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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822097

RESUMO

Herein we measured CD4 + T cell responses against common cold corona (CCC) viruses and SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk health care workers (HCW) and community controls. We observed higher levels of CCC reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 seronegative HCW compared to community donors, consistent with potential higher occupational exposure of HCW to CCC. We further show that SARS-CoV-2 T cell reactivity of seronegative HCW was higher than community controls and correlation between CCC and SARS-CoV-2 responses is consistent with cross-reactivity and not associated with recent in vivo activation. Surprisingly, CCC T cell reactivity was decreased in SARS-CoV-2 infected HCW, suggesting that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 might interfere with CCC responses, either directly or indirectly. This result was unexpected, but consistently detected in independent cohorts derived from Miami and San Diego.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2055, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824342

RESUMO

Identification of protective T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 requires distinguishing people infected with SARS-CoV-2 from those with cross-reactive immunity to other coronaviruses. Here we show a range of T cell assays that differentially capture immune function to characterise SARS-CoV-2 responses. Strong ex vivo ELISpot and proliferation responses to multiple antigens (including M, NP and ORF3) are found in 168 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected volunteers, but are rare in 119 uninfected volunteers. Highly exposed seronegative healthcare workers with recent COVID-19-compatible illness show T cell response patterns characteristic of infection. By contrast, >90% of convalescent or unexposed people show proliferation and cellular lactate responses to spike subunits S1/S2, indicating pre-existing cross-reactive T cell populations. The detection of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 is therefore critically dependent on assay and antigen selection. Memory responses to specific non-spike proteins provide a method to distinguish recent infection from pre-existing immunity in exposed populations.

3.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789994

RESUMO

The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) spread rapidly into regions where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, and flavivirus cross-reactive T cell responses have been observed repeatedly in animal models and in humans. Pre-existing cellular immunity to DENV is thought to contribute to protection in subsequent ZIKV infection, but the epitope targets of cross-reactive T cell responses have not been comprehensively identified. Using human blood samples from the DENV-endemic regions of Nicaragua and Sri Lanka that were collected before the global spread of ZIKV in 2016, we employed an in vitro expansion strategy to map ZIKV T cell epitopes in ZIKV-unexposed, DENV-seropositive donors. We identified 93 epitopes across the ZIKV proteome, and we observed patterns of immunodominance that were dependent on antigen size and sequence identity to DENV. We confirmed the immunogenicity of these epitopes through a computational HLA binding analysis, and we showed that cross-reactive T cells specifically recognize ZIKV peptides homologous to DENV sequences. We also found that these CD4 responses were derived from the memory T cell compartment. These data have implications for understanding the dynamics of flavivirus-specific T cell immunity in endemic areas.ImportanceMultiple flaviviruses, including Zika (ZIKV) and the four serotypes of dengue (DENV) viruses, are prevalent in the same large tropical and equatorial areas inhabited by hundreds of millions of people. The interplay of DENV and ZIKV infection is especially relevant, as these two viruses are endemic in largely overlapping regions, have significant sequence similarity, and share the same arthropod vector. Here, we define the targets of pre-existing immunity to ZIKV in unexposed subjects collected in dengue-endemic areas. We demonstrate that pre-existing immunity to DENV could shape ZIKV-specific responses, and DENV-ZIKV cross-reactive T cells can be expanded by stimulation with ZIKV peptides. The issue of potential ZIKV and DENV cross-reactivity is of relevance for understanding patterns of natural immunity, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.

4.
Immunol Rev ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751597

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a significant health problem without an effective vaccine to combat it. A thorough understanding of the immune response and correlates of protection is needed to develop a more efficient vaccine. The immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is complex and involves all aspects of the immune system, however, the optimal protective, non-pathogenic T cell response against Mtb is still elusive. This review will focus on discussing CD4 T cell immunity against mycobacteria and its importance in Mtb infection with a primary focus on human studies. We will in particular discuss the large heterogeneity of immune cell subsets that have been revealed by recent immunological investigations at an unprecedented level of detail. These studies have identified specific classical CD4 T cell subsets important for immune responses against Mtb in various states of infection. We further discuss the functional attributes that have been linked to the various subsets such as upregulation of activation markers and cytokine production. Another important topic to be considered is the antigenic targets of Mtb-specific immune responses, and how antigen reactivity is influenced by both disease state and environmental exposure(s). These are key points for both vaccines and immune diagnostics development. Ultimately, these factors are holistically considered in the definition and investigations of what are the correlates on protection and resolution of disease.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 610456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679748

