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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105081, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide (ACZ) on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to assess the severity of chronic cerebral ischemia; however, this is an invasive method. We examined whether whole-brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7T could non-invasively detect impaired CVR in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia by demonstrating the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with symptomatic unilateral cervical stenosis underwent whole-brain time-of-flight MRA at 7T and cerebral perfusion SPECT before/after the ACZ challenge. MRA images were visually assessed based on 6-point grading systems to evaluate the development of LMCs toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and antegrade flow of MCA. CVR of the affected side was calculated from the SPECT data. Subsequently, we compared the LMC grades on MRA with CVR on SPECT. RESULTS: CVR was significantly lower in grades ≥ 2 of LMCs than in grades 0-1 (P < 0.05) when applying LMCs from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and/or posterior cerebral artery (PCA). These differences were more evident than those in the grading of the antegrade MCA flow. The LMC grades from ACA/PCA readily detected reduced CVR (< 18.4%) with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.79/0.82. CONCLUSION: The development of LMCs on whole-brain MRA at 7T can non-invasively detect reduced CVR with a high sensitivity/specificity in patients with unilateral cervical stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Meninges/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/fisiopatologia
2.
Neurol Res ; 41(5): 480-487, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with ischemic moyamoya disease (MMD) who receive treatment with antiplatelet drugs reportedly show improvements in neuropsychological test scores after around 2 years. The purpose of the present study subanalyzing the same patient cohort used in a previous study was to determine which antiplatelet drug, clopidogrel or cilostazol, results in better improvement of cognitive function among non-surgical adult patients showing ischemic MMD without severe hemodynamic compromise. METHODS: Sixty-six patients without cerebral misery perfusion on 15O gas positron emission tomography were treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Patients ≥50 years old and <50 years old initially received clopidogrel and cilostazol, respectively. Any patient suffering side effects of the antiplatelet drug switched to the other antiplatelet drug. Neuropsychological tests were performed at study entry and at the end of the 2-year follow-up, and differences in each neuropsychological test score between the two time points (second test score - first test score) were calculated and defined as Δ scores. RESULTS: Among the five neuropsychological tests, Δ scores for two tests were significantly greater in patients treated with cilostazol (n = 36) than in those treated with clopidogrel (n = 30), and Δ scores of the remaining three tests did not differ between patient groups. Based on Δ scores, 15 patients (23%) were defined as showing interval cognitive improvement. On multivariate analysis, cilostazol administration (95% confidence interval, 1.19-193.98; P = 0.0361) represented an independent predictor of interval cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Cilostazol may improve cognition better than clopidogrel in non-surgical adult patients with ischemic MMD.


Assuntos
Cilostazol/farmacologia , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Moyamoya/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Moyamoya/psicologia , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(11): 3373-3379, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adult patients with symptomatically ischemic moyamoya disease (MMD) initially undergo medical treatment alone including antiplatelet drugs when symptomatic cerebral hemispheres do not exhibit hemodynamic compromise. The purpose of the present study subanalyzing the same patient cohort used in a previous study was to determine which antiplatelet drug, clopidogrel or cilostazol, provides better improvement of cerebral perfusion in such patients. METHODS: All patients without cerebral misery perfusion on 15O gas positron emission tomography (PET) did not undergo revascularization surgery and were treated with medication alone, including antiplatelet therapy. Patients ≥50years and <50years initially received clopidogrel and cilostazol, respectively. When a patient suffered side effects of an antiplatelet drug, they were switched to the other antiplatelet drug. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the symptomatic hemisphere was measured at inclusion and at 2years after inclusion using 15O gas PET. RESULTS: Of 68 patients, 31 and 38 were treated with clopidogrel and cilostazol, respectively, for 2years after inclusion. For patients treated with clopidogrel, CBF did not differ between first and second PET. For patients treated with cilostazol, CBF was significantly greater in the second PET than in the first PET. On multivariate analysis, cilostazol administration was an independent predictor of CBF improvement in the symptomatic hemisphere (95% confidence interval, 1.34-139.20; P =.0271). CONCLUSIONS: Cilostazol improves cerebral perfusion better than clopidogrel in adult patients with symptomatically ischemic MMD not accompanied by misery perfusion.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Moyamoya/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Cilostazol , Clopidogrel , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Análise Multivariada , Radioisótopos de Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann Nucl Med ; 32(9): 611-619, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to determine how accurately relative cerebral blood flow (RCBF) and relative cerebrovascular reactivity (RCVR) to acetazolamide assessed using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detected misery perfusion identified on positron emission tomography (PET) in adult patients with ischemic moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS: Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), RCBF, and RCVR were assessed using 15O gas PET and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine SPECT without and with acetazolamide challenge, respectively, in 45 patients. Regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically placed in the five middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories in the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere and in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. For RCBF and RCVR to acetazolamide, the ratio of the MCA ROI to cerebellar ROI was calculated. Of the five MCA ROIs in the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere in each patient, the ROI with the highest and lowest OEF value (two ROIs per patient) was selected for analyses. RESULTS: A significant square or linear correlation was observed between the OEF and RCBF (correlation coefficient, 0.780) or RCVR (correlation coefficient, - 0.345), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting misery perfusion (OEF > 51.3%) was significantly greater for the RCBF than for the RCVR (difference between areas, 0.221; p < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for the RCBF for detecting misery perfusion were 100, 91, 67, and 100%, respectively. The specificity and positive-predictive value did not differ between the combination of the RCBF and RCVR and the CBF ratio alone. CONCLUSIONS: RCBF assessed using brain perfusion SPECT detects misery perfusion with high sensitivity, a high negative-predictive value, and a low positive-predictive value in adult patients with ischemic MMD. The accuracy of RCVR to acetazolamide assessed using brain perfusion SPECT is lower than that of RCBF.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/complicações , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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