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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009137

RESUMO

Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. (Lamiaceae) is a plant recently introduced in Cuba. Worldwide, it is an ethnomedicinal alternative for its use against microbial infections, but the Cuban population use the extracts to treat sleep disorders. To address this apparent incongruity, four collections (from different seasonal conditions in the year) of Cuban P. neochilus cultivars were analyzed in terms of their pharmacognostic characteristics. Three extracts using fresh and dried leaves were chemically and biologically characterized. UPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis was performed to determine their chemical composition, while a panel of nine microorganisms was used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Finally, cytotoxic effects of different fractions were measured in three cell lines by the resazurin viability assay. In contrast to previously reported micro and macromorphological properties of P. neochilus, the leaves from the Cuban cultivars did not present glandular trichomes, nor did they produce quantifiable levels of essential oils. Moreover, aqueous extracts used by the population revealed no significant antimicrobial activity and were not cytotoxic. The three extracts showed a similar phytochemical composition, i.e., eight flavonoids, seven abietane diterpenes, and rosmarinic acid as the major constituent, most of them reported for the first time in this species. The low yield of essential oil, the absence of glandular trichomes, compounds with a high level of oxidation, and a moderate antimicrobial activity detected were the most distinctive pharmacognostic and biological characteristics of P. neochilus grown in Cuba. These aspects could explain its non-use as an antimicrobial.

2.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore potential natural products against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) via the study of structural and non-structural proteins of human coronaviruses. METHODS: In this study, we performed an in-silico survey of 25 potential natural compounds acting against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking studies were carried out using compounds against 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLPRO), papain-like protease (PLPRO), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), non-structural protein (nsp), human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (hACE2R), spike glycoprotein (S protein), abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1), calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and transmembrane protease serine 2. RESULTS: Among the screened compounds, amentoflavone showed the best binding affinity with the 3CLPRO, RdRp, nsp13, nsp15, hACE2R. ABL1 and calcineurin-NFAT; berbamine with hACE2R and ABL1; cepharanthine with nsp10, nsp14, nsp16, S protein and ABL1; glucogallin with nsp15; and papyriflavonol A with PLPRO protein. Other good interacting compounds were juglanin, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, broussooflavan A, tomentin A, B and E, 7-methoxycryptopleurine, aloe emodin, quercetin, tanshinone I, tylophorine and furruginol, which also showed excellent binding affinity towards a number of target proteins. Most of these compounds showed better binding affinities towards the target proteins than the standard drugs used in this study. CONCLUSION: Natural products or their derivatives may be one of the potential targets to fight against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834878

RESUMO

Aromatic plants and essential oils are important agents as complementary and alternative medicines in many cultures and geographical locations. In this review, a literature search on essential oils from Cuba, their chemical compositions, and their pharmacological properties was carried out. Out of 171 published scientific articles on essential oils of Cuban plants, a total of 31 documents, focused on both chemical composition and pharmacological properties, were considered for this review. In general, an increase in articles published in the last decade was noted, particularly in recognized international journals in English. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae were the most representative families collected in the occidental area of the country. Leaves and aerial parts were predominantly used, while a wide and variable number of components were identified, including terpenes, aliphatic derivatives, sulfur-containing compounds, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and amine-type compounds. Finally, different biological activities were reported such as antiprotozoal, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anthelmintic, larvicidal and insecticidal. In conclusion, we encourage further studies that would promote the use of essential oils from Cuban plants in new pharmaceutical products.

4.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(2): 33-43, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817376

RESUMO

Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved pathway that plays a central role in development and differentiation of eukaryotic cells. It has been well documented that Notch signaling is inevitable for neuronal cell growth and homeostasis. It regulates process of differentiation from early embryonic stages to fully developed brain. To achieve this streamlined development of neuronal cells, a number of cellular processes are being orchestrated by the Notch signaling. Abrogated Notch signaling is related to several brain tumors, including glioblastomas. On the other hand, microRNAs are small molecules that play decisive role in mediating and modulating Notch signaling. This review discusses the crucial role of Notch signaling in development of nervous system and how this versatile pathway interplay with microRNAs in glioblastoma. This review sheds light on interplay between abrogated Notch signaling and miRNAs in the regulation of neuronal differentiation with special focus on miRNAs mediated regulation of tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. Furthermore, it discusses different aspects of neurogenesis modulated by the Notch signaling that could be exploited for the identification of new diagnostic tools and therapies for the treatment of glioblastoma.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 1917890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512863