RESUMO

Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes for mild and self-limiting disease in healthy adults. In newborns, it can occasionally lead to a spectrum of malformations, the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Thus, little is known if mothers and babies with a history of ZIKV infection were able to develop long-lasting T-cell immunity. To these issues, we measure the prevalence of ZIKV T-cell immunity in a cohort of mothers infected to the ZIKV during pregnancy in the 2016-2017 Zika outbreak, who gave birth to infants affected by neurological complications or asymptomatic ones. Results: Twenty-one mothers and 18 children were tested for IFN-γ ELISpot and T-cell responses for flow cytometry assays in response to CD4 ZIKV and CD8 ZIKV megapools (CD4 ZIKV MP and CD8 ZIKV MP). IFN-γ ELISpot responses to ZIKV MPs showed an increased CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in mothers compared to children. The degranulation activity and IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells were detected in most mothers, and children, while in CD8 T-cells, low responses were detected in these study groups. The total Temra T cell subset is enriched for IFN-γ+ CD4 T cells after stimulation of CD4 ZIKV MP. Conclusion: Donors with a history of ZIKV infection demonstrated long-term CD4 T cell immunity to ZIKV CD4 MP. However, the same was not observed in CD8 T cells with the ZIKV CD8 MP. One possibility is that the cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory activities of CD8 T cells are markedly demonstrated in the early stages of infection, but less detected in the disease resolution phase, when the virus has already been eliminated. The responses of mothers' T cells to ZIKV MPs do not appear to be related to their children's clinical outcome. There was also no marked difference in the T cell responses to ZIKV MP between children affected or not with CZS. These data still need to be investigated, including the evaluation of the response of CD8 T cells to other ZIKV peptides.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The interaction of COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB) are still poor characterized. Here we evaluated the immune response specific for Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and SARS-CoV-2 using a whole-blood-based assay-platform in COVID-19 patients either with TB or latent TB infection (LTBI). METHODS: We evaluated IFN-γ level in plasma from whole-blood stimulated with Mtb antigens in the Quantiferon-Plus format or with peptides derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate (CD4-S). RESULTS: We consecutively enrolled 63 COVID-19, 10 TB-COVID-19 and 11 LTBI-COVID-19 patients. IFN-γ response to Mtb-antigens was significantly associated to TB status and therefore it was higher in TB-COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 patients compared to COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.0007). Positive responses against CD4-S were found in 35/63 COVID-19 patients, 7/11 LTBI-COVID-19 and only 2/10 TB-COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, the responders in the TB-COVID-19 group were less compared to COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 groups (p = 0.037 and 0.044, respectively). Moreover, TB-COVID-19 patients showed the lowest quantitative IFN-γ response to CD4-S compared to COVID-19-patients (p = 0.0336) and LTBI-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.0178). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 patients either TB or LTBI have a low ability to build an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 while retaining the ability to respond to Mtb-specific antigens.

7.
JCI Insight ; 6(7)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690224

RESUMO

The increased incidence of whooping cough worldwide suggests that current vaccination against Bordetella pertussis infection has limitations in quality and duration of protection. The resurgence of infection has been linked to the introduction of acellular vaccines (aP), which have an improved safety profile compared with the previously used whole-cell (wP) vaccines. To determine immunological differences between aP and wP priming in infancy, we performed a systems approach of the immune response to booster vaccination. Transcriptomic, proteomic, cytometric, and serologic profiling revealed multiple shared immune responses with different kinetics across cohorts, including an increase of blood monocyte frequencies and strong antigen-specific IgG responses. Additionally, we found a prominent subset of aP-primed individuals (30%) with a strong differential signature, including higher levels of expression for CCL3, NFKBIA, and ICAM1. Contrary to the wP individuals, this subset displayed increased PT-specific IgE responses after boost and higher antigen-specific IgG4 and IgG3 antibodies against FHA and FIM2/3 at baseline and after boost. Overall, the results show that, while broad immune response patterns to Tdap boost overlap between aP- and wP-primed individuals, a subset of aP-primed individuals present a divergent response. These findings provide candidate targets to study the causes and correlates of waning immunity after aP vaccination.

