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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 74, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota constitutes a dynamic microbial system constantly challenged by environmental conditions, including physical exercise. Limited human studies suggest that exercise could play a beneficial role for gut health, increasing microbial diversity, even if the effects of exercise on gut microbial microorganisms depends on its intensity and duration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nine weeks of high-intensity interval exercise on gut microbiota composition in healthy young adults. METHODS: The gut microbiota composition of seventeen healthy male college students was analysed before and after nine weeks of high-intensity interval cycling training by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. PERMANOVA for repeated measures was used to test pre-post differences in the relative abundance of all taxonomic levels, and correlations between variations in microbial composition and physical and dietary features were also assessed. RESULTS: Physical exercise induced changes in microbiota composition, at all taxonomic levels analysed (phyla: F [1, 32]=3.97, p=0.029; classes: F [1, 32]=3.39, p=0.033, orders: F [1, 32]=3.17, p=0.044, families: F [1, 32]=1.54, p=0.037, genera: F [1, 32]=1.46, p=0.015, species: F [1, 32]=1.38, p=0.007). Conversely, no differences were found between pre and post-training conditions for microbial community richness (Chao1: V=105, p=0.06) or diversity (Shannon index: V=62, p=0.52; Simpson index: V=59, p=0.43). Changes in the relative abundance of eighteen genera were correlated to changes of twenty environmental factors grouped in physical features, sport-related features, and dietary features. CONCLUSIONS: Nine weeks of high-intensity exercise induced modifications in gut microbiota composition in healthy male college students, shifting the gut microbial population towards a healthier microbiome with benefit to human health in general.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudantes/psicologia , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
PeerJ ; 9: e12227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721966

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and its virus variants continue to pose a serious and long-lasting threat worldwide. To combat the pandemic, the world's largest COVID-19 vaccination campaign is currently ongoing. As of July 19th 2021, 26.2% of the world population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (1.04 billion), and one billion has been fully vaccinated, with very high vaccination rates in countries like Israel, Malta, and the UEA. Conversely, only 1% of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose with examples of vaccination frequency as low as 0.07% in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is thus of paramount importance that more research on alternate methods to counter cell infection and propagation is undertaken that could be implemented in low-income countries. Moreover, an adjunctive therapeutic intervention would help to avoid disease exacerbation in high-rate vaccinated countries too. Based on experimental biochemical evidence on viral cell fusion and propagation, herein we identify (i) extracellular pH (epH), (ii) temperature, and (iii) humidity and osmolarity as critical factors. These factors are here in discussed along with their implications on mucus thick layer, proteases, abundance of sialic acid, vascular permeability and exudate/edema. Heated, humidified air containing sodium bicarbonate has long been used in the treatment of certain diseases, and here we argue that warm inhalation of sodium bicarbonate might successfully target these endpoints. Although we highlight the molecular/cellular basis and the signalling pathways to support this intervention, we underscore the need for clinical investigations to encourage further research and clinical trials. In addition, we think that such an approach is also important in light of the high mutation rate of this virus originating from a rapid increase.

3.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451835

RESUMO

We are witnessing a paradigm shift in drug development and clinical practice to fight the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and a number of clinical trials have been or are being testing various pharmacological approaches to counteract viral load and its complications such as cytokine storm. However, data on the effectiveness of antiviral and immune therapies are still inconclusive and inconsistent. As compared to other candidate drugs to treat COVID-19, Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors, including baricitinib and ruxolitinib, possess key pharmacological features for a potentially successful repurposing: convenient oral administration, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, multifunctional pharmacodynamics by exerting dual anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. Baricitinib, originally approved for rheumatoid arthritis, received Emergency Use Authorization in November 2020 by the Food and Drug Administration in combination with remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients ≥ 2 years old who require supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. By July 2021, the European Medicines Agency is also expected to issue the opinion on whether or not to extend its use in hospitalised patients from 10 years of age who require supplemental oxygen. Ruxolitinib, approved for myelofibrosis, was prescribed in patients with COVID-19 within an open-label Emergency Expanded Access Plan. This review will address key milestones in the discovery and use of JAK inhibitors in COVID-19, from artificial intelligence to current clinical evidence, including real world experience, and critically appraise emerging safety issues, namely infections, thrombosis, and liver injury. An outlook to ongoing studies (clinicaltrials.gov) and unpublished pharmacovigilance data is also offered.

