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Crit Care Med ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of esophageal stimulation on nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at risk for enteral feeding intolerance. DESIGN: A multicenter randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Twelve ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS: We included mechanically ventilated ICU patients who were given moderate-to-high doses of opioids and expected to remain alive and ventilated for an additional 48 hours and who were receiving enteral nutrition or expected to start imminently. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to esophageal stimulation via an esophageal stimulating catheter (E-Motion Tube; E-Motion Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) or sham treatment. All patients were fed via these catheters using a standardized feeding protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The co-primary outcomes were proportion of caloric and protein prescription received enterally over the initial 7 days following randomization. Among 159 patients randomized, the modified intention-to-treat analysis included 155 patients: 73 patients in the active treatment group and 82 in the sham treatment group. Over the 7-day study period, the percent of prescribed caloric intake (± SE) received by the enteral route was 64% ± 2 in the active group and 65% ± 2 in sham patients for calories (difference, -1; 95% CI, -8 to 6; p = 0.74). For protein, it was 57% ± 3 in the active group and 60% ± 3 in the sham group (difference, -3; 95% CI, -10 to 3; p = 0.30). Compared to the sham group, there were more serious adverse events reported in the active treatment group (13 vs 6; p = 0.053). Clinically important arrhythmias were detected by Holter monitoring in 36 out of 70 (51%) in the active group versus 22 out of 76 (29%) in the sham group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal stimulation via a special feeding catheter did not improve nutritional adequacy and was associated with increase risk of harm in critically ill patients.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789639

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that is characterized by three primary components - systolic, diastolic, and mean pressure, along with a derived component, pulse pressure (systolic minus diastolic pressure)Each blood pressure component reflects distinct hemodynamic variables, and therefore presumably differently influences perfusion of various organsPrevious work identifies associations between intraoperative systolic and mean hypotension with myocardial and kidney injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: For each blood pressure component, the authors report significant and clinically meaningful associations between the lowest pressure sustained for 5 min and myocardial and kidney injuryAbsolute population risk thresholds were similar for myocardial and kidney injury, being roughly 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressuresThe odds for myocardial and kidney injury progressively increased with duration and severity of hypotension below each threshold, even after adjusting for potential baseline confounding factors BACKGROUND:: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that can be characterized by systolic, mean, and diastolic components, along with pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic pressures). The authors separately evaluated the strength of associations among intraoperative pressure components with myocardial and kidney injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors included 23,140 noncardiac surgery patients at Cleveland Clinic who had blood pressure recorded at 1-min intervals from radial arterial catheters. The authors used univariable smoothing and multivariable logistic regression to estimate probabilities of each outcome as function of patients' lowest pressure for a cumulative 5 min for each component, comparing discriminative ability using C-statistics. The authors further assessed the association between outcomes and both area and minutes under derived thresholds corresponding to the beginning of increased risk for the average patient. RESULTS: Out of 23,140 patients analyzed, myocardial injury occurred in 6.1% and acute kidney injury in 8.2%. Based on the lowest patient blood pressure experienced for greater than or equal to 5 min, estimated thresholds below which the odds of myocardial or kidney injury progressively increased (slope P < 0.001) were 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressure. Weak discriminative ability was noted between the pressure components, with univariable C-statistics ranging from 0.55 to 0.59. Area under the curve in the highest (deepest) quartile of exposure below the respective thresholds had significantly higher odds of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery and acute kidney injury compared to no exposure for systolic, mean, and pulse pressure (all P < 0.001), but not diastolic, after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic, mean, and pulse pressure hypotension were comparable in their strength of association with myocardial and renal injury. In contrast, the relationship with diastolic pressure was poor. Baseline factors were much more strongly associated with myocardial and renal injury than intraoperative blood pressure, but pressure differs in being modifiable.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although observational studies suggest an association between transfusion of older red blood cell (RBC) units and increased postoperative risk, randomized trials have not supported this. The objective of this randomized trial was to test the effect of RBC storage age on outcomes after cardiac surgery. METHODS: From July 2007 to May 2016, 3835 adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac valve procedures, or ascending aorta repair, either alone or in combination, were randomized to transfusion of RBCs stored for ≤14 days (younger units) or for ≥20 days (older units) intraoperatively and throughout the postoperative hospitalization. According to protocol, 2448 patients were excluded because they did not receive RBC transfusions. Among the remaining 1387 modified intent-to-treat patients, 701 were randomized to receive younger RBC units (median age, 11 days) and the remaining 686 to receive older units (median age, 25 days). The primary endpoint was composite morbidity and mortality, analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. The trial was discontinued midway owing to enrollment constraints. RESULTS: A total of 5470 RBC units were transfused, including 2783 in the younger RBC storage group and 2687 in the older RBC storage group. The GEE average relative-effect odds ratio was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-1.19; P = .083) for the composite morbidity and mortality endpoint. In-hospital mortality was lower for the younger RBC storage group (2.1% [n = 15] vs 3.4% [n = 23]), as was occurrence of other adverse events except for atrial fibrillation, although all CIs crossed 1.0. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical trial, which was stopped at its midpoint owing to enrollment constraints, supports neither the efficacy nor the futility of transfusing either younger or older RBC units. The effects of transfusing RBCs after even more prolonged storage (35-42 days) remains untested.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880630

