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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 138: 112633, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986299

RESUMO

Pyroptosis, a lytic and pro-inflammatory cell death, is important in various pathophysiological processes. Host- and bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), as natural nanocarriers messengers, are versatile mediators of intercellular communication between different types of cells. Recently, emerging research has suggested that EVs exhibit multifaceted roles in disease progression by manipulating pyroptosis. This review focuses on new findings concerning how EVs shape disease progression in infectious and non-infectious diseases by regulating pyroptosis. Understanding the characteristics and activity of EVs-mediated pyroptotic death may conducive to the discovery of novel mechanisms and more efficient therapeutic targets in infectious and non-infectious diseases.

2.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955492

RESUMO

Oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammasome activation from AGE-RAGE interaction contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) formation and progression. Our study revealed the impact of ß-caryophyllene (BCP) on activating CB2 receptors against diabetes complications and investigated the underlying cell signaling pathways in mice. The murine model of DCM was developed by feeding high-fat diet with streptozotocin injections. After the development of diabetes, the animals received a 12-week oral BCP treatment at a dosage of 50 mg/kg/body weight. BCP treatment showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and enhanced serum insulin levels in diabetic animals. BCP treatment effectively reversed the heart remodeling and restored the phosphorylated troponin I and SERCA2a expression. Ultrastructural examination showed reduced myocardial cell injury in DCM mice treated with BCP. The preserved myocytes were found associated with reduced expression of AGE/RAGE in DCM mice hearts. BCP treatment mitigated oxidative stress by inhibiting expression of NOX4 and activating PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 signaling. BCP suppressed cardiac fibrosis and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in DCM mice by inhibiting TGF-ß/Smad signaling. Further, BCP treatment suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in DCM mice and alleviated cellular injury to the pancreatic tissues evidenced by significant elevation of the number of insulin-positive cells. To demonstrate CB2 receptor dependent mechanism of BCP, another group of DCM mice were pretreated with AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 and AM630 was observed to abrogate the beneficial effects of BCP in DCM mice. Taken together, BCP showed the potential to protect the myocardium and pancreas of DCM mice mediating CB2 receptor dependent mechanisms. Significance Statement 1. ß-caryophyllene (BCP), a cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonist. 2. BCP attenuates diabetic cardiomyopathy via activating CB2R in mice 3. CB2R activation by BCP shows strong protection against fibrosis and inflammasome activation 4. It regulates AGE/RAGE and PI3K/Nrf2/Akt signaling in mice.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 597: 217019, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849013

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress in cancer treatment options, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs remains a significant challenge. This review focuses on Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid found in various medicinal plants, which has garnered attention in the field of oncology for its anticancer potential either alone or in combination with other compounds and its ability to modulate chemoresistance, acting as a natural chemosensitizer. BBR's ability to modulate chemoresistance is attributed to its diverse mechanisms of action, including inducing DNA breaks, inhibition of drug efflux pumps, modulation of apoptosis and necroptosis, downregulating multidrug resistance genes, enhancing immune response, suppressing angiogenesis and targeting multiple pathways within cancer cells, including protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT), Wnt/ß-catenin etc. Moreover, BBR, in combination with other compounds, also offers a promising approach to cancer therapy, enforcing its broad-spectrum anticancer effects. Therefore, this review aims to elucidate the intricate mechanism of action of BBR in combinatorial therapy as a potential chemosensitizer to increase the efficiency of several drugs, including cisplatin, doxorubicin, lapatinib, tamoxifen, irinotecan, niraparib, etc. in various cancers. Additionally, this review briefly covers the origin and biological activities of BBR, exploring the specific actions underlying its anticancer effects. Further, pharmacokinetic properties of BBR are also discussed, providing insight into its therapeutic potential and optimization of its use in cancer treatment.

4.
Mil Med Res ; 11(1): 35, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835066

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are highly heterogeneous and potentially malignant tumors arising from secretory cells of the neuroendocrine system. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are the most common subtype of NENs. Historically, GEP-NENs have been regarded as infrequent and slow-growing malignancies; however, recent data have demonstrated that the worldwide prevalence and incidence of GEP-NENs have increased exponentially over the last three decades. In addition, an increasing number of studies have proven that GEP-NENs result in a limited life expectancy. These findings suggested that the natural biology of GEP-NENs is more aggressive than commonly assumed. Therefore, there is an urgent need for advanced researches focusing on the diagnosis and management of patients with GEP-NENs. In this review, we have summarized the limitations and recent advancements in our comprehension of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, pathology, molecular biology, diagnosis, and treatment of GEP-NETs to identify factors contributing to delays in diagnosis and timely treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Intestinais/terapia , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 176: 116874, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850661