4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443479

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. has been used for a long time to obtain food, fiber, and as a medicinal and psychoactive plant. Today, the nutraceutical potential of C.sativa is being increasingly reappraised; however, C. sativa roots remain poorly studied, despite citations in the scientific literature. In this direction, we identified and quantified the presence of valuable bioactives (namely, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, friedelin, and epi-friedelanol) in the root extracts of C. sativa, a finding which might pave the way to the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of all parts of the C. sativa plant. To facilitate root harvesting and processing, aeroponic (AP) and aeroponic-elicited cultures (AEP) were established and compared to soil-cultivated plants (SP). Interestingly, considerably increased plant growth-particularly of the roots-and a significant increase (up to 20-fold in the case of ß-sitosterol) in the total content of the aforementioned roots' bioactive molecules were observed in AP and AEP. In conclusion, aeroponics, an easy, standardized, contaminant-free cultivation technique, facilitates the harvesting/processing of roots along with a greater production of their secondary bioactive metabolites, which could be utilized in the formulation of health-promoting and health-care products.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sitosteroides/análise , Estigmasterol/análise , Triterpenos/análise
5.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440163

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) constitute one of the deadliest pandemics in modern history demonstrating cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematologic, mucocutaneous, respiratory, neurological, renal and testicular manifestations and further complications. COVID-19-induced excessive immune response accompanied with uncontrolled release of cytokines culminating in cytokine storm seem to be the common pathogenetic mechanism of these complications. The aim of this narrative review is to elucidate the relation between anaphylaxis associated with profound hypotension or hypoxemia with pro-inflammatory cytokine release. COVID-19 relation with Kounis syndrome and post-COVID-19 vaccination correlation with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (HITT), especially serious cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, were also reviewed. METHODS: A current literature search in PubMed, Embase and Google databases was performed to reveal the pathophysiology, prevalence, clinical manifestation, correlation and treatment of COVID-19, anaphylaxis with profuse hypotension, Kounis acute coronary syndrome and thrombotic events post vaccination. RESULTS: The same key immunological pathophysiology mechanisms and cells seem to underlie COVID-19 cardiovascular complications and the anaphylaxis-associated Kounis syndrome. The myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 has been attributed to coronary spasm, plaque rupture and microthrombi formation, hypoxic injury or cytokine storm disposing the same pathophysiology with the three clinical variants of Kounis syndrome. COVID-19-interrelated vaccine excipients as polysorbate, polyethelene glycol (PEG) and trometamol constitute potential allergenic substances. CONCLUSION: Better acknowledgement of the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical similarities, multiorgan complications of COVID-19 or other viral infections as dengue and human immunodeficiency viruses along with the action of inflammatory cells inducing the Kounis syndrome could identify better immunological approaches for prevention, treatment of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as post-COVID-19 vaccine adverse reactions.

