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1.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612493

RESUMO

Little is known about the feasibility of using long-term stored blood samples to measure neurofilament levels and about long-term changes in neurofilament levels among healthy individuals. We performed a pilot study among 26 adult men in preparation for a larger-scale study of the natural history of neurofilament levels. Median change over 14 years in pNf-H was 97.1 pg/mL (IQR: 5.0 to 242.0 pg/mL) and in Nf-L was 2.117 pg/mL (IQR: -2.691 to 3.393 pg/mL). We demonstrated the feasibility of measuring neurofilament concentrations in stored blood samples and found a trend between age and increases in Nf-L levels among adults.

3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 133-137, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported the benefits of coffee consumption on diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no large-scale long-term prospective study has evaluated the relation between coffee consumption and heart failure (HF) among US population. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with risk of HF among male physicians. METHODS: We prospectively studied 20,433 middle-aged and older men from the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). Coffee consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The incidence of HF was assessed based on self-reports on annual questionnaires which were validated in a subsample using by review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of men was 66.4 (9.2) years. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 901 new cases of HF were reported. In a multivariable Cox model adjusting for age, alcohol, smoking, and exercise, the HR (95% CI) of HF were 1.00 (reference), 1.04 (0.84-1.28), 0.90 (0.73-1.11), and 1.09 (0.91-1.30) for coffee consumption of almost never, <1 cup/day, 1 cup/day, and ≥2 cups/day, respectively (P for linear trend - 0.47). In a secondary analysis, dietary caffeine intake was not associated with HF risk: multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (0.87-1.31), 0.95 (0.77-1.18), 1.06 (0.86-1.31), and 1.15 (0.92-1.44) across consecutive quintiles of dietary caffeine (P for linear trend - 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between either coffee consumption or dietary caffeine intake with HF risk among US male physicians.

4.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143263

RESUMO

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both Helicobacter pylori (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or Streptococcus gallolyticus (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (pinteraction = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.

5.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098434

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Interventions that reduce inflammation may delay progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes. We examined the effects of vitamin D3 and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation vs placebo on 5 year changes in serum inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study reports pre-specified secondary outcomes of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial to Prevent and Treat Diabetic Kidney Disease, in which 1312 US adults with type 2 diabetes and without known cardiovascular disease, malignancy, or end-stage kidney disease were randomised using computer-generated random numbers in blocks of eight to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) vs placebo and n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]; 1 g/day) vs placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants, examiners, and researchers assessing outcomes were blinded to intervention assignment. We measured serum IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at baseline and after 2 and 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 333 participants were randomised to vitamin D3 and placebo n-3 fatty acids, 289 to n-3 fatty acids and placebo vitamin D3, 370 to vitamin D3 and n-3 fatty acids, and 320 to 2 placebos; 989 (75%) and 934 (71%) participants returned blood samples at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Participants had a mean age of 67.6 years (46% women). Overall, baseline geometric means of IL-6, hsCRP and NT-proBNP were 1.2 pg/ml, 1.9 mg/l and 262 ng/l, respectively. After 5 years, mean IL-6 and hsCRP remained within 6% of their baseline values while mean NT-proBNP increased by 55% overall. Compared with placebo, participants assigned to vitamin D3 had a 1.24-fold greater increase in NT-proBNP over 5 years (95% CI 1.09, 1.41; p = 0.003), while IL-6 and hsCRP did not have a significant difference in change. Comparing n-3 fatty acids with placebo, there was no significant difference in change in IL-6, hsCRP or NT-proBNP. No heterogeneity was observed in subgroup analyses accounting for baseline eGFR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, initial biomarker concentration, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level or EPA+DHA index. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Among adults with type 2 diabetes, supplementation with vitamin D3 or n-3 fatty acids did not reduce IL-6, hsCRP or NT-proBNP over 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684722 FUNDING: The study was funded by grant R01DK088762 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Graphical abstract.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2729-2734, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies to tumor suppressor p53 are found in a subset of patients with colorectal cancer. A recent prospective study in the United States has reported a significant 1.8-fold increased odds for colorectal cancer development with prediagnostic seropositivity to p53. In this study, we sought to examine this association in a U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium to evaluate the potential utility of p53 auto-antibodies as an early biomarker for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Auto-antibodies to p53 were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 3,702 incident colorectal cancer cases and 3,702 controls, matched by age, race, and sex, from 9 U.S. prospective cohorts. The association of seropositivity to p53 with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis, was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 5% of controls and 7% of cases were seropositive to p53, resulting in a statistically significant 33% increased colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.61]. By follow-up time, the association was only significant with colorectal cancer diagnoses within 4 years after blood draw (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.19), but not thereafter (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: In this large consortium of prospective cohorts, we found that prediagnostic seropositivity to tumor suppressor p53 was significantly associated with an over 2-fold increased odds of developing colorectal cancer within 4 years after blood draw. IMPACT: Our finding suggests that p53 seropositivity may not be a useful predictor of long-term colorectal cancer risk; however, it might be considered as a marker to aid in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation may lead to frailty, however the potential for anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin to prevent frailty is unknown. We sought to examine the association between long-term aspirin use and prevalent frailty. METHODS: We included 12,101 men ≥60 years who participated in the Physicians' Health Study I, a completed aspirin randomized controlled trial (1982-1989). Annual questionnaires collected self-reported data on daily aspirin use, lifestyle and clinical variables. Average aspirin use was summed into 2 categories: ≤60 days/yr and>60 days/yr. Frailty was assessed using a 33-item index 11 years after trial completion. A score ≥0.21 was considered frail. Propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting was used for statistical control of confounding. Logistic regression models estimated odds of frailty as a function of categories of average aspirin use. RESULTS: Mean age was 70.5 years (range 60-101). Following an average of 11±0.6 years of follow-up, aspirin use was reported as ≤60 days/yr for 15%; 2413 participants (20%) were frail. Frequency of aspirin use was associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and CVD, but negatively associated with bleeding and coumadin use. The OR (95% CIs) for frailty was 0.85 (0.76-0.96) for average aspirin use >60 days/yr vs aspirin use ≤60 days/yr. Results were similar using an alternate definition of frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term regular aspirin use is inversely associated with frailty among older men, even after consideration of multimorbidity and health behaviors. Work is needed to understand the role of medications with anti-inflammatory properties on aging.