RESUMO

Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) differs from myocardial infarction in being defined by troponin elevation apparently from cardiac ischemia with or without signs and symptoms. Such myocardial injury is common, silent, and strongly associated with mortality. MINS is usually asymptomatic and only detected by routine troponin monitoring. There is currently no known safe and effective prophylaxis for perioperative myocardial injury. However, appropriate preoperative screening may help guide proactive postoperative preventative actions. Intraoperative hypotension is associated with myocardial injury, acute kidney injury, and death. Hypotension is common and largely undetected in the postoperative general care floor setting, and independently associated with myocardial injury and mortality. Critical care patients are especially sensitive to hypotension, and the risk appears to be present at blood pressures previously regarded as normal. Tachycardia appears to be less important. Available information suggests that clinicians would be prudent to avoid perioperative hypotension.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients, with a reported incidence of 11%-43%, and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Perioperative hypotension and consequent brain hypoperfusion may contribute. We, therefore, tested the hypotheses that intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with critical care delirium. METHODS: We included 1083 postoperative patients who were admitted directly from an operating room to the surgical intensive care unit. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit patients at 12-hour intervals. We used a confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard survival model to assess the association between the amount of intraoperative hypotension, which was measured as the time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, and delirium while in critical care. Thereafter, we used a Cox model with the lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day as a time-varying covariate to assess the relationship between critical care hypotension and delirium, adjusted for confounders and amount of intraoperative hypotension. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven (35%) patients had delirium within the first 5 postoperative days in the surgical intensive care unit. Intraoperative hypotension was moderately associated with higher odds of postoperative delirium. The adjusted hazard ratio associated with 1 mm Hg increase in time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.20; P = .008). Postoperatively, a 10 mm Hg reduction in the lowest mean pressure on each day in the critical care unit was significantly associated with a higher hazard of delirium, with an adjusted hazard ratio 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Both intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with delirium in postoperative critical care patients. The extent to which these relationships are causal remains unknown, but to the extent that they are, hypotension prevention may help reduce delirium and should be studied in prospective clinical trials.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1468-1473, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