6.
Foods ; 10(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202792

RESUMO

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent carcinogenic compounds induced by the Maillard reaction in well-done cooked meats. Free amino acids, protein, creatinine, reducing sugars and nucleosides are major precursors involved in the production of polar and non-polar HAAs. The variety and yield of HAAs are linked with various factors such as meat type, heating time and temperature, cooking method and equipment, fresh meat storage time, raw material and additives, precursor's presence, water activity, and pH level. For the isolation and identification of HAAs, advanced chromatography and spectroscopy techniques have been employed. These potent mutagens are the etiology of several types of human cancers at the ng/g level and are 100- to 2000-fold stronger than that of aflatoxins and benzopyrene, respectively. This review summarizes previous studies on the formation and types of potent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic HAAs in cooked meats. Furthermore, occurrence, risk assessment, and factors affecting HAA formation are discussed in detail. Additionally, sample extraction procedure and quantification techniques to determine these compounds are analyzed and described. Finally, an overview is presented on the promising strategy to mitigate the risk of HAAs by natural compounds and the effect of plant extracts containing antioxidants to reduce or inhibit the formation of these carcinogenic substances in cooked meats.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) affects ca. 10 million recreational runners in Europe; the practice of hyaluronic acid (HA) infiltration is being increasingly adopted. The aim of this pilot study was to monitor the effects of a three-local time-spaced injections regimen of HA in the treatment of AT in middle-aged runners combining for the first time viscoelastometric, biochemical, and functional methodologies with routine clinical examinations. METHODS: Eight male runners (Age 49.3 ± 3.9), diagnosed for unilateral AT, were given three ultrasound (US) guided peritendinous HA injections at the baseline (T0) and every fifteenth day with a follow-up on the forty-fifth day (T1, T2, and T3). At all-time points patients were assessed for viscoelastic tone and stiffness, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and pain level (Likert scale 0-5). The peritendinous effusions of the injured tendon were collected at T0 and T2 to quantify the volume variations and the IL-1ß and MMP-3 levels. RESULTS: At T0 MVIC and pain score were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in injured tendons. The volume, IL-1ß and MMP-3 levels decreased in the course of treatment and the clinical endpoints ameliorated over time. Tone, stiffness, and functional performance also varied significantly at T2 and T3, as compared to T0. CONCLUSIONS: The sequential peritendinous injections of HA were effective in the amelioration of the clinical symptoms, as well as of the functional and viscoelastic state associated with AT. The determination of the viscoelastometric state may help to precisely evaluate the healing process in AT patients.

8.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(1): 69-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemoprevention of cancer refers to the use of natural or synthetic compounds to abolish or perturb a variety of steps in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. This can be realized through different mechanisms, including activation of free radical scavenging enzymes, control of chronic inflammation, and downregulation of specific signaling pathways. AREAS COVERED: The goal of this article is to critically review recent evidence on association between coffee and prevention of different types of cancer, with particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms and the bioactive compounds involved in its anticancer activity. EXPERT OPINION: Coffee is a mixture of different compounds able to decrease the risk of many types of cancer. However, its potential anticancer activity is not completely understood. Hundreds of biologically active components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes are contained in coffee. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of coffee and fully understand the role of different confounding factors playing a role in its reported anticancer activity.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Café/química , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cafeína/isolamento & purificação , Cafeína/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Humanos
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(1)2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008240

RESUMO

In recent years, natural compounds have emerged as inducers of non-canonical cell death. The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) is a well-known natural anticancer compound with remarkable pro-apoptotic activity. Its ability to promote non-apoptotic cell-death mechanisms remains poorly investigated. This work aimed to explore the capacity of SFN to induce non-apoptotic cell death modalities. SFN was tested on different acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using a multi-parametric approach including fluorescence microscopy, western blotting, and flow cytometry. SFN triggered different cell-death modalities in a dose-dependent manner. At 25 µM, SFN induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and at 50 µM ferroptosis was induced through depletion of glutathione (GSH), decreased GSH peroxidase 4 protein expression, and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, necroptosis was not involved in SFN-induced cell death, as demonstrated by the non-significant increase in phosphorylation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 and phosphorylation of the necroptotic effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase. Taken together, our results suggest that the antileukemic activity of SFN can be mediated via both ferroptotic and apoptotic cell death modalities.

10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256185

RESUMO

The main limits of current anticancer therapy are relapses, chemoresistance, and toxic effects resulting from its poor selectivity towards cancer cells that severely impair a patient's quality of life. Therefore, the discovery of new anticancer drugs remains an urgent challenge. Natural products represent an excellent opportunity due to their ability to target heterogenous populations of cancer cells and regulate several key pathways involved in cancer development, and their favorable toxicological profile. Piper nigrum is one of the most popular spices in the world, with growing fame as a source of bioactive molecules with pharmacological properties. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the anticancer potential of Piper nigrum and its major active constituents-not limited to the well-known piperine-whose undeniable anticancer properties have been reported for different cancer cell lines and animal models. Moreover, the chemosensitizing effects of Piper nigrum in association with traditional anticancer drugs are depicted and its toxicological profile is outlined. Despite the promising results, human studies are missing, which are crucial for supporting the efficacy and safety of Piper nigrum and its single components in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Piper nigrum/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dioxolanos/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos , Sementes/química
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363465

