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1.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chocolate intake has shown cardiometabolic health benefits. Whether chocolate has any effect on cellular aging remains unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that higher chocolate intake is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 660 adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were included in the analysis. The chocolate intake was assessed by 7-day, 24-h dietary recalls and split into three groups, which were none, <2 servings/week, and 2 servings/week or more. LTL (T/S ratio) was determined by a modified quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay. RESULTS: Among the 660 adolescents, 58% did not take any chocolate, 25% consumed <2 servings/week, and 17% consumed ≥2 servings/week. Compared to non-consumers, adolescents who consumed chocolate of ≥2 servings/week had 0.27 standard deviation (SD) longer LTL (p = 0.014). Higher chocolate consumption was associated with increased apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) (p = 0.038) and ApoA1/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.046). Moreover, higher ApoA1/HDL levels were correlated with longer LTL (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Adolescents who consume 2 servings/week or more of chocolate candy have longer LTL compared with non-consumers, and ApoA1/HDL pathway may be involved in this relationship.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length has been associated with risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with overall survival (OS) time among 423 participants diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1984 and 2008 within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, and Women's Health Initiative. We measured prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length in banked blood samples using quantitative PCR. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for OS with adjustment for potential confounders. We also evaluated 10 SNPs at the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus. RESULTS: Shorter prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with reduced OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (P trend = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted HR for OS comparing the lowest with highest quintiles of leukocyte telomere length was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93), corresponding to a 3-month difference in median OS time. In an analysis excluding cases with blood collected within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, the association was moderately stronger (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.21; comparing the lowest with highest quintiles; P trend = 0.01). No prognostic association or effect modification for the prognostic association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was noted in relation to the studied SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with pancreatic cancer survival. IMPACT: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length can be a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 83: 57-63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large simple trials are potentially efficient and cost-effective approaches to assess interventions to preserve cognitive function in older adults. High-dose cocoa flavanols supplementation is a promising intervention that warrants additional testing. We describe the design, recruitment success, and baseline characteristics of the Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study for the Mind (COSMOS-Mind) trial. METHODS: COSMOS-Mind is an ancillary study to the large-scale and predominantly mail-based COSMOS randomized controlled clinical trial. COSMOS is assessing whether cocoa extract (including 600 mg/d cocoa flavanols) and a multivitamin reduce risks for major cardiovascular events and total invasive cancer. COSMOS-Mind uses telephone-based interviews to assess cognitive function and impairment to determine whether cocoa flavanols benefit cognitive function in adults aged 65 years or older, targeting the enrollment of 2000 participants to provide >90% statistical power across 3 years of annual follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 3224 COSMOS screenees who expressed interest in COSMOS-Mind, 2350 (76%) successfully completed baseline cognitive assessments and 2262 (96%) geographically diverse, eligible individuals were ultimately enrolled over one year. At baseline, the primary outcome, a composite of cognitive test scores, was inversely associated with age in a manner consistent with assumptions used in projections of statistical power. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults are willing to enroll in large simple trials that include telephone-based cognitive assessments. Embedding these trials in large studies of other health outcomes is efficient and expands the scientific knowledge gained from the research. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT03035201 (COSMOS-Mind); NCT102422745 (parent COSMOS).

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 40(41): 3385-3392, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228190

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be influenced by a common allele in guanylate cyclase GUCY1A3, which has been shown to modify platelet function and increase CVD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated whether homozygotes of the GUCY1A3 rs7692387 risk (G) allele benefited from aspirin in two long-term, randomized placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in primary CVD prevention: the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294) and a myocardial infarction (MI, N = 550) and stroke (N = 382) case-control set from the Physician's Health Study (PHS, N = 22 071). Bleeding risk was evaluated in the WGHS. In the placebo group of the WGHS, the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele was confirmed to increase CVD risk [hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; P = 0.01]. Random-effects meta-analysis of the WGHS and PHS revealed that aspirin reduced CVD events among risk allele homozygotes [G/G: odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03] but increased CVD events among non-risk allele carriers (e.g. G/A: OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03) thus implying an interaction between genotype stratum and aspirin intake (Pinteraction = 0.01). Bleeding associated with aspirin increased in all genotype groups, with higher risks in heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: In two randomized placebo-controlled trials in the setting of primary prevention, aspirin reduced the incidence of CVD events in individuals homozygous for the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele, whereas heterozygote individuals had more events when taking aspirin.