11.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1807-1815, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three perioperative factors impair host defence against recurrence during cancer surgery: the surgical stress response, use of volatile anaesthetic, and opioids for analgesia. All factors are ameliorated by regional anaesthesia-analgesia. We tested the primary hypothesis that breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery is lower with regional anaesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral blocks and the anaesthetic propofol than with general anaesthesia with the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. A second hypothesis was that regional anaesthesia-analgesia reduces persistent incisional pain. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at 13 hospitals in Argentina, Austria, China, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, and the USA. Women (age <85 years) having potentially curative primary breast cancer resections were randomised by computer to either regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral blocks and propofol) or general anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was local or metastatic breast cancer recurrence. The secondary outcome was incisional pain at 6 months and 12 months. Primary analyses were done under intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00418457. The study was stopped after a preplanned futility boundary was crossed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2007, and Jan 18, 2018, 2132 women were enrolled to the study, of whom 24 were excluded before surgery. 1043 were assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 1065 were allocated to general anaesthesia. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study groups. Median follow-up was 36 (IQR 24-49) months. Among women assigned regional anaesthesia-analgesia, 102 (10%) recurrences were reported, compared with 111 (10%) recurrences among those allocated general anaesthesia (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·74-1·28; p=0·84). Incisional pain was reported by 442 (52%) of 856 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 456 (52%) of 872 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 239 (28%) of 854 patients and 232 (27%) of 852 patients, respectively, at 12 months (overall interim-adjusted odds ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·85-1·17; p=0·99). Neuropathic breast pain did not differ by anaesthetic technique and was reported by 87 (10%) of 859 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 89 (10%) of 870 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 57 (7%) of 857 patients and 57 (7%) of 854 patients, respectively, at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In our study population, regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral block and propofol) did not reduce breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery compared with volatile anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioids. The frequency and severity of persistent incisional breast pain was unaffected by anaesthetic technique. Clinicians can use regional or general anaesthesia with respect to breast cancer recurrence and persistent incisional pain. FUNDING: Sisk Healthcare Foundation (Ireland), Eccles Breast Cancer Research Fund, British Journal of Anaesthesia International, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Science Fund for Junior Faculty 2016, Central Bank of Austria, and National Healthcare Group.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
12.
Lancet ; 394(10212): 1907-1914, 2019 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between increasing anaesthetic depth and decreased postoperative survival has been shown in observational studies; however, evidence from randomised controlled trials is lacking. Our aim was to compare all-cause 1-year mortality in older patients having major surgery and randomly assigned to light or deep general anaesthesia. METHODS: In an international trial, we recruited patients from 73 centres in seven countries who were aged 60 years and older, with significant comorbidity, having surgery with expected duration of more than 2 h, and an anticipated hospital stay of at least 2 days. We randomly assigned patients who had increased risk of complications after major surgery to receive light general anaesthesia (bispectral index [BIS] target 50) or deep general anaesthesia (BIS target 35). Anaesthetists also nominated an appropriate range for mean arterial pressure for each patient during surgery. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks by region immediately before surgery, with the patient and assessors masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12612000632897, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between Dec 19, 2012, and Dec 12, 2017. Of the 18 026 patients screened as eligible, 6644 were enrolled, randomly assigned to treatment or control, and formed the intention-to-treat population (3316 in the BIS 50 group and 3328 in the BIS 35 group). The median BIS was 47·2 (IQR 43·7 to 50·5) in the BIS 50 group and 38·8 (36·3 to 42·4) in the BIS 35 group. Mean arterial pressure was 3·5 mm Hg (4%) higher (median 84·5 [IQR 78·0 to 91·3] and 81·0 [75·4 to 87·6], respectively) and volatile anaesthetic use was 0·26 minimum alveolar concentration (30%) lower (0·62 [0·52 to 0·73] and 0·88 [0·74 to 1·04], respectively) in the BIS 50 than the BIS 35 group. 1-year mortality was 6·5% (212 patients) in the BIS 50 group and 7·2% (238 patients) in the BIS 35 group (hazard ratio 0·88, 95% CI 0·73 to 1·07, absolute risk reduction 0·8%, 95% CI -0·5 to 2·0). Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 954 (29%) patients in the BIS 50 group and 909 (27%) patients in the BIS 35 group; and grade 4 adverse events in 265 (8%) and 259 (8%) patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse events were infections, vascular disorders, cardiac disorders, and neoplasms. INTERPRETATION: Among patients at increased risk of complications after major surgery, light general anaesthesia was not associated with lower 1-year mortality than deep general anaesthesia. Our trial defines a broad range of anaesthetic depth over which anaesthesia may be safely delivered when titrating volatile anaesthetic concentrations using a processed electroencephalographic monitor. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; Research Grant Council of Hong Kong; National Institute for Health and Research, UK; and National Institutes of Health, USA.