RESUMO

Copper, an indispensable micronutrient, is implicated in numerous vital biological processes and is essential for all physiological activities. Recently, the discovery of a novel type of copper-dependent cell death, known as cuproptosis, has shed light on its role in cancer development. Extensive research is currently underway to unravel the mechanisms underlying cuproptosis and its correlation with various cancer types. In this review, we summarize the findings regarding the roles and mechanisms of cuproptosis in various cancer types, including colorectal cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer and cutaneous melanoma. Furthermore, the effects of copper-related agents such as copper chelators and copper ionophores on cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumor immunity, and chemotherapy resistance have been explored in cancer preclinical and clinical trials. These insights provide promising avenues for the development of prospective anticancer drugs aimed at inducing cuproptosis.


Assuntos
Cobre , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Cobre/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Life Sci ; 351: 122786, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848944

RESUMO

Gangliosides represent glycolipids containing sialic acid residues, present on the cell membrane with glycan residues exposed to the extracellular matrix (ECM), while the ceramides are anchored within the membrane. These molecules play a critical role in pathophysiological processes such as host-pathogen interactions, cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, cell adhesion, motility, and immunomodulation. Accumulated evidence suggests the overexpression of gangliosides on tumor tissues in comparison to healthy human tissues. These tumor-associated gangliosides have been implicated in various facets of tumor biology, including cell motility, differentiation, signaling, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Consequently, these entities emerge as attractive targets for immunotherapeutic interventions. Notably, the administration of antibodies targeting gangliosides has demonstrated cytotoxic effects on cancer cells that exhibit an overexpression of these glycolipids. Passive immunotherapy approaches utilizing murine or murine/human chimeric anti-ganglioside antibodies have been explored as potential treatments for diverse cancer types. Additionally, vaccination strategies employing tumor-associated gangliosides in conjunction with adjuvants have entered the realm of promising techniques currently undergoing clinical trials. The present comprehensive review encapsulates the multifaceted roles of gangliosides in tumor initiation, progression, immunosuppression, and metastasis. Further, an overview is provided of the correlation between the expression status of gangliosides in normal and tumor cells and its impact on cancer patient survival. Furthermore, the discussion extends to ongoing and completed clinical trials employing diverse strategies to target gangliosides, elucidating their effectiveness in treating cancers. This emerging discipline is expected to supply substantial impetus for the establishment of novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos , Imunomodulação , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Imunoterapia/métodos
7.
Drug Discov Today ; 29(8): 104064, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38901671

RESUMO

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays a crucial role in adult liver repair by promoting the expansion and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Elevated Hh signaling is associated with severe chronic liver diseases, making Hh inhibitors a promising therapeutic option. Sonidegib and vismodegib, both FDA-approved Smoothened (Smo) inhibitors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), have shown potential for application in chronic liver disorders based on clinical evidence. We highlight the vital role of the Hh pathway in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD)/metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH), liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, therapeutic strategies targeting the Hh pathway in chronic liver diseases have been discussed, providing a basis for improving disease management and outcomes.

8.
Life Sci ; 351: 122818, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866220

RESUMO

The role of mast cells, traditionally recognized for their involvement in immediate hypersensitivity reactions, has garnered significant attention in liver diseases. Studies have indicated a notable increase in mast cell counts following hepatic injury, underscoring their potential contribution to liver disorder pathogenesis. Predominantly situated in connective tissue that envelops the hepatic veins, bile ducts, and arteries, mast cells are central to both initiating and perpetuating liver disorders. Additionally, they are crucial for maintaining gastrointestinal barrier function. The gut-liver axis emphasizes the complex, two-way communication between the gut microbiome and the liver. Past research has implicated gut microbiota and their metabolites in the progression of hepatic disorders. This review sheds light on how mast cells are activated in various liver conditions such as alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, hepatic fibrogenesis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It also briefly explores the connection between the gut microbiome and mast cell activation in these hepatic conditions.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias , Fígado , Mastócitos , Humanos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 205: 107228, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810904