RESUMO

The genus Diplazium (family: Athyriaceae) comprises approximately 350 species of pteridophytes. Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. is an important member of this genus and commonly known as a wild vegetable in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan communities. According to the literature analysis, D. esculentum was traditionally used for the prevention or treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, smallpox, asthma, diarrhea, rheumatism, dysentery, headache, fever, wounds, pain, measles, hypertension, constipation, oligospermia, bone fracture, and glandular swellings. Various extracts of D. esculentum were evaluated to elucidate their phytochemical and pharmacological activities. A wide array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, CNS stimulant, and antianaphylactic activities have been recognized in different parts of D. esculentum. The review covers a systematic examination of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, and pharmacological applications of D. esculentum, but scientifically, it is not fully assessed regarding complete therapeutic effects, toxicity, and safety in the human body. The published literature on D. esculentum and its therapeutic properties were collected from different search engines including Wiley online, PubMed, Springer Link, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and ACS publications by using specific terms such as "Diplazium esculentum, bioactive compounds, biological activities and health benefits" from 1984 to 2021 (March). Therefore, further studies are required to identify the detailed action mechanism of D. esculentum in vitro/in vivo, and also, more studies should focus on conservation, cultivation, and sustainable utilization of the species.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579388

RESUMO

Lauraceae families have great diversity in the world's tropical regions and are represented mainly by aromatic shrubs and trees with significant production of essential oils (EOs). This work presents a review of the EO chemical profiles from specimens of Aniba, including their seasonal variations, geographical distributions, and biological activities in the Amazon biome. Based on the survey, 15 species were reviewed, representing 167 oil samples extracted from leaves, twig barks, and woods. Brazilian Amazon was the most representative geographic area in the number of specimens, highlighting the locations Belém, (Pará state, PA) (3 spp., 37 samples), Santarém (PA) (3 spp., 10 samples), Carajás (PA) (3 spp., 7 samples), and Manaus (Amazonas state, AM) (3 spp., 16 samples). The main compound classes identified in oils were benzenoids and phenylpropanoids, represented by 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and methyleugenol, along with terpenoids, especially monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, such as linalool, α-phellandrene, ß-phellandrene, ß-selinene, and spathulenol. The EOs from Aniba showed considerable variation in the chemical profiles according to season and collection site. The hierarchical cluster analysis classified the samples into two main groups according to chemical composition. This review highlights its comprehensive and up-to-date information on history, conservation, traditional uses, chemosystematics, pharmacological potential of Aniba species.

7.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500567

RESUMO

Cinnamomum camphora L. is grown as an ornamental plant, used as raw material for furniture, as a source of camphor, and its essential oil can be used as an important source for perfume as well as alternative medicine. A comparative investigation of essential oil compositions and antimicrobial activities of different tissues of C. camphora was carried out. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus and their compositions were evaluated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), enantiomeric composition by chiral GC-MS, and antimicrobial properties were assayed by measuring minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Different plant tissues had different extraction yields, with the leaf having the highest yield. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 18, 75, 87, 67, 67, and 74 compounds in leaf, branch, wood, root, leaf/branch, and leaf/branch/wood, respectively. The significance of combining tissues is to enable extraction of commercial quality essential oils without the need to separate them. The oxygenated monoterpene camphor was the major component in all tissues of C. camphora except for safrole in the root. With chiral GC-MS, the enantiomeric distributions of 12, 12, 13, 14, and 14 chiral compounds in branch, wood, root, leaf/branch, and leaf/branch/wood, respectively, were determined. The variation in composition and enantiomeric distribution in the different tissues of C. camphora may be attributed to the different defense requirements of these tissues. The wood essential oil showed effective antibacterial activity against Serratia marcescens with an MIC of 39.1 µg/mL. Similarly, the mixture of leaf/branch/wood essential oils displayed good antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus while the leaf essential oil was notably active against Trichophyton rubrum. C. camphora essential oils showed variable antimicrobial activities against dermal and pulmonary-borne microbes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371600