13.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperoxia has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the prevention of surgical site infections. Based on animal studies and physiological concerns, the kidneys and heart may be at risk from hyperoxia. We therefore conducted 2 unplanned subanalyses of a previous alternating cohort trial in which patients having colorectal surgery were assigned to either 30% or 80% inspired intraoperative oxygen. Specifically, we tested 2 coprimary hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia increases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 postoperative days (PODs); and (2) hyperoxia worsens a composite of myocardial injury, in-hospital cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality. METHODS: The underlying controlled trial included 5749 colorectal surgeries in 4481 patients, with the exposure alternating between 30% and 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during general anesthesia at 2-week intervals over a period of 39 months. AKI was defined as a 1.5-fold increase in creatinine from the preoperative level to the highest value measured during the initial 7 PODs. Myocardial injury was defined by fourth-generation troponin-T level >0.03 ng/mL. We assessed the effect of 80% vs 30% oxygen on the outcomes using generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic models that adjusted for the possible within-patient correlation across multiple potential operations for a patient on different visits. RESULTS: For the AKI outcome, 2522 surgeries were allocated to 80% oxygen and 2552 to 30% oxygen. Hyperoxia had no effect on the primary outcome of postoperative AKI, with an incidence of 7.7% in the 80% oxygen group and 7.7% in the 30% oxygen group (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.2; P = .95). One thousand six hundred forty-seven surgeries (all with scheduled troponin monitoring) were analyzed for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Hyperoxia had no effect on the collapsed composite of myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality, nor on any of its components (estimated relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.16; P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that intraoperative hyperoxia causes AKI or cardiovascular complications in adults undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, we suggest that clinicians select intraoperative inspired oxygen fraction based on other considerations.

14.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 896-904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension is associated with acute kidney injury, but vasopressors used to treat hypotension may also compromise renal function. We therefore tested the hypothesis that vasopressor infusion during complex spine surgery is not associated with impaired renal function. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort analysis, we considered adults who had complex spine surgery between January 2005 and September 2014 at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus. Our primary outcome was postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate. Secondarily, we evaluated renal function using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. We obtained data for 1814 surgeries, including 689 patients (38%) who were given intraoperative vasopressors infusion for ≥30 minutes and 1125 patients (62%) who were not. Five hundred forty patients with and 540 patients without vasopressor infusions were well matched across 32 potential confounding variables. RESULTS: In matched patients, vasopressor infusions lasted an average of 173 ± 100 minutes (SD) and were given a median dose (1st quintile, 3rd quintile) of 3.4-mg (1.5, 6.7 mg) phenylephrine equivalents. Mean arterial pressure and the amounts of hypotension were similar in each matched group. The postoperative difference in mean estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with and without vasopressor infusions was only 0.8 mL/min/1.73 m (95% CI, -0.6 to 2.2 mL/min/1.73 m) (P = .28). Intraoperative vasopressor infusion was also not associated with increased odds of augmented acute kidney injury stage. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should not avoid typical perioperative doses of vasopressors for fear of promoting kidney injury. Tolerating hypotension to avoid vasopressor use would probably be a poor strategy.

16.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327102

RESUMO

Monitors that estimate nociception during anesthesia may be used to guide opioid and other analgesics administration to optimize anesthesia care and possibly outcome. We reviewed the literature to evaluate current evidence of the effect of nociception-guided management over standard anesthesia practice during surgery. A systematic review of the literature on the effect of nociception monitoring on anesthesia practice was conducted. Reports were eligible if they compared nociception-guided anesthesia to standard practice during surgery. Primary endpoint of this review is intraoperative opioid consumption. Secondary endpoints included hemodynamic control, postoperative pain and pain treatment. We identified 12 randomized controlled trials that compared one of five different nociception monitoring techniques to standard anesthesia care. Most studies were single center studies of small sample size. Six studies reported intraoperative opioid consumption as primary outcome. There was considerable variability with respect to surgical procedure and anesthesia technique. For nociception monitors that were investigated by more than one study, analysis of the pooled data was performed. The surgical plethysmographic index was the only monitor for which an intra operative opioid sparing effect was found. For the other monitors, either no effect was detected, or pooled analysis could not be performed due to paucity of study data. On secondary outcomes, no consistent effect of nociception-guided anesthesia could be established. Although some nociception monitors show promising results, no definitive conclusions regarding the effect of nociception monitoring on intraoperative opioid consumption or other anesthesia related outcome can be drawn.Clinical trial number PROSPERO ID 102913.