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected people worldwide, and fever is one of the major symptoms of this disease. Although Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common fever-reducing medication, it can also mediate liver injury. However, the role of PGC-1α in regulating mitochondrial quality control by lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), a vital enzyme catalyzing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, is unclear. Here, gene expression omnibus data of patients with APAP-induced liver injury were used to explore gene expression profiles. AML12 cells and C57/BL6 mice were used to establish models of APAP-induced acute liver injury. SIRT1 and PGC-1α were overexpressed in vitro via lentiviral transfection to establish stable cell lines. The results showed that APAP treatment decreased SIRT1/PGC-1α/LDHB expression and increased protein lactylation, mitochondrial lactate levels, and pathological damage in liver mitochondria. PGC-1α upregulation or activation ameliorated APAP-induced damage in the cells and liver. Furthermore, PGC-1α overexpression increased LDHB synthesis, reduced lactylation, and induced a switch from lactate to pyruvate production. These results suggest that PGC-1α and LDHB play a role in APAP-induced liver injury by regulating mitochondrial quality control and lactate metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, the PGC-1α/LDHB axis is a potential therapeutic target for APAP-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , L-Lactato Desidrogenase , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Animais , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Camundongos , Humanos , Masculino , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Linhagem Celular , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Isoenzimas
10.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2300793, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766929

RESUMO

SCOPE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from various etiologies, such as Hepatitis B and C, Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disorders, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. About 80 to 90% of HCC cases possess cirrhosis, which is brought on by persistent liver inflammation. TGF-ß is a multifunctional polypeptide molecule that acts as a pro-fibrogenic marker, inflammatory cytokine, immunosuppressive agent, and pro-carcinogenic growth factor during the progression of HCC. The preclinical and clinical evidence illustrates that TGF-ß can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, promoting progression and hepatocyte immune evasion. Therefore, targeting the TGF-ß pathway can be a promising therapeutic option against HCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carry out a systemic analysis of eight potentially selected culinary Indian spices: Turmeric, Black pepper, Ginger, Garlic, Fenugreek, Red pepper, Clove, Cinnamon, and their bioactives in regulation of the TGF-ß pathway against liver cancer. CONCLUSION: Turmeric and its active constituent, curcumin, possess the highest therapeutic potential in treating inflammation-induced HCC and they also have the maximum number of ongoing in-vivo and in-vitro studies.

11.
MedComm (2020) ; 5(6): e558, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807976

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial condition that contributes to the death of about 20% of cancer patients. It has the potential to cause weight loss, reduction in muscle mass, and loss of fat tissue, significantly lowering the quality of life. Currently, there are no approved drugs for cancer cachexia. Here, we have explored the possible impact of brassinin (BSN) on cancer cachexia under in vitro and in vivo settings. After differentiation, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with colorectal carcinoma cells conditioned media or BSN. For preclinical studies, mice were injected with HT-29 cells followed by intraperitoneal administration of BSN, and muscle and adipose tissues were evaluated by Western blotting and hematoxylin and eosin staining. BSN effectively suppressed muscle atrophy by down-regulating the levels of Muscle RING-finger protein-1 and Atrogin-1, while also increasing the expression of myosin heavy chain in cachexia-induced-C2C12 myotubes. The induction of adipogenesis by BSN prevented adipocyte atrophy in cachexia-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also noted that BSN disrupted the interaction between COX-2 and signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promoter, leading to down-regulation of STAT3 activation. Moreover, it was found that BSN inhibited weight loss in mice and demonstrated anti-cachexic effects. Overall, our observations indicate that BSN can attenuate cancer cachexia through diverse mechanisms.

12.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 251, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698424

RESUMO

Anticancer immune surveillance and immunotherapies trigger activation of cytotoxic cytokine signaling, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathways. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may be secreted by stromal cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and by cancer cells, indicating a prominent role in the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, tumors manage to adapt, escape immune surveillance, and ultimately develop resistance to the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α. The mechanisms by which cancer cells evade host immunity is a central topic of current cancer research. Resistance to TNF-α is mediated by diverse molecular mechanisms, such as mutation or downregulation of TNF/TRAIL receptors, as well as activation of anti-apoptotic enzymes and transcription factors. TNF-α signaling is also mediated by sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2), which are responsible for synthesis of the growth-stimulating phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Multiple studies have demonstrated the crucial role of S1P and its transmembrane receptors (S1PR) in both the regulation of inflammatory responses and progression of cancer. Considering that the SphK/S1P/S1PR axis mediates cancer resistance, this sphingolipid signaling pathway is of mechanistic significance when considering immunotherapy-resistant malignancies. However, the exact mechanism by which sphingolipids contribute to the evasion of immune surveillance and abrogation of TNF-α-induced apoptosis remains largely unclear. This study reviews mechanisms of TNF-α-resistance in cancer cells, with emphasis on the pro-survival and immunomodulatory effects of sphingolipids. Inhibition of SphK/S1P-linked pro-survival branch may facilitate reactivation of the pro-apoptotic TNF superfamily effects, although the role of SphK/S1P inhibitors in the regulation of the TME and lymphocyte trafficking should be thoroughly assessed in future studies.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/patologia , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Nutr Biochem ; 130: 109647, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604457