9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(4): pkaa022, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704617

RESUMO

Background: Few data exist on the relationship of cisplatin-related adverse health outcomes (AHOs) with disability, unemployment, and self-reported health (SRH) among testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Methods: A total of 1815 TCS at least 1 year postchemotherapy underwent clinical examination and completed questionnaires. Treatment data were abstracted from medical records. A cumulative burden of morbidity score (CBMPt) encompassed the number and severity of platinum-related AHOs (peripheral sensory neuropathy [PSN], hearing loss, tinnitus, renal disease). Multivariable regression assessed the association of AHOs and CBMPt with employment status and SRH, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Unemployment was compared with a male normative population of similar age, race, and ethnicity. Results: Almost 1 in 10 TCS was out of work (2.4%, disability leave; 6.8%, unemployed) at a median age of 37 years (median follow-up = 4 years). PSN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 8.26, grade 3 vs 0, P = .048), renal dysfunction defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR = 12.1, 95% CI = 2.06 to 70.8, grade 2 vs 0, P = .01), pain (OR = 10.6, 95% CI = 4.40 to 25.40, grade 2 or 3 vs 0, P < .001), and CBMPt (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.08, P = .03) were associated with disability leave; pain strongly correlated with PSN (r 2 = 0.40, P < .001). Statistically significantly higher percentages of TCS were unemployed vs population norms (age-adjusted OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.49 to 3.02, P < .001). PSN (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.28 to 4.62, grade 3 vs 0, P = .006), patient-reported hearing loss (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.04 to 3.17, grade 2 or 3 vs 0, P = .04), and pain (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.06 to 6.81, grade 2 or 3 vs 0, P < .001) were associated with unemployment. Increasing severity of most cisplatin-related AHOs and pain were associated with statistically significantly worse SRH. Conclusions: Our findings have important implications regarding treatment-associated productivity losses and socioeconomic costs in this young population. Survivorship care strategies should include inquiries about disability and unemployment status, with efforts made to assist affected TCS in returning to the workforce.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neopterina/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia , Triptofano/sangue
13.
Pediatr Res ; 87(3): 602-607, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chocolate intake has shown cardiometabolic health benefits. Whether chocolate has any effect on cellular aging remains unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that higher chocolate intake is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 660 adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were included in the analysis. The chocolate intake was assessed by 7-day, 24-h dietary recalls and split into three groups, which were none, <2 servings/week, and 2 servings/week or more. LTL (T/S ratio) was determined by a modified quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay. RESULTS: Among the 660 adolescents, 58% did not take any chocolate, 25% consumed <2 servings/week, and 17% consumed ≥2 servings/week. Compared to non-consumers, adolescents who consumed chocolate of ≥2 servings/week had 0.27 standard deviation (SD) longer LTL (p = 0.014). Higher chocolate consumption was associated with increased apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) (p = 0.038) and ApoA1/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.046). Moreover, higher ApoA1/HDL levels were correlated with longer LTL (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Adolescents who consume 2 servings/week or more of chocolate candy have longer LTL compared with non-consumers, and ApoA1/HDL pathway may be involved in this relationship.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 935-940, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. While fried food consumption is common in United States, little is known about the association between fried food consumption and incident AF. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of fried food consumption with incident AF in 18,941 US male physicians. Fried food consumption was assessed via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks of AF. RESULTS: The average age at baseline was 66 ± 9 years. During a mean follow up of 9.0 ± 3.0 years, 2099 new cases of AF occurred. Using < 1/week of fried food consumption as the reference group, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios ( 95% confidence interval) for AF were 1.07 (0.97, 1.18) and 1.03 (0.91, 1.17), for people reporting an average fried food consumption of 1-3/week and ≥ 4/week, respectively, p linear trend 0.4. In a secondary analysis, the results did not change after exclusion of participants with prevalent coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure. Lastly, the source of fried food (away from home or at home) did not influence the relation of fried food with AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study does not provide evidence for an association between fried food consumption and incident AF among US male physicians.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 675-685, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677159