17.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 126, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that each 100 mg dL- 1 reduction in blood glucose over the range from ≈90 to > 300 mg dL- 1 decreases the shivering threshold (triggering core temperature) in rabbits by 1 °C. However, the effects of lower blood glucose concentrations has yet to be evaluated. We thus evaluated the relationship between the shivering threshold and blood glucose concentration over the mild-to-severe hypoglycemic range. METHODS: Thirty-nine rabbits were lightly anaesthetized with isoflurane and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1) severe hypoglycemia, insulin and dextrose infusions titrated to achieve blood glucose concentration at 45-75 mg dL- 1; 2) mild hypoglycemia, insulin and dextrose infusions titrated to achieve blood glucose concentration at 75-100 mg dL- 1; and 3) saline infusion. Cooling by colonic perfusion of water at 10 °C was continued until shivering occurred or esophageal core temperatures reached to 34 °C. RESULTS: The shivering threshold in the severe hypoglycemic rabbits was 35.7 ± 1.1 °C (mean ± SD); the thresholds in the mild hypoglycemic rabbits was 37.0 ± 0.7 °C; and the threshold in the control rabbits was 37.9 ± 1.0 °C. The shivering threshold increased linearly with blood glucose concentration: shivering threshold (°C) = 0.032 ∙ [blood glucose concentration (mg dL- 1)] + 34.1, R2 = 0.45. The shivering threshold thus decreased by approximately 1 °C for each 31 mg dL- 1 decrease in blood glucose concentration. CONCLUSIONS: There was a linear relationship between blood glucose and the shivering threshold over the range from severe hypoglycemia to normoglycemia. Blood glucose perturbations in the hypoglycemic range reduced the shivering threshold about three times as much as previously reported for the hyperglycemic range.

18.
Int J Anal Chem ; 2019: 3987417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186644

RESUMO

The anesthetic propofol and other exhaled organic compounds can be sampled in Tenax sorbent tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of propofol in Tenax sorbent tubes during overseas shipping. This is relevant for international pharmacokinetic studies on propofol in exhaled air. Tenax sorbent tube propofol samples with concentrations between 10 and 100 ng were prepared by liquid injection and with a calibration gas generator. For each preparation method, one reference set was analyzed immediately after preparation, a second set was stored at room temperature, and a third one was stored refrigerated. The fourth set was sent from Germany by airmail to USA and back. The shipped set of tubes was analyzed when it returned after 55 days elapsed. Then, the room temperature samples and the refrigerated stored samples were also analyzed. To evaluate the stability of propofol in the stored and shipped tubes, we calculated the recovery rates of each sample set. The mean recovery in the stored samples was 101.2% for the liquid preparation and 134.6% for the gaseous preparation at 4°C. At 22°C, the recovery was 96.1% for liquid preparation and 92.1% for gaseous preparation, whereas the shipped samples had a recovery of 85.3% and 111.3%. Thus, the deviation of the shipped samples is within a range of 15%, which is analytically acceptable. However, the individual values show significantly larger deviations of up to -32.1% (liquid) and 30.9% (gaseous). We conclude that storage of propofol on Tenax tubes at room temperature for 55 days is possible to obtain acceptable results. However, it appears that due to severe temperature and pressure variations air shipment of propofol samples in Tenax tubes without cooling shows severe deviations from the initial concentration. Although it was not tested in this study, we assume that refrigerated transport might be necessary to obtain comparable results as in the stored samples.

19.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1160-1166, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is common and promotes opioid use. Surgical wounds are hypoxic because normal perfusion is impaired. Local wound ischemia and acidosis promote incisional pain. Some evidence suggests that improving oxygen supply to surgical wounds might reduce pain. We therefore tested the hypothesis that supplemental (80% inspired) intraoperative oxygen reduces postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a large, single-center alternating cohort trial allocating surgical patients having general anesthesia for colorectal surgery to either 30% or 80% intraoperative oxygen concentration in 2-week blocks for a total of 39 months. Irrespective of allocation, patients were given sufficient oxygen to maintain saturation ≥95%. Patients who had regional anesthesia or nerve blocks were excluded. The primary outcome was pain and opioid consumption during the initial 2 postoperative hours, analyzed jointly. The secondary outcome was pain and opioid consumption over the subsequent 24 postoperative hours. Subgroup analyses of the primary outcome were conducted for open versus laparoscopic procedures and for patients with versus without chronic pain. RESULTS: A total of 4702 cases were eligible for analysis: 2415 were assigned to 80% oxygen and 2287 to 30% oxygen. The groups were well balanced on potential confounding factors. Average pain scores and opioid consumption were similar between the groups (mean difference in pain scores, -0.01 [97.5% CI, -0.16 to 0.14; P = .45], median difference in opioid consumption, 0.0 [97.5% CI, 0 to 0] mg morphine equivalents; P = .82). There were also no significant differences in the secondary outcome or subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental intraoperative oxygen does not reduce acute postoperative pain or reduce opioid consumption.

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