8.
Database (Oxford) ; 20212021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772585

RESUMO

The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) freely provides experimental data regarding immune epitopes to the scientific public. The main users of the IEDB are immunologists who can easily use our web interface to search for peptidic epitopes via their simple single-letter codes. For example, 'A' stands for 'alanine'. Similarly, users can easily navigate the IEDB's simplified NCBI taxonomy hierarchy to locate proteins from specific organisms. However, some epitopes are non-peptidic, such as carbohydrates, lipids, chemicals and drugs, and it is more challenging to consistently name them and search upon, making access to their data more problematic for immunologists. Therefore, we set out to improve access to non-peptidic epitope data in the IEDB through the simplification of the non-peptidic hierarchy used in our search interfaces. Here, we present these efforts and their outcomes. Database URL:  http://www.iedb.org/.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777034

RESUMO

The adaptive immune system in vertebrates has evolved to recognize non-self antigens, such as proteins expressed by infectious agents and mutated cancer cells. T cells play an important role in antigen recognition by expressing a diverse repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, which bind epitopes to mount targeted immune responses. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the routine generation of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire data. Identifying the specific epitopes targeted by different TCRs in these data would be valuable. To accomplish that, we took advantage of the ever-increasing number of TCRs with known epitope specificity curated in the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) since 2004. We compared seven metrics of sequence similarity to determine their power to predict if two TCRs have the same epitope specificity. We found that a comprehensive k-mer matching approach produced the best results, which we have implemented into TCRMatch, an openly accessible tool (http://tools.iedb.org/tcrmatch/) that takes TCR ß-chain CDR3 sequences as an input, identifies TCRs with a match in the IEDB, and reports the specificity of each match. We anticipate that this tool will provide new insights into T cell responses captured in receptor repertoire and single cell sequencing experiments and will facilitate the development of new strategies for monitoring and treatment of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases, as well as cancer.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 636768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777028

RESUMO

Understanding the causes of the diverse outcome of COVID-19 pandemic in different geographical locations is important for the worldwide vaccine implementation and pandemic control responses. We analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory. Using HLA class II predicted peptide megapools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population. By providing the knowledge on cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, our work has implication for the development and implementation of vaccines against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , /diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Immunol ; 206(6): 1181-1193, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547171

RESUMO

CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4-CD4+ memory T cells, termed Th1*, are important for long-term immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Th1* cells express a unique set of lineage-specific transcription factors characteristic of both Th1 and Th17 cells and display distinct gene expression profiles compared with other CD4+ T cell subsets. To examine molecules and signaling pathways important for the effector function of Th1* cells, we performed loss-of-function screening of genes selectively enriched in the Th1* subset. The genetic screen yielded candidates whose depletion significantly impaired TCR-induced IFN-γ production. These included genes previously linked to IFN-γ or M. tuberculosis susceptibility and novel candidates, such as ISOC1, encoding a metabolic enzyme of unknown function in mammalian cells. ISOC1-depleted T cells, which produced less IFN-γ and IL-17, displayed defects in oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis and impairment of pyrimidine metabolic pathway. Supplementation with extracellular pyrimidines rescued both bioenergetics and IFN-γ production in ISOC1-deficient T cells, indicating that pyrimidine metabolism is a key driver of effector functions in CD4+ T cells and Th1* cells. Results provide new insights into the immune-stimulatory function of ISOC1 as well as the particular metabolic requirements of human memory T cells, providing a novel resource for understanding long-term T cell-driven responses.