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m2 ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 929-937, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 147(4): 920-930, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863463

RESUMO

Although previous studies have suggested a potential role of sex hormones in the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC), no study has yet examined the associations between circulating sex hormones and survival among CRC patients. We prospectively assessed the associations of prediagnostic plasma concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with CRC-specific and overall mortality among 609 CRC patients (370 men and 239 postmenopausal women not taking hormone therapy at blood collection) from four U.S. cohorts. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We identified 174 deaths (83 CRC-specific deaths) in men and 106 deaths (70 CRC-specific deaths) in women. In men, higher circulating level of free testosterone was associated with lower risk of overall (the highest vs. lowest tertiles, HR = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.45-0.99, ptrend = 0.04) and possibly CRC-specific mortality (HR = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.41-1.29, ptrend = 0.27). We generally observed nonsignificant inverse associations for other sex steroids, and a positive association for SHBG with CRC-specific mortality among male patients. In women, however, we found a suggestive positive association of estrone with overall (HR = 1.54, 95% CI, 0.92-2.60, ptrend = 0.11) and CRC-specific mortality (HR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.01-3.84, ptrend = 0.06). Total estradiol, free estradiol and free testosterone were generally suggestively associated with higher risk of mortality among female patients, although not statistically significant. These findings implicated a potential role of endogenous sex hormones in CRC prognosis, which warrant further investigation.

18.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 535-547, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log2 hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

19.
JAMA ; 322(19): 1899-1909, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703120

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes that can lead to end-stage kidney disease and is associated with high cardiovascular risk. Few treatments are available to prevent CKD in type 2 diabetes. Objective: To test whether supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids prevents development or progression of CKD in type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design conducted among 1312 adults with type 2 diabetes recruited between November 2011 and March 2014 from all 50 US states as an ancillary study to the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), coordinated by a single center in Massachusetts. Follow-up was completed in December 2017. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; 1 g/d) (n = 370), vitamin D3 and placebo (n = 333), placebo and omega-3 fatty acids (n = 289), or 2 placebos (n = 320) for 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in glomerular filtration rate estimated from serum creatinine and cystatin C (eGFR) from baseline to year 5. Results: Among 1312 participants randomized (mean age, 67.6 years; 46% women; 31% of racial or ethnic minority), 934 (71%) completed the study. Baseline mean eGFR was 85.8 (SD, 22.1) mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean change in eGFR from baseline to year 5 was -12.3 (95% CI, -13.4 to -11.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 with vitamin D3 vs -13.1 (95% CI, -14.2 to -11.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (difference, 0.9 [95% CI, -0.7 to 2.5] mL/min/1.73 m2). Mean change in eGFR was -12.2 (95% CI, -13.3 to -11.1) mL/min/1.73 m2 with omega-3 fatty acids vs -13.1 (95% CI, -14.2 to -12.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (difference, 0.9 [95% CI, -0.7 to 2.6] mL/min/1.73 m2). There was no significant interaction between the 2 interventions. Kidney stones occurred among 58 participants (n = 32 receiving vitamin D3 and n = 26 receiving placebo) and gastrointestinal bleeding among 45 (n = 28 receiving omega-3 fatty acids and n = 17 receiving placebo). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with type 2 diabetes, supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids, compared with placebo, resulted in no significant difference in change in eGFR at 5 years. The findings do not support the use of vitamin D or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for preserving kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01684722.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Cálculos Renais/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1868-1875, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length has been associated with risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with overall survival (OS) time among 423 participants diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1984 and 2008 within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, and Women's Health Initiative. We measured prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length in banked blood samples using quantitative PCR. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for OS with adjustment for potential confounders. We also evaluated 10 SNPs at the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus. RESULTS: Shorter prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with reduced OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (P trend = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted HR for OS comparing the lowest with highest quintiles of leukocyte telomere length was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93), corresponding to a 3-month difference in median OS time. In an analysis excluding cases with blood collected within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, the association was moderately stronger (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.21; comparing the lowest with highest quintiles; P trend = 0.01). No prognostic association or effect modification for the prognostic association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was noted in relation to the studied SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with pancreatic cancer survival. IMPACT: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length can be a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Telômero/patologia
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