RESUMO

Macrophages are phagocytic cells with important physiological functions, including the digestion of cellular debris, foreign substances, and microbes, as well as tissue development and homeostasis. The tumor microenvironment (TME) shapes the aggressiveness of cancer, and the biological and cellular interactions in this complicated space can determine carcinogenesis. TME can determine the progression, biological behavior, and therapy resistance of human cancers. The macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the TME, and their functions and secretions can determine tumor progression. The education of macrophages to M2 polarization can accelerate cancer progression, and therefore, the re-education and reprogramming of these cells is promising. Moreover, macrophages can cause inflammation in aggravating pathological events, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurological disorders. The natural products are pleiotropic and broad-spectrum functional compounds that have been deployed as ideal alternatives to conventional drugs in the treatment of cancer. The biological and cellular interactions in the TME can be regulated by natural products, and for this purpose, they enhance the M1 polarization of macrophages, and in addition to inhibiting proliferation and invasion, they impair the chemoresistance. Moreover, since macrophages and changes in the molecular pathways in these cells can cause inflammation, the natural products impair the pro-inflammatory function of macrophages to prevent the pathogenesis and progression of diseases. Even a reduction in macrophage-mediated inflammation can prevent organ fibrosis. Therefore, natural product-mediated macrophage targeting can alleviate both cancerous and non-cancerous diseases.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Inflamação , Macrófagos , Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dieta
14.
Drug Discov Today ; 29(7): 103981, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614161

RESUMO

The combination of peptides and nanoparticles in cancer therapy has shown synergistic results. Nanoparticle functionalization with peptides can increase their targeting ability towards tumor cells. In some cases, the peptides can develop self-assembled nanoparticles, in combination with drugs, for targeted cancer therapy. The peptides can be loaded into nanoparticles and can be delivered by other drugs for synergistic cancer removal. Multifunctional types of peptide-based nanoparticles, including pH- and redox-sensitive classes, have been introduced in cancer therapy. The tumor microenvironment remolds, and the acceleration of immunotherapy and vaccines can be provided by peptide nanoparticles. Moreover, the bioimaging and labeling of cancers can be mediated by peptide nanoparticles. Therefore, peptides can functionalize nanoparticles in targeted cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Peptídeos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/terapia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Microambiente Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos
15.
Cell Prolif ; : e13644, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594879

RESUMO

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy represent key tumour treatment strategies. Notably, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), particularly anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), have shown clinical efficacy in clinical tumour immunotherapy. However, the limited effectiveness of ICIs is evident due to many cancers exhibiting poor responses to this treatment. An emerging avenue involves triggering non-apoptotic regulated cell death (RCD), a significant mechanism driving cancer cell death in diverse cancer treatments. Recent research demonstrates that combining RCD inducers with ICIs significantly enhances their antitumor efficacy across various cancer types. The use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy activates CD8+ T cells, prompting the initiation of novel RCD forms, such as ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis. However, the functions and mechanisms of non-apoptotic RCD in anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy remain insufficiently explored. This review summarises the emerging roles of ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis in anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. It emphasises the synergy between nanomaterials and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors to induce non-apoptotic RCD in different cancer types. Furthermore, targeting cell death signalling pathways in combination with anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapies holds promise as a prospective immunotherapy strategy for tumour treatment.

16.
Cancer Lett ; 590: 216843, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579893

RESUMO

Recurrent chemotherapy-induced senescence and resistance are attributed to the polyploidization of cancer cells that involve genomic instability and poor prognosis due to their unique form of cellular plasticity. Autophagy, a pre-dominant cell survival mechanism, is crucial during carcinogenesis and chemotherapeutic stress, favouring polyploidization. The selective autophagic degradation of essential proteins associated with cell cycle progression checkpoints deregulate mitosis fidelity and genomic integrity, imparting polyploidization of cancer cells. In connection with cytokinesis failure and endoreduplication, autophagy promotes the formation, maintenance, and generation of the progeny of polyploid giant cancer cells. The polyploid cancer cells embark on autophagy-guarded elevation in the expression of stem cell markers, along with triggered epithelial and mesenchymal transition and senescence. The senescent polyploid escapers represent a high autophagic index than the polyploid progeny, suggesting regaining autophagy induction and subsequent autophagic degradation, which is essential for escaping from senescence/polyploidy, leading to a higher proliferative phenotypic progeny. This review documents the various causes of polyploidy and its consequences in cancer with relevance to autophagy modulation and its targeting for therapeutic intervention as a novel therapeutic strategy for personalized and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Senescência Celular , Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Poliploidia , Humanos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 394: 110995, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583854