12.
J Immunol ; 206(6): 1194-1203, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579724

RESUMO

We described a human regulatory T cell (Treg) population activated by IgG+ B cells presenting peptides of the heavy C region (Fc) via processing of the surface IgG underlying a model for B cell-Treg cooperation in the human immune regulation. Functionally, Treg inhibited the polarization of naive T cells toward a proinflammatory phenotype in both a cognate and a noncognate fashion. Their fine specificities were similar in healthy donors and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a systemic autoimmune disease. Four immunodominant Fc peptides bound multiple HLA class II alleles and were recognized by most subjects in the two cohorts. The presentation of Fc peptides that stimulate Treg through the processing of IgG by dendritic cells (DC) occurred in myeloid DC classical DC 1 and classical DC 2. Different routes of Ag processing of the IgG impacted Treg expansion in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

13.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616085

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of allergen-specific immune modulation in nonallergic individuals is key to recapitulate immune tolerance and to develop novel allergy treatments. Herein, we characterized mouse-specific T cell responses in nonallergic laboratory animal-care workers before and after reexposure to mice. PBMCs were collected and stimulated with developed peptide pools identified from high-molecular-weight fractions of mouse allergen extracts. Sizable CD4 T cell responses were noted and were temporarily decreased in most subjects upon reexposure, with the magnitude of decrease positively correlated with time of reexposure but not the duration of the break. Interestingly, the suppression was specific to mouse allergens without affecting responses of bystander antigens. Further, PBMC fractioning studies illustrated that the modulation is unlikely from T cells, while B cell depletion and exchange reversed the suppression of responses, suggesting that B cells may be the key modulators. Increased levels of regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß1) in the cell culture supernatant and plasma mouse-specific IgG4 were also observed after reexposure, consistent with B cell-mediated modulation mechanisms. Overall, these results suggest that nonallergic status is achieved by an active, time-related, allergen-specific, B cell-dependent regulatory process upon reexposure, the mechanisms of which should be detailed by further molecular studies.

14.
Cell Rep Med ; : 100204, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521695

RESUMO

T cells are involved in control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To establish the patterns of immunodominance of different SARS-CoV-2 antigens, and precisely measure virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we study epitope-specific T cell responses of 99 convalescent COVID-19 cases. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome is probed using 1,925 peptides spanning the entire genome, ensuring an unbiased coverage of HLA alleles for class II responses. For HLA class I, we study an additional 5,600 predicted binding epitopes for 28 prominent HLA class I alleles, accounting for wide global coverage. We identify several hundred HLA-restricted SARS-CoV-2-derived epitopes. Distinct patterns of immunodominance are observed, which differ for CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and antibodies. The class I and class II epitopes are combined into epitope megapools to facilitate identification and quantification of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) could be a means to assess indication and/or an outcome of allergen-specific therapies, particularly for perennial allergens. NACs are not commonly conducted in children with asthma, and cockroach NACs are not well established. This study's objective was to identify a range of German cockroach extract doses that induce nasal symptoms and to assess the safety of cockroach NAC in children with asthma. METHODS: Ten adults (18-37 years) followed by 25 children (8-14 years) with well-controlled, persistent asthma and cockroach sensitization underwent NAC with diluent followed by up to 8 escalating doses of cockroach extract (0.00381-11.9 µg/mL Bla g 1). NAC outcome was determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) and/or sneeze score. Cockroach allergen-induced T-cell activation and IL-5 production were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: 67% (6/9) of adults and 68% (17/25) of children had a positive NAC at a median response dose of 0.120 µg/mL [IQR 0.0380-0.379 µg/mL] of Bla g 1. Additionally, three children responded to diluent alone and did not receive any cockroach extract. Overall, 32% (11/34) were positive with sneezes alone, 15% (5/34) with TNSS alone, and 21% (7/34) with both criteria. At baseline, NAC responders had higher cockroach-specific IgE (P = .03), lower cockroach-specific IgG/IgE ratios (children, P = .002), and increased cockroach-specific IL-5-producing T lymphocytes (P = .045). The NAC was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: We report the methodology of NAC development for children with persistent asthma and cockroach sensitization. This NAC could be considered a tool to confirm clinically relevant sensitization and to assess responses in therapeutic studies.