RESUMO

Virginia mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum) is a peppermint-flavored aromatic herb of the Lamiaceae and is mainly used for culinary, medicinal, aromatic, and ornamental purposes. North Alabama's climate is conducive to growing mint for essential oils used in culinary, confectionery, and medicinal purposes. There is, however, a need for varieties of P. virginianum that can be adapted and easily grown for production in North Alabama. Towards this end, four field-grown varieties with three harvesting times (M1H1, M1H2, M1H3; M2H1, M2H2, M2H3; M3H1, M3H2, M3H3, M4H1, M4H2, M4H3) were evaluated for relative differences in essential oil yield and composition. Thirty-day-old greenhouse-grown plants of the four varieties were transplanted on raised beds in the field at the Alabama A & M University Research Station in North Alabama. The plots were arranged in a randomized complete block with three replications. The study's objective was to compare the four varieties for essential oil yield and their composition at three harvest times, 135, 155, and 170 days after planting (DAP). Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation with continuous extraction with dichloromethane using a Likens-Nickerson apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques. At the first harvest, the essential oil yield of the four varieties showed that M1H1 had a yield of 1.15%, higher than M2H1, M3H1, and M4H1 with 0.91, 0.76, and 1.03%, respectively. The isomenthone concentrations increased dramatically through the season in M1 (M1H1, M1H2, M1H3) by 19.93, 54.7, and 69.31%, and M3 (M3H1, M3H2, M3H3) by 1.81, 48.02, and 65.83%, respectively. However, it increased only slightly in M2 and M4. The thymol concentration decreased slightly but not significantly in all four varieties; the thymol in M2 and M4 was very high compared with M1 and M3. The study showed that mountain mint offers potential for production in North Alabama. Two varieties, M1 and M3, merit further studies to determine yield stability, essential oil yield, composition, and cultivation development practices.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070663

RESUMO

As part of our evaluation of essential oils derived from Native American medicinal plants, we have obtained the essential oils of Agastache foeniculum (Pursch) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), Gaultheria procumbens L. (Ericaceae), Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet (Asteraceae), Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. (Asteraceae), Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) Michx. (Lamiaceae), Smallanthus uvedalia (L.) Mack. ex Mack. (Asteraceae), and Verbena hastata L. (Verbenaceae) by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques. The essential oil of A. foeniculum was dominated by estragole (88-93%), while methyl salicylate (91%) dominated the G. procumbens essential oil. Germacrene D was the major component in H. helianthoides (42%) and L. spicata (24%). 1,8-Cineole (31%) and α-terpineol (17%) were the main compounds in P. incanum essential oil. The essential oil of S. uvedalia showed α-pinene (24%), perillene (15%), and ß-caryophyllene (17%) as major components. Verbena hastata essential oil was rich in 1-octen-3-ol (up to 29%) and palmitic acid (up to 22%). Four of these essential oils, H. helianthoides, L. spicata, P. incanum, and V. hastata, are reported for the first time. Additionally, the enantiomeric distributions of several terpenoid components have been determined.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806521

RESUMO

The genus Monarda (family Lamiaceae) contains 22 species of which three are native to southern Alabama, M. citriodora, M. fistulosa, and M. punctata. Several species of Monarda have been used in traditional medicines of Native Americans, and this present study is part of an ongoing project to add to our understanding of Native American pharmacopeia. Plant material from M. citriodora, M. fistulosa, and M. punctata was collected in south Alabama and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques to determine the chemical compositions as well as enantiomeric distributions. The compounds thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and their derivatives were the primary terpenoid components found in the essential oils. The known biological activities of these compounds are consistent with the traditional uses of Monarda species to treat wounds, skin infections, colds, and fevers.

11.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807551

RESUMO

Lannea egregia (Anacardiaceae) and Emilia sonchifolia (Asteraceae) are plants used in traditional medicine in southwestern Nigeria. The essential oils from the leaves of L. egregia and E. sonchifolia were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenoids. The major components in L. egregia leaf essential oil were α-panasinsen (34.90%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.25%), α-copaene (11.39%), and selina-4,11-diene (9.29%), while E. sonchifolia essential oil was rich in γ-himachalene (25.16%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.72%), and γ-gurjunene (8.58%). The essential oils were screened for antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacteria and fungi and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 156 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL. Based on these results, either L. egregia or E. sonchifolia essential oil may be recommended for exploration as complementary antibacterial or antifungal agents.

