the NNTs were high. Thus, despite the fact that statins appeared to be associated with lower odds of various complications, especially cardiovascular complications, our results do not support using statins specifically to reduce noncardiovascular complications after noncardiac surgery.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206118
3.
J Breath Res ; 15(1): 016003, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103661

RESUMO

Inflammation may alter volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. We therefore used ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to evaluate exhaled breath components in two non-infectious inflammatory models. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and ventilated for 24 h. Five treatments were randomly assigned: (1) lipopolysaccharide low dose [5 mg/kg]; (2) lipopolysaccharide high dose [10 mg/kg]; (3) alpha toxin low dose [40 µg/kg]; (4) alpha toxin high dose [80 µg/kg]; and, (5) NaCl 0.9% as control group. Gas was sampled from the expiratory line of the ventilator every 20 min and analyzed with IMS combined with a multi-capillary column. VOCs were identified by comparison with an established database. Survival analysis was performed by log-rank test, other analyses by one-way or paired ANOVA-tests and post-hoc analysis according to Holm-Sidak. Rats given NaCl and low-dose alpha toxin survived 24 h. The median survival time in alpha toxin high-dose group was 23 (95%-confidence interval (CI): 21, 24) h. In contrast, the median survival time in rats given high-dose lipopolysaccharide was 12 (95% CI: 9, 14) and only 13 (95% CI: 10, 16) h in those given high-dose lipopolysaccharide. 73 different VOCs were detected, of which 35 were observed only in the rats, 38 could be found both in the blank measurements of ventilator air and in the exhaled air of the rats. Forty-nine of the VOCs were identifiable from a registry of compounds. Exhaled volatile compounds were comparable in each group before injection of lipopolysaccharide and alpha toxin. In the LPS groups, 1-pentanol increased and 2-propanol decreased. After alpha toxin treatment, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol increased whereas butanal and isopropylamine decreased. Induction of a non-infectious systemic inflammation (niSI) by lipopolysaccharide and alpha toxin changes VOCs in exhaled breath. Exhalome analysis may help identify niSI.