16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525328

RESUMO

There have been reports of neurological abnormalities associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in children born to mothers infected during pregnancy. We investigated how the immune response to ZIKV during pregnancy is primed and conduct a thorough evaluation of the inflammatory and cytotoxic profiles as well as the expression of CCR5 and CX3CR1. We compared the reactivity of T cells to ZIKV peptides in convalescent mothers infected during pregnancy. The child's clinical outcome (i.e., born with or without CZS) was taken to be the variable. The cells were stimulated in vitro with ZIKV peptides and evaluated using the ELISPOT and flow cytometry assays. After in vitro stimulation with ZIKV peptides, we observed a tendency toward a higher Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing T cell responses in mothers who had asymptomatic children and a higher CD107a expression in T cells in mothers who had children with CZS. We found a higher frequency of T cells expressing CD107a+ and co-expressing CX3CR1+CCR5+, which is much clearer in the T cells of mothers who had CZS children. We suggest that this differential profile influenced the clinical outcome of babies. These data need to be further investigated, including the evaluation of other ZIKV peptides and markers and functional assays.


Assuntos
Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/imunologia
17.
Hum Immunol ; 82(3): 155-161, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583639

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to neuronal death in the brain and spinal cord. Over the last decades, evidence has emerged regarding the functional diversity of astrocytes, microglia, and T cells in the central nervous system (CNS), and the role of neuroinflammation in ALS. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding neuroinflammation in ALS, both at the level of specific molecular pathways and potential cellular pathways as well as outline questions about the immune mechanisms involved in ALS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neuroglia/imunologia , Neurônios/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Inflamação Neurogênica , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Cell ; 184(4): 861-880, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497610

RESUMO

The adaptive immune system is important for control of most viral infections. The three fundamental components of the adaptive immune system are B cells (the source of antibodies), CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. The armamentarium of B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells has differing roles in different viral infections and in vaccines, and thus it is critical to directly study adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 to understand COVID-19. Knowledge is now available on relationships between antigen-specific immune responses and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although more studies are needed, a picture has begun to emerge that reveals that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control of SARS-CoV-2 in both non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases of COVID-19. The specific functions and kinetics of these adaptive immune responses are discussed, as well as their interplay with innate immunity and implications for COVID-19 vaccines and immune memory against re-infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , /fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Linfócitos B/imunologia , /epidemiologia , /virologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Carga Viral
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 541, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483492

RESUMO

CD4 T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important for the generation of durable and specific humoral protection against viral infections. The degree to which SARS-CoV-2 infection generates Tfh cells and stimulates the germinal center (GC) response is an important question as we investigate vaccine induced immunity against COVID-19. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques, either infused with convalescent plasma, normal plasma, or receiving no infusion, resulted in transient accumulation of pro-inflammatory monocytes and proliferating Tfh cells with a Th1 profile in peripheral blood. CD4 helper cell responses skewed predominantly toward a Th1 response in blood, lung, and lymph nodes. SARS-CoV-2 Infection induced GC Tfh cells specific for the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and a corresponding early appearance of antiviral serum IgG antibodies. Collectively, the data show induction of GC responses in a rhesus model of mild COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , /imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
20.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452107

RESUMO

Boosting immune cell function by targeting the coinhibitory receptor PD-1 may have applications in the treatment of chronic infections. Here, we examine the role of PD-1 during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection of rhesus macaques. Animals treated with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody developed worse disease and higher granuloma bacterial loads compared with isotype control-treated monkeys. PD-1 blockade increased the number and functionality of granuloma Mtb-specific CD8 T cells. In contrast, Mtb-specific CD4 T cells in anti-PD-1-treated macaques were not increased in number or function in granulomas, expressed increased levels of CTLA-4, and exhibited reduced intralesional trafficking in live imaging studies. In granulomas of anti-PD-1-treated animals, multiple proinflammatory cytokines were elevated, and more cytokines correlated with bacterial loads, leading to the identification of a role for caspase 1 in the exacerbation of tuberculosis after PD-1 blockade. Last, increased Mtb bacterial loads after PD-1 blockade were found to associate with the composition of the intestinal microbiota before infection in individual macaques. Therefore, PD-1-mediated coinhibition is required for control of Mtb infection in macaques, perhaps because of its role in dampening detrimental inflammation and allowing for normal CD4 T cell responses.

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