RESUMO

Over 313,000 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases have been confirmed in Italy as of 30 September 2020, and the number of deaths exceeding thirty-five thousand makes Italy among the list of most significantly affected countries in the world. Such an enormous occurrence of infections and death raises the urgent demand for effective available treatments. Discovering the cellular/molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity is of paramount importance to understand how the infection becomes a disease and how to plan any therapeutic approach. In this regard, we performed an in silico analysis to predict the putative virus targets and evidence the already available therapeutics. Literature experimental results identified angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE and Spike proteins particularly involved in COVID-19. Consequently, we investigated the signalling pathways modulated by the two proteins through query miRNet, the platform linking miRNAs, targets, and functions. Our bioinformatics analysis predicted microRNAs (miRs), miR-335-5p and miR-26b-5p, as being modulated by Spike and ACE together with histone deacetylate (HDAC) pathway. Notably, our results identified ACE/ACE2-ATR1-Cholesterol-HDAC axis signals that also matched with some available clinical data. We hypothesize that the current and EMA-approved, SARS-CoV-2 off-label HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) drugs may be repurposed to limit or block host-virus interactions. Moreover, a ranked list of compounds is provided for further evaluation for safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 576551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324572

RESUMO

Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes cardiopulmonary and vascular complications, ranging in severity. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the novel SARS-CoV2 infection and progression can provide potential novel targets for its prevention and/or treatment. Virus microbiota reciprocal interactions have been studied in a variety of viral infections. For example, the integrity of Coronavirus particles can be disrupted by surfactin, a bacterial surface molecule that targets other viruses, including that of influenza A. In this light, intestinal microbiota likely influences COVID-19 virulence, while from its side SARS-CoV-2 may affect the intestinal microbiome promoting dysbiosis and other deleterious consequences. Hence, the microbiota pre-existing health status and its alterations in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are likely to play an important, still underscored role in determining individual susceptibility and resilience to COVID-19. Indeed, the vast majority of COVID-19 worst clinical conditions and fatalities develop in subjects with specific risk factors such as aging and the presence of one or more comorbidities, which are intriguingly characterized also by unhealthy microbiome status. Moreover, these comorbidities require complex pharmacological regimens known as "polypharmacy" that may further affect microbiota integrity and worsen the resilience to viral infections. This complex situation may represent a further and underestimated risk with regard to COVID-19 clinical burden for the elderly and comorbid people. Here, we discuss the possible biological, physiopathological, and clinical implications of gut microbiota in COVID-19 and the strategies to improve/maintain its healthy status as a simple and adjunctive strategy to reduce COVID-19 virulence and socio-sanitary burden.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Fatores de Risco , Virulência
13.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260711

RESUMO

Social isolation has adverse effects on mental health, physical exercise, and dietary habits. This longitudinal observational study aimed to investigate the effects of mood states and exercise on nutritional choices, on 176 college students (92 males, 84 females; 23 ± 4 years old) during the COVID-19 lockdown. During 21 days, nutrition and exercise were daily monitored, and the mood states assessed. A factor analysis was used to reduce the number of nutritional variables collected. The relationships between exercise, mood and nutrition were investigated using a multivariate general linear model and a mediation model. Seven factors were found, reflecting different nutritional choices. Exercise was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and fish consumption (p = 0.004). Depression and quality of life were, directly and inversely, associated with cereals, legumes (p = 0.005; p = 0.004) and low-fat meat intake (p = 0.040; p = 0.004). Exercise mediated the effect of mood states on fruit, vegetables and fish consumption, respectively, accounting for 4.2% and 1.8% of the total variance. Poorer mood states possibly led to unhealthy dietary habits, which can themselves be linked to negative mood levels. Exercise led to healthier nutritional choices, and mediating the effects of mood states, it might represent a key measure in uncommon situations, such as home-confinement.