4.
Pain ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021563

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain is thought to be sustained by reentrant neural pathways which provoke dysfunctional reorganization in the somatosensory cortex. We hypothesized that disrupting reentrant pathways with a 6-day-long continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom pain 4 weeks after treatment. We enrolled patients who had an upper- or lower-limb amputation and established phantom pain. Each was randomized to receive a 6-day perineural infusion of either ropivacaine or normal saline. The primary outcome was the average phantom pain severity as measured with a Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) at 4 weeks, after which an optional crossover treatment was offered within the following 0-12 weeks. Pretreatment pain scores were similar in both groups, with a median [interquartile range] of 5.0 [4.0, 7.0] for each. After 4 weeks, average phantom limb pain intensity was a mean (SD) of 3.0 (2.9) in patients given local anesthetic versus 4.5 (2.6) in those given placebo (difference (95% CI) 1.3 (0.4, 2.2), P=0.003). Patients given local anesthetic had improved global impression of change and less pain-induced physical and emotional dysfunction, but did not differ on depression scores. For subjects who received only the first infusion (no self-selected crossover), the median decrease in phantom limb pain at 6 months for treated subjects was 3.0 [0, 5.0] vs. 1.5 [0, 5.0] for the placebo group; there appeared to be little residual benefit at 12 months. We conclude that a 6-day continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom limb pain as well as physical and emotional dysfunction for at least 1 month.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is common, mostly silent, and a strong predictor of postoperative mortality. MINS appears to result from myocardial supply-demand mismatch. Recent data support restrictive perioperative transfusion strategies that can result in low postoperative haemoglobin concentrations. Whether low postoperative haemoglobin is associated with myocardial injury remains unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that anaemia is associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury in adults having noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of adults ≥45 yr old who had routine postoperative troponin T (TnT) monitoring after noncardiac surgery at the Cleverland Clinic (including those enrolled in the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation-2 Trial [POISE-2], the Safety of Addition of Nitrous Oxide to General Anaesthesia in At-risk Patients Having Major Non-cardiac Surgery [ENIGMA-II], Vascular Events In Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation Study [VISION], and Anaesthetic Depth and Complications After Major Surgery [BALANCED] trial). Patients with baseline increase in TnT and non-ischaemic aetiologies for TnT increase were excluded. The association between postoperative haemoglobin concentration during the 3 initial postoperative days and the incidence of MINS (fourth-generation TnT ≥0.03 ng ml-1 judged as attributable to ischaemia) was assessed using a time-varying covariate Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 6141 patients, 4480 were analysed. The incidence of MINS was 155/4480 (3.5%), ranging from 0/345 (0%) among patients whose lowest postoperative haemoglobin exceeded 13 g dl-1 to 52/611 (8.5%) in patients whose minimum postoperative haemoglobin was <8 g dl-1. The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for having MINS was 1.29 [1.16-1.42] for every 1 g dl-1 decrease in postoperative haemoglobin in a time-varying covariate analysis. Similar associations were identified in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Lower postoperative haemoglobin values are associated with MINS. Whether this association is modifiable by prevention or treatment of, anaemia remains to be determined.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1430-1443, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of surgery, and active body surface warming (ABSW) systems are used to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. Prior data on certain outcomes are equivocal (ie, blood loss) or limited (ie, pain and opioid consumption). The objective of this study was to provide an updated review on the effect of ABSW on clinical outcomes and temperature maintenance. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating ABSW systems compared to nonactive warming controls in noncardiac surgeries. Outcomes studied included postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption (primary outcomes) and other perioperative clinical variables such as temperature changes, blood loss, and wound infection (secondary outcomes). We searched Ovid MEDLINE daily, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science from inception to June 2019. Quality of evidence (QoE) was rated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. Subgroup analysis sought to determine the effect of preoperative + intraoperative warming versus intraoperative warming alone. Metaregression evaluated the effect of year of publication, use of neuromuscular blockers, anesthesia, and surgery type on outcomes. RESULTS: Fifty-four articles (3976 patients) were included. Pooled results demonstrated that ABSW maintained normothermia compared to controls, during surgery (30 minutes postinduction [mean difference {MD}: 0.3°C, 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.2-0.4, moderate QoE]), end of surgery (MD: 1.1°C, 95% CI, 0.9-1.3, high QoE), and up to 4 hours postoperatively (MD: 0.3°C, 95% CI, 0.2-0.5, high QoE). ABSW was not associated with difference in pain scores (<24 hours postoperatively, moderate to low QoE) or perioperative opioid consumption (very low QoE). ABSW increased patient satisfaction (MD: 2.2 points, 95% CI, 0.9-3.6, moderate QoE), reduced blood transfusions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0, moderate QoE), shivering (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.4, high QoE), and wound infections (OR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.2-0.7, high QoE). No significant differences were found for fluid administration (low QoE), blood loss (very low QoE), major adverse cardiovascular events (very low QoE), or mortality (very low QoE). Subgroup analysis and metaregression suggested increased temperature benefit with pre + intraoperative warming, use of neuromuscular blockers, and recent publication year. ABSW seemed to confer less temperature benefit in cesarean deliveries and neurosurgical/spinal cases compared to abdominal surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: ABSW is effective in maintaining physiological normothermia, decreasing wound infections, shivering, blood transfusions, and increasing patient satisfaction but does not appear to affect postoperative pain and opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesia/métodos , Reaquecimento , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1540-1550, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Cateteres , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/terapia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Oscilometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is the most common postoperative major vascular complication. Perioperative anaemia may contribute to cardiac supply-demand mismatch, and therefore myocardial injury. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the lowest in-hospital postoperative haemoglobin concentration is associated with a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality within the first 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in the PeriOperative Ischemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial. We assessed the association between the lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration during the initial hospitalisation and a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction (Third Universal Definition) and all-cause mortality within 30 postoperative days, using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: We analysed 7227 patients from POISE-2, of whom 7.8% developed myocardial infarction; 1.5% died within 30 days. The composite primary outcome of non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality occurred in 8.9% patients overall, ranging from 16% in patients with postoperative haemoglobin concentrations <88 g L-1 to 4.1% in patients with postoperative haemoglobin >113 g L-1. After adjusting for baseline factors, in patients with a lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration <110 g L-1, each 10 g L-1 reduction in the lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration was associated with a 1.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-1.56; P<0.001) fold increase in the odds of the composite outcome. In contrast, there was no significant relationship amongst patients with lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration >110 g L-1. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative anaemia may be a modifiable risk factor for non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avoiding intraoperative hypotension might serve as a measure of clinician skill. We, therefore, estimated the range of hypotension in patients of nurse anesthetists, and whether observed differences were associated with a composite of serious complications. METHODS: First, we developed a multivariable model to predict the amount of hypotension, defined as minutes of mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg, for noncardiac surgical cases from baseline characteristics excluding nurse anesthetist. Second, we compared observed and predicted amounts of hypotension for each case and summarized "excess" amounts across providers. Third, we estimated the extent to which hypotension on an individual case level was independently associated with a composite of serious complications. Finally, we assessed the range of actual and excess minutes of MAP <65 mm Hg on a provider level, and the extent to which these pressure exposures were associated with complications. RESULTS: We considered 110,391 hours of anesthesia by 99 nurse anesthetists. A total of 69% of 25,702 included cases had at least 1 minute of MAP <65 mm Hg, with a median (quartiles) of 4 (0-15) minutes on the case level. We were unable to explain much variance of intraoperative hypotension from baseline patient characteristics. However, cases in the highest 2 quartiles (>10 and >24 min/case more than predicted) were an estimated 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) and 31% (95% CI, 1.2-1.5) more likely to experience complications compared to those with 0 excess minutes (both P< .001). There was little variation of the average excess minutes <65 mm Hg across the nurse anesthetists, with median (quartiles) of 1.6 (1.2-1.9) min/h. There was no association in confounder-adjusted models on the nurse anesthetist level between average excess hypotension and complications, either for continuous exposure (P = .09) or as quintiles (P = .30). CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension is associated with complications on a case basis. But the average amount of hypotension for nurse anesthetists over hundreds of cases differed only slightly and was insufficient to explain meaningful differences in complications. Avoiding hypotension is a worthy clinical goal, but does not appear to be a useful metric of performance because the range of average amounts per clinician is not meaningfully associated with patient outcomes, at least among nurse anesthetists in 1 tertiary center.