6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 70, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes remains uncertain. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality events in people with diabetes, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and a pooled analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from three trials. METHODS: Randomised controlled trials of aspirin compared with placebo (or no treatment) in participants with diabetes with no known CVD were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and manual search of bibliographies to January 2019. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were used as the summary measures of associations. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs based on 34,227 participants with a median treatment duration of 5.0 years. Comparing aspirin use with no aspirin, there was a significant reduction in risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)0.89 (0.83-0.95), with a number needed to treat (NNT)of 95 (95% CI 61 to 208) to prevent one MACE over 5 years average follow-up. Evidence was lacking of heterogeneity and publication bias among contributing trials for MACE. Aspirin use had no effect on other endpoints including all-cause mortality; however, there was a significant reduction in stroke for aspirin dosage ≤ 100 mg/day 0.75 (0.59-0.95). There were no significant effects of aspirin use on major bleeding and other bleeding events, though some of the estimates were imprecise. Pooled IPD from the three trials (2306 participants) showed no significant evidence of an effect of aspirin on any of the outcomes evaluated; however, aspirin reduced the risk of MACE in non-smokers 0.70 (0.51-0.96) with a NNT of 33 (95% CI 20 to 246) to prevent one MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin has potential benefits in cardiovascular primary prevention in diabetes. The use of low dose aspirin may need to be individualised and based on each individual's baseline CVD and bleeding risk. Systematic review registration PROSPERO: CRD42019122326.

7.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.

8.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(5): 459-468, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the prevalence of hypogonadism, its clinical and genetic risk factors, and its relationship to adverse health outcomes (AHOs) in North American testicular cancer survivors (TCS) after modern platinum-based chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible TCS were <55 years of age at diagnosis and treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Participants underwent physical examinations and completed questionnaires regarding 15 AHOs and health behaviors. Hypogonadism was defined as serum testosterone levels ≤3.0 ng/mL or use of testosterone replacement therapy. We investigated the role of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs6258 and rs12150660) in the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) locus implicated in increased hypogonadism risk in the general population. RESULTS: Of 491 TCS (median age at assessment, 38.2 years; range, 18.7-68.4 years), 38.5% had hypogonadism. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis identified hypogonadism risk factors, including age at clinical evaluation (odds ratio [OR], 1.42 per 10-year increase; P= .006) and body mass index of 25 to <30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.08; P= .011) or ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.36; P= .005) compared with <25 kg/m2. TCS with ≥2 risk alleles for the SHBG SNPs had a marginally significant increased hypogonadism risk (OR, 1.45; P= .09). Vigorous-intensity physical activity appeared protective (OR, 0.66; P= .07). Type of cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimen and socioeconomic factors did not correlate with hypogonadism. Compared with TCS without hypogonadism, those with hypogonadism were more likely to report ≥2 AHOs (65% vs 51%; P= .003), to take medications for hypercholesterolemia (20.1% vs 6.0%; P<.001) or hypertension (18.5% vs 10.6%; P= .013), and to report erectile dysfunction (19.6% vs 11.9%; P= .018) or peripheral neuropathy (30.7% vs 22.5%; P= .041). A marginally significant trend for increased use of prescription medications for either diabetes (5.8% vs 2.6%; P= .07) or anxiety/depression (14.8% vs 9.3%; P= .06) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: At a relatively young median age, more than one-third of TCS have hypogonadism, which is significantly associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors, and erectile dysfunction. Providers should screen TCS for hypogonadism and treat symptomatic patients.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38,369,156 person-years of follow-up, 1,391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1,208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (e.g., current versus never smokers hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95%CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend<0.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (e.g., >40 cigarettes/day versus never smokers HR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend=0.001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming ≥5 versus 0 drinks/day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend=0.04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity between several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.