12.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805452

RESUMO

Lauraceae species are widely represented in the Amazon, presenting a significant essential oil yield, large chemical variability, various biological applications, and high economic potential. Its taxonomic classification is difficult due to the accentuated morphological uniformity, even among taxa from a different genus. For this reason, the present work aimed to find chemical and molecular markers to discriminate Aniba species collected in the Pará State (Brazil). The chemical composition of the essential oils from Aniba canelilla, A. parviflora, A. rosaeodora, and A. terminalis were grouped by multivariate statistical analysis. The major compounds were rich in benzenoids and terpenoids such as 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (88.34-70.85%), linalool (15.2-75.3%), α-phellandrene (36.0-51.8%), and ß-phellandrene (11.6-25.6%). DNA barcodes were developed using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear region, and the matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, and ycf1 plastid regions. The markers psbA-trnH and ITS showed the best discrimination for the species, and the phylogenic analysis in the three- (rbcL + matK + trnH - psbA and rbcL + matK + ITS) and four-locus (rbcL + matK + trnH - psbA + ITS) combination formed clades with groups strongly supported by the Bayesian inference (BI) (PP:1.00) and maximum likelihood (ML) (BS ≥ 97%). Therefore, based on statistical multivariate and phylogenetic analysis, the results showed a significant correlation between volatile chemical classes and genetic characteristics of Aniba species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA de Plantas , Lauraceae , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Brasil , Lauraceae/química , Lauraceae/classificação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669088

RESUMO

To elucidate defense mechanisms of Piper nigrum against fusariosis, an experiment based on co-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis was performed. Variations in secondary metabolism in plants infected with F. solani f. sp. piperis (FUS) and co-inoculated with AMFs and F. solani (AMF + FUS) were monitored at 7- and 21-days post inoculations (dpi). The pathogen induced a decrease in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (82.0-77.4%), and changes in the concentrations of the main compounds, α-muurolene, α-muurolol, and 2E-hexenal in the leaves. It was observed that the concentration of 2E-hexenal decreased at 7 dpi, α-muurolene decreased at 21 dpi, and α-muurolol increased at 21 dpi. There was a prevalence of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons in the roots, such as ß-caryophyllene, δ-elemene, and limonene. The infection and co-inoculation induced greater production of phenolics in the roots at 7 dpi. The enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase decreased in the leaves at 21 dpi and in the roots on both days, while the lipoxygenase activity decreased only in the roots at 21 dpi. The results demonstrated that co-inoculation with AMFs and F. solani induces changes in the defense metabolism of P. nigrum, but it is not efficient in the biocontrol of fusariosis during the evaluated period.

14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673039

RESUMO

Psidium (Myrtaceae) comprises approximately 266 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Psidium taxa have great ecological, economic, and medicinal relevance due to their essential oils' chemical diversity and biological potential. This review reports 18 Psidium species growing around the world and the chemical and biological properties of their essential oils. Chemically, 110 oil records are reported with significant variability of volatile constituents, according to their seasonality and collection sites. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes with acyclic (C10 and C15), p-menthane, pinane, bisabolane, germacrane, caryophyllane, cadinane, and aromadendrane skeleton-types, were the primary constituents. The essential oils showed various biological activities, including antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, phytotoxic, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. This review contributes to the Psidium species rational and economic exploration as natural sources to produce new drugs.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Psidium/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673548

RESUMO

Even though several plants can improve the female reproductive function, the use of herbs, herbal preparations, or essential oils during pregnancy is questionable. This review is focused on the effects of some essential oils and their constituents on the female reproductive system during pregnancy and on the development of the fetus. The major concerns include causing abortion, reproductive hormone modulation, maternal toxicity, teratogenicity, and embryo-fetotoxicity. This work summarizes the important studies on the reproductive effects of essential oil constituents anethole, apiole, citral, camphor, thymoquinone, trans-sabinyl acetate, methyl salicylate, thujone, pulegone, ß-elemene, ß-eudesmol, and costus lactone, among others.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Cânfora , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Terpenos
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(5): e2100145, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780581

RESUMO

Lantana camara is a troublesome invasive plant introduced to many tropical regions, including Southeast Asia. However, the plant does hold promise as a source of essential oils that may be explored for potential use. Fresh water snails such as Pomacea canaliculata, Gyraulus convexiusculus, and Tarebia granifera can be