11.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of surgery, and active body surface warming (ABSW) systems are used to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. Prior data on certain outcomes are equivocal (ie, blood loss) or limited (ie, pain and opioid consumption). The objective of this study was to provide an updated review on the effect of ABSW on clinical outcomes and temperature maintenance. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating ABSW systems compared to nonactive warming controls in noncardiac surgeries. Outcomes studied included postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption (primary outcomes) and other perioperative clinical variables such as temperature changes, blood loss, and wound infection (secondary outcomes). We searched Ovid MEDLINE daily, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science from inception to June 2019. Quality of evidence (QoE) was rated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. Subgroup analysis sought to determine the effect of preoperative + intraoperative warming versus intraoperative warming alone. Metaregression evaluated the effect of year of publication, use of neuromuscular blockers, anesthesia, and surgery type on outcomes. RESULTS: Fifty-four articles (3976 patients) were included. Pooled results demonstrated that ABSW maintained normothermia compared to controls, during surgery (30 minutes postinduction [mean difference {MD}: 0.3°C, 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.2-0.4, moderate QoE]), end of surgery (MD: 1.1°C, 95% CI, 0.9-1.3, high QoE), and up to 4 hours postoperatively (MD: 0.3°C, 95% CI, 0.2-0.5, high QoE). ABSW was not associated with difference in pain scores (<24 hours postoperatively, moderate to low QoE) or perioperative opioid consumption (very low QoE). ABSW increased patient satisfaction (MD: 2.2 points, 95% CI, 0.9-3.6, moderate QoE), reduced blood transfusions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0, moderate QoE), shivering (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.4, high QoE), and wound infections (OR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.2-0.7, high QoE). No significant differences were found for fluid administration (low QoE), blood loss (very low QoE), major adverse cardiovascular events (very low QoE), or mortality (very low QoE). Subgroup analysis and metaregression suggested increased temperature benefit with pre + intraoperative warming, use of neuromuscular blockers, and recent publication year. ABSW seemed to confer less temperature benefit in cesarean deliveries and neurosurgical/spinal cases compared to abdominal surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: ABSW is effective in maintaining physiological normothermia, decreasing wound infections, shivering, blood transfusions, and increasing patient satisfaction but does not appear to affect postoperative pain and opioid use.