10.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. While fried food consumption is common in United States, little is known about the association between fried food consumption and incident AF. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of fried food consumption with incident AF in 18,941 US male physicians. Fried food consumption was assessed via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks of AF. RESULTS: The average age at baseline was 66 ± 9 years. During a mean follow up of 9.0 ± 3.0 years, 2099 new cases of AF occurred. Using < 1/week of fried food consumption as the reference group, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios ( 95% confidence interval) for AF were 1.07 (0.97, 1.18) and 1.03 (0.91, 1.17), for people reporting an average fried food consumption of 1-3/week and ≥ 4/week, respectively, p linear trend 0.4. In a secondary analysis, the results did not change after exclusion of participants with prevalent coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure. Lastly, the source of fried food (away from home or at home) did not influence the relation of fried food with AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study does not provide evidence for an association between fried food consumption and incident AF among US male physicians.

11.
J Hypertens ; 37(6): 1223-1229, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid have favorable effects on blood pressure (BP). However, data on the association of long-term dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acid or fish with risk of hypertension in healthy subjects are sparse. We examined whether fish or omega-3 fatty acid consumption was associated with incident hypertension in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we analyzed data on 12 279 PHS participants (mean age: 53.0 ±â€Š8.7 years) free of hypertension at baseline. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption were assessed from a baseline semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Incident hypertension was ascertained via self-reports on annual follow-up questionnaires. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 15.8 years, 6299 men (51.3%) developed hypertension. In a multivariable model controlling for established risk factors for hypertension, fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption was not significantly associated with incident hypertension. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of hypertension was 1.10 (0.93-1.30) for men who consumed at least five servings per week of fish compared with those who did not consume any fish (P for trend = 0.29). For the highest versus lowest quintile of omega-3 fatty acid intake, the hazard ratio of hypertension was 1.02 (0.94-1.11) (P for trend = 0.34). The associations did not vary by type of fish. There was also no evidence of effect modification by baseline BP, BMI, or history of hypercholesterolemia. CONCLUSION: Overall, long-term dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acid was not associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of middle-aged and older US men.

12.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624689

RESUMO

Background: Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer. Methods: Here we determined if COMT exerted pharmacogenetic effects on cancer prevention in two randomized trials of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Pharmacogenetic effects of common COMT rs4680 (val158met), which encodes a nonsynonymous valine-to-methionine substitution, were examined in the trial plus a 10-year post-trial follow-up (overall) period of The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294), a 10-year alpha-tocopherol and aspirin trial with 10 years post-trial follow-up. Results were validated in a case/control (N = 2396/2235) subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC, N = 29 133). The primary outcome was total cancers. Rates of cancer types prevalent in women (colorectal, breast, lung, uterine, and lymphoma/leukemia) were also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis of rs4680 genotype strata, in WGHS and ATBC overall periods, revealed differential alpha-tocopherol effects compared with placebo: met/met (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80 to 0.97; P = .01), val/met (HR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.06; P = .74), and val/val (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.31; P = .002) with a statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction (Pinteraction <.001). Timing of effects differed, with stronger effects in WGHS trial and ATBC post-trial. Conclusion: Pharmacogenetic analysis of COMT and cancer prevention in two large randomized trials revealed statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction, such that alpha-tocopherol was beneficial among rs4680 met-allele (28.0%), but not val-allele (22.8%) homozygotes. These effects indicate the need for additional studies of genetic variation as a determinant of the benefits and possible harms of over-the-counter supplements, like alpha-tocopherol, used for health promotion.