RESUMO

Small molecule-driven ERK activation is known to induce autophagy and ferroptosis in cancer cells. Herein the effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a phytochemical derived from Cannabis sativa, on ERK-driven autophagy and ferroptosis has been demonstrated in glioblastoma (GBM) cells (U87 and U373 cells). CBD imparted significant cytotoxicity in GBM cells, induced activation of ERK (not JNK and p38), and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. It increased the autophagy-related proteins such as LC3 II, Atg7, and Beclin-1 and modulated the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins such as glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), SLC7A11, and TFRC. CBD significantly elevated the endoplasmic reticulum stress, ROS, and iron load, and decreased GSH levels. Inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA) and ferroptosis (Fer-1) had a marginal effect on CBD-induced autophagy/ferroptosis. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (antioxidant) or PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) partly reverted the CBD-induced autophagy/ferroptosis by decreasing the activation of ERK and the production of ROS. Overall, CBD induced autophagy and ferroptosis through the activation of ERK and generation of ROS in GBM cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Canabidiol , Ferroptose , Glioblastoma , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Humanos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 203: 107167, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599470

RESUMO

Cancer has become a burgeoning global healthcare concern marked by its exponential growth and significant economic ramifications. Though advancements in the treatment modalities have increased the overall survival and quality of life, there are no definite treatments for the advanced stages of this malady. Hence, understanding the diseases etiologies and the underlying molecular complexities, will usher in the development of innovative therapeutics. Recently, YAP/TAZ transcriptional regulation has been of immense interest due to their role in development, tissue homeostasis and oncogenic transformations. YAP/TAZ axis functions as coactivators within the Hippo signaling cascade, exerting pivotal influence on processes such as proliferation, regeneration, development, and tissue renewal. In cancer, YAP is overexpressed in multiple tumor types and is associated with cancer stem cell attributes, chemoresistance, and metastasis. Activation of YAP/TAZ mirrors the cellular "social" behavior, encompassing factors such as cell adhesion and the mechanical signals transmitted to the cell from tissue structure and the surrounding extracellular matrix. Therefore, it presents a significant vulnerability in the clogs of tumors that could provide a wide window of therapeutic effectiveness. Natural compounds have been utilized extensively as successful interventions in the management of diverse chronic illnesses, including cancer. Owing to their capacity to influence multiple genes and pathways, natural compounds exhibit significant potential either as adjuvant therapy or in combination with conventional treatment options. In this review, we delineate the signaling nexus of YAP/TAZ axis, and present natural compounds as an alternate strategy to target cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas com Motivo de Ligação a PDZ com Coativador Transcricional , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Animais , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo de Ligação a PDZ com Coativador Transcricional/metabolismo , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo
19.
J Hematol Oncol ; 17(1): 16, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566199

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development have significantly improved the fight against cancers. Despite these advancements, challenges remain, particularly in the clinical delivery of immunomodulatory compounds. The tumor microenvironment (TME), comprising macrophages, fibroblasts, and immune cells, plays a crucial role in immune response modulation. Nanoparticles, engineered to reshape the TME, have shown promising results in enhancing immunotherapy by facilitating targeted delivery and immune modulation. These nanoparticles can suppress fibroblast activation, promote M1 macrophage polarization, aid dendritic cell maturation, and encourage T cell infiltration. Biomimetic nanoparticles further enhance immunotherapy by increasing the internalization of immunomodulatory agents in immune cells such as dendritic cells. Moreover, exosomes, whether naturally secreted by cells in the body or bioengineered, have been explored to regulate the TME and immune-related cells to affect cancer immunotherapy. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers, activated by pH, redox, and light conditions, exhibit the potential to accelerate immunotherapy. The co-application of nanoparticles with immune checkpoint inhibitors is an emerging strategy to boost anti-tumor immunity. With their ability to induce long-term immunity, nanoarchitectures are promising structures in vaccine development. This review underscores the critical role of nanoparticles in overcoming current challenges and driving the advancement of cancer immunotherapy and TME modification.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral , Imunoterapia , Diferenciação Celular , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia
20.
MedComm (2020) ; 5(4): e492, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532948

RESUMO

In wild-type cells, TMEM25 physically associates with EGFR monomer and suppresses the EGFR-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation, which results in the sequestration of unphosphorylated STAT3 in the cytoplasm. In TMEM-/- cells, EGFR monomer phosphorylates STAT3 at the basal level.

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