12.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946546
13.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1214-1222, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hypotension Prediction Index is a commercially available algorithm, based on arterial waveform features, that predicts hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg for at least 1 min. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that index guidance reduces the duration and severity of hypotension during noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled adults having moderate- or high-risk noncardiac surgery with invasive arterial pressure monitoring. Participating patients were randomized to hemodynamic management with or without index guidance. Clinicians caring for patients assigned to guidance were alerted when the index exceeded 85 (range, 0 to 100) and a treatment algorithm based on advanced hemodynamic parameters suggested vasopressor administration, fluid administration, inotrope administration, or observation. Primary outcome was the amount of hypotension, defined as time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were time-weighted mean pressures less than 60 and 55 mmHg. RESULTS: Among 214 enrolled patients, guidance was provided for 105 (49%) patients randomly assigned to the index guidance group. The median (first quartile, third quartile) time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg was 0.14 (0.03, 0.37) in guided patients versus 0.14 (0.03, 0.39) mmHg in unguided patients: median difference (95% CI) of 0 (-0.03 to 0.04), P = 0.757. Index guidance therefore did not reduce amount of hypotension less than 65 mmHg, nor did it reduce hypotension less than 60 or 55 mmHg. Post hoc, guidance was associated with less hypotension when analysis was restricted to episodes during which clinicians intervened. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, index guidance did not reduce the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Half of the alerts were not followed by treatment, presumably due to short warning time, complex treatment algorithm, or clinicians ignoring the alert. In the future we plan to use a lower index alert threshold and a simpler treatment algorithm that emphasizes prompt treatment.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1012-1024, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related adverse events are a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Little is known about patients who are likely to experience opioid-induced respiratory depression events on the general care floor and may benefit from improved monitoring and early intervention. The trial objective was to derive and validate a risk prediction tool for respiratory depression in patients receiving opioids, as detected by continuous pulse oximetry and capnography monitoring. METHODS: PRediction of Opioid-induced respiratory Depression In patients monitored by capnoGraphY (PRODIGY) was a prospective, observational trial of blinded continuous capnography and oximetry conducted at 16 sites in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Vital signs were intermittently monitored per standard of care. A total of 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids and continuously monitored on the general care floor were included in the analysis. A respiratory depression episode was defined as respiratory rate ≤5 breaths/min (bpm), oxygen saturation ≤85%, or end-tidal carbon dioxide ≤15 or ≥60 mm Hg for ≥3 minutes; apnea episode lasting >30 seconds; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. A risk prediction tool was derived using a multivariable logistic regression model of 46 a priori defined risk factors with stepwise selection and was internally validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS: One or more respiratory depression episodes were detected in 614 (46%) of 1335 general care floor patients (43% male; mean age, 58 ± 14 years) continuously monitored for a median of 24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 17-26). A multivariable respiratory depression prediction model with area under the curve of 0.740 was developed using 5 independent variables: age ≥60 (in decades), sex, opioid naivety, sleep disorders, and chronic heart failure. The PRODIGY risk prediction tool showed significant separation between patients with and without respiratory depression (P < .001) and an odds ratio of 6.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.44-8.30; P < .001) between the high- and low-risk groups. Compared to patients without respiratory depression episodes, mean hospital length of stay was 3 days longer in patients with ≥1 respiratory depression episode (10.5 ± 10.8 vs 7.7 ± 7.8 days; P < .0001) identified using continuous oximetry and capnography monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: A PRODIGY risk prediction model, derived from continuous oximetry and capnography, accurately predicts respiratory depression episodes in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor. Implementation of the PRODIGY score to determine the need for continuous monitoring may be a first step to reduce the incidence and consequences of respiratory compromise in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Capnografia/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
16.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773677
17.
18.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 953-954, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773676
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish diagnostic criteria for bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) defined as bleeding during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery that is independently associated with mortality within 30 days of surgery, and to estimate the proportion of 30-day postoperative mortality potentially attributable to BIMS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of participants ≥45 yr old having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted relationship between candidate diagnostic criteria for BIMS and all-cause mortality within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: Of 16 079 participants, 2.0% (315) died and 36.1% (5810) met predefined screening criteria for bleeding. Based on independent association with 30-day mortality, BIMS was identified as bleeding leading to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, transfusion of ≥1 unit of red blood cells, or that was judged to be the cause of death. Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery occurred in 17.3% of patients (2782). Death occurred in 5.8% of patients with BIMS (161/2782), 1.3% (39/3028) who met bleeding screening criteria but not BIMS criteria, and 1.1% (115/10 269) without bleeding. BIMS was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.47). We estimated the proportion of 30-day postoperative deaths potentially attributable to BIMS to be 20.1-31.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS), defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the cause of death, is common and may account for a quarter of deaths after noncardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

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