14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(9): 1822-1829, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In prospective cohort studies, obesity has been linked with a lower risk of subsequent dementia. Reverse causality, whereby neurodegeneration preceding overt dementia symptoms may lower weight, is a possible explanation of these findings. To explore further the weight-dementia association we followed people from early adulthood, an age at which neurodegeneration has typically yet to begin. METHODS: In all, 33,083 male participants in the Harvard Alumni Health Study underwent a medical examination as undergraduates (typically aged 18 years) during which height, weight, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status were assessed. Subsamples provided height and weight in 1962/6 (mean age 50.7 years), 1977 (58.6), 1988 (67.5), and 1993 (71.1). Dementia deaths were extracted from death certificates (mean follow-up 53.1 years). We used latent class mixed models to create body mass index (BMI) trajectories; for comparison, we also constructed models with cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. RESULTS: We found no association between early life BMI and subsequent dementia (age-adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85, 1.04). We identified two latent class groups based on different BMI trajectories-"early decliners" whose BMI began to decline around age 50 years and "late decliners" whose BMI declined about two decades later. The former experienced a raised risk of dementia-related death compared to the latter (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.14, 2.17). Expected associations were identified between CVD risk factors and CVD death. CONCLUSIONS: In a population likely to be free of dementia neuropathology at BMI measurement, we found no association between BMI at baseline and subsequent dementia-related death. Earlier decline in BMI was, however, associated with dementia, which suggests that findings associating BMI with dementia risk may be influenced by reverse causality.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(21): e010052, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373451

RESUMO

Background The previously validated Healthy Heart Score effectively predicted the 20-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examine whether the Healthy Heart Score may extend to an association with total and cause-specific mortality. Methods and results The prospective cohort study investigated 58 319 women (mean age 50.2 years) in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 29 854 in men (mean age 52.7 years) in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1986-2010) free of cancer and CVD at baseline. The Healthy Heart Score included baseline current smoking; high body mass index; low physical activity; no or excessive alcohol intake; low intake of fruits and vegetables, cereal fiber, or nuts; and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or red/processed meats. There were 19 122 total deaths. Compared with participants in the first quintile of the Healthy Heart Score (lowest CVD risk), participants in the fifth quintile (highest CVD risk) had a pooled hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-3.33) for total mortality; 2.85 (95 % CI, 1.92-4.23) for CVD mortality, and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.56-2.95) for cancer mortality. Participants in the fifth versus the first quintile also had significantly greater risk of death due to coronary heart disease (3.37; 95% CI, 2.16-5.25), stroke (1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-2.99), lung cancer (6.04; 95% CI, 2.78-13.13), breast cancer (1.45; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86), and colon cancer (1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.93). Conclusions The Healthy Heart Score, composed of 9 self-reported, modifiable lifestyle predictors of CVD, is a potentially useful tool for the counseling of healthy lifestyles that was strongly associated with greater risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.

17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 11-17, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282055