Assuntos
Afeto , COVID-19 , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 579944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117175

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented sanitary threat: antiviral and host-directed medications to treat the disease are urgently needed. A great effort has been paid to find drugs and treatments for hospitalized, severely ill patients. However, medications used for the domiciliary management of early symptoms, notwithstanding their importance, have not been and are not presently regarded with the same attention and seriousness. In analogy with other airways viral infections, COVID-19 patients in the early phase require specific antivirals (still lacking) and non-etiotropic drugs to lower pain, fever, and control inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (PAC) are widely used as non-etiotropic agents in common airways viral infections and hence are both theoretically repurposable for COVID-19. However, a warning from some research reports and National Authorities raised NSAIDs safety concerns because of the supposed induction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) levels (the receptor used by SARS-CoV2 to enter host airways cells), the increased risk of bacterial superinfections and masking of disease symptoms. As a consequence, the use of NSAIDs was, and is still, discouraged while the alternative adoption of paracetamol is still preferred. On the basis of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may be the better choice.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581809

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented sanitary threat. In the absence of specific vaccines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, medicines that may assist in tackling the emergency and limiting the high number of fatalities are urgently needed. The repositioning of available drugs to treat COVID-19 is the only and rapid option in the face of the lack of direct antiviral agents and vaccines available. In this light it is important to focus on available drugs, which, based on their pharmacodynamics, could plausibly attenuate viral growth as well as COVID-19's worst complications. This is the case of chloroquine and tocilizumab which seem to limit virus replication and the severity of interstitial pneumonia, respectively. However, these treatments, particularly those aimed at containing inflammation, are still reserved for the most severe cases. This commentary elaborates on the pharmacological rationale of repositioning the mast cell stabilizer chromones as an adjunctive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and proposes their practical clinical testing as an early, safe, and cost-effective anti-inflammatory intervention in COVID-19 to limit the eventual secondary progression toward life-threatening respiratory complications.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245173

RESUMO

A healthy lifestyle is based on a correct diet and regular exercise. Little is known about the effect of different types of exercise on dietary preferences. To address the question of whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) could modulate spontaneous food choices, an experimental study was carried out on 32 young, healthy normal-weight subjects. The spontaneous diet of each subject has been monitored over nine weeks of indoor-cycling training, divided into three mesocycles with an incremental pattern: total energy intake, macronutrients and micronutrients have been analysed. A two-way mixed model has been used to assess differences in dietary variables; a principal factor analysis has been performed to identify sample subgroups. An increased energy intake (+17.8% at T3; p < 0.01) has been observed, although macronutrients' proportions did not vary over time, without differences between sexes. An increase of free fat mass was found in the last mesocycle (+3.8%), without an augmentation of body weight, when, despite the increased training load, a stabilization of energy intake occurred. Three different subgroups characterized by different dietary modifications could be identified among participants that showed a common trend towards a healthier diet. Nine weeks of HIIT promoted a spontaneous modulation of food choices and regulation of dietary intake in young normal-weight subjects aged 21-24. Importantly, this life-period is critical to lay the foundation of correct lifestyles to prevent metabolic diseases and secure a healthy future with advancing age.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Composição Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Nutrientes , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 6, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports nutritional supplements containing branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been widely reported to improve psychological and biological aspects connected to central fatigue and performance in endurance exercise, although the topic is still open to debate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the intake of a commercially available BCAA-based supplement, taken according to the manufacturer's recommendations, could affect the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance indexes at the beginning (1d) and end of a 9-week (9w) scheduled high intensity interval training program, with an experimental approach integrating the determination of psychometric, performance, metabolic and blood biochemical parameters. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-two untrained, healthy young adults (20 males and 12 female) were enrolled. A high-intensity endurance cycling (HIEC) test was used to induce fatigue in the participants: HIEC consisted in ten 90 s sprints interspersed by ten 3 min recovery phases and followed by a final step time to exhaustion was used. In parallel with RPE, haematological values (creatine kinase, alanine, BCAA, tryptophan, ammonia and glucose levels), and performance indexes (maximal oxygen consumption - VO2max, power associated with lactate thresholds - WLT1, WLT2 and time to exhaustion - TTE) were assessed. All subject took the supplement (13.2 g of carbohydrates; 3.2 g of BCAA and 1.6 g of L-alanine per dose) or placebo before each test and training session. Dietary habits and training load were monitored during the entire training period. RESULTS: The administration of the supplement (SU) at 1d reduced RPE by 9% during the recovery phase, as compared to the placebo (PL); at 9w the RPE scores were reduced by 13 and 21% during the sprint and recovery phase, respectively; at 9w, prolonged supplement intake also improved TTE and TRIMP. SU intake invariably promoted a rapid increase (within 1 h) of BCAA serum blood levels and prevented the post-HIEC tryptophan: BCAA ratio increase found in the PL group, at both 1d and 9w. There was no difference in dietary habits between groups and those habits did not change over time; no difference in glycemia was found between SU and PL. VO2max, WLT1 and WLT2 values improved over time, but were unaffected by supplement intake. CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, these results suggest that i) the intake of the BCAA-based commercially available supplement used in this study reduces RPE as a likely consequence of an improvement in the serum tryptophan: BCAA ratio; ii) over time, reduced RPE allows subjects to sustain higher workloads, leading to increased TRIMP and TTE.


Assuntos
Alanina/farmacologia , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/farmacologia , Desempenho Atlético , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861755

RESUMO

The adult gut microbiota contains trillions of microorganisms of thousands of different species. Only one third of gut microbiota are common to most people; the rest are specific and contribute to enhancing genetic variation. Gut microorganisms significantly affect host nutrition, metabolic function, immune system, and redox levels, and may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including physical activity and exercise. Microbiota also act like an endocrine organ and is sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with training; in turn, exercise has been demonstrated to increase microbiota diversity, consequently improving the metabolic profile and immunological responses. On the other side, adaptation to exercise might be influenced by the individual gut microbiota that regulates the energetic balance and participates to the control of inflammatory, redox, and hydration status. Intense endurance exercise causes physiological and biochemical demands, and requires adequate measures to counteract oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, electrolyte imbalance, glycogen depletion, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, systemic inflammation and immune responses. Microbiota could be an important tool to improve overall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation and redox levels in endurance athletes. The relationship among gut microbiota, general health, training adaptation and performance, along with a focus on sport supplements which are known to exert some influence on the microbiota, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Micronutrientes , Probióticos , Ratos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7425367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737676

RESUMO

Vegetables and beans are nutrient-dense foods with innate potential to mediate diabetes in a variety of cultures. The present study aims at evaluating vegetables and beans for assessing their glycemic index and response in raising glucose levels in human model. Powdered formulations of vegetables and beans were designed to modulate glycemic response of carbohydrate-rich staples. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted in healthy young adults (n = 24) who were challenged with vegetable powder-supplemented chapatti (VPSC), bean powder-supplemented chapatti (BPSC) and all-purpose wheat flour chapatti (APFC) to evaluate their postprandial glucose (PPG) and postprandial insulin (PPI) responses. In comparison with APFC, feeding VPSC and BPSC to healthy volunteers anticipated significant reduction in PPG (44% reduction in incremental area under the curve (AUC) for VPSC and 46% reduction in incremental AUC for BPSC, p = 0.005). Likewise, significant reduction in PPI levels was observed for VPSC (59%, p = 0.012) and BPSC (47%, p = 0.002) compared to APFC-treated group. The study concludes wheat flour enrichment with vegetables and beans powder as a viable approach to develop cost effective and culturally acceptable low glycemic foods bearing acceptable sensory attributes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Pós/administração & dosagem , Verduras/química , Adulto , Pão , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Farinha , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triticum/química , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6528106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396304

RESUMO

In the cold environments of the interstellar medium, a variety of molecules in which a hydrogen (H) atom has been replaced by its heavier isotope deuterium (D) can be found. From its emergence, life had to counteract the toxic action of many agents, which posed a constant threat to its development and propagation. Oxygen-reactive species are archaic toxicants that lead to protein damage and genomic instability. Most of the oxidative lesions involve cleavage of C-H bonds and H abstraction. According to free radical chemistry principles, the substitution of D for H in oxidation-sensitive positions of cellular components should confer protection against the oxidative attack without compromising the chemical identity of the compounds. Here, we show that deuterated nucleosides and proteins protect from oxidative damage. Our data suggest a new, subtle but likely role of D in terrestrial life's evolution in that its inclusion in critical biomolecules might have facilitated their resistance during the infinite generations of life entities, cells, and organisms.


Assuntos
Deutério/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Livre de Células , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Radicais Livres/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Nucleosídeos/química , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbonilação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo
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