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), defined as reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elevated urine albumin excretion, or both that is clinically attributable to diabetes, is a common and morbid diabetes complication. Animal-experimental data, observational human studies, and short-term clinical trials suggest that vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements may be safe and inexpensive interventions to reduce the incidence and progression of DKD. The Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial to Prevent and Treat DKD (VITAL-DKD) was designed as an ancillary study to the VITAL trial of 25,871 US adults. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, VITAL participants were randomly assigned to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU daily) or placebo and to marine omega-3 fatty acids (eicospentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 1 g/d) or placebo. VITAL-DKD enrolled a subset of 1326 VITAL participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline to test the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids on changes in estimated GFR and urine albumin excretion. Over five years of follow-up, VITAL-DKD collected blood and urine samples to quantify changes in estimated GFR (the primary study outcome) and urine albumin excretion. At baseline, mean age of VITAL-DKD participants was 67.6 years, 46% were women, 30% were of racial or ethnic minority, and the prevalence of DKD (estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 or urine albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g) was 17%. In this type 2 diabetes population, VITAL-DKD will test the hypotheses that vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids help prevent the development and progression of DKD.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies reported an association of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, the primary cause of gastric cancer, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these findings have been inconsistent, appear to vary with population characteristics, and may be specific for virulence factor VacA. To more thoroughly evaluate the potential association of H pylori antibodies with CRC risk, we assembled a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations in the United States. METHODS: We used H pylori multiplex serologic assays to analyze serum samples from 4063 incident cases of CRC, collected before diagnosis, and 4063 matched individuals without CRC (controls) from 10 prospective cohorts for antibody responses to 13 H pylori proteins, including virulence factors VacA and CagA. The association of seropositivity to H pylori proteins, as well as protein-specific antibody level, with odds of CRC was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of controls and 41% of cases were H pylori-seropositive (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20). H pylori VacA-specific seropositivity was associated with an 11% increased odds of CRC (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22), and this association was particularly strong among African Americans (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.95). Additionally, odds of CRC increased with level of VacA antibody in the overall cohort (P = .008) and specifically among African Americans (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations, we found serologic responses to H pylori VacA to associate with increased risk of CRC risk, particularly for African Americans. Future studies should seek to understand whether this marker is related to virulent H pylori strains carried in these populations.

19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1494-1505, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased liver cancer risk. However, most studies have examined all primary liver cancers or hepatocellular carcinoma, with few studies evaluating intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Thus, we examined the association between obesity and diabetes and ICC risk in a pooled analysis and conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of the literature. DESIGN: For the pooled analysis, we utilized the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 13 US-based, prospective cohort studies with data from 1,541,143 individuals (ICC cases n = 414). In our systematic review, we identified 14 additional studies. We then conducted a meta-analysis, combining the results from LCPP with results from the 5 prospective studies identified through September 2017. RESULTS: In the LCPP, obesity and diabetes were associated with a 62% [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24-2.12] and an 81% (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) increased ICC risk, respectively. In the meta-analysis of prospectively ascertained cohorts and nested case-control studies, obesity was associated with a 49% increased ICC risk [Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.32-1.70; n = 4 studies; I2 = 0%]. Diabetes was associated with a 53% increased ICC risk (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.78; n = 6 studies). While we noted heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 67%) for diabetes, results were consistent in subgroup analyses. Results from hospital-based case-control studies (n = 9) were mostly consistent, but these studies are potentially subject to reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with increased ICC risk, highlighting similar etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, additional prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.

20.
Carcinogenesis ; 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165429

RESUMO

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is consistently associated with prostate cancer risk. IGF-1 binds to IGF-1 (IGF1R) and insulin (IR) receptors, activating cancer hallmark pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that TMPRSS2:ERG may interact with IGF/insulin signaling to influence progression. We investigated IGF1R and IR expression and its association with lethal prostate cancer among 769 men. Protein expression of IGF1R, IR, and ERG (i.e., a surrogate of ERG fusion genes) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for clinical characteristics. Among patients, 29% had strong tumor IGF1R expression and 10% had strong IR expression. During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years through 2012, 80 men (11%) developed lethal disease. Tumors with strong IGF1R or IR expression showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and a higher prevalence of ERG. In multivariable models, strong IGF1R was associated with a borderline increased risk of lethal prostate cancer (HR 1.7; 95% CI 0.9-3.1). The association appeared greater in ERG positive (HR 2.8; 95% CI 0.9-8.4) than ERG negative tumors (HR 1.3; 95% CI 0.6-3.0, p-heterogeneity 0.08). There was no association between IR and lethal prostate cancer (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.9). These results suggest that tumor IGF1R expression may play a role in prostate cancer progression to a lethal phenotype, and that ERG positive tumors may be more sensitive to IGF signaling. These data may improve our understanding of IGF signaling in prostate cancer and suggest therapeutic options for disease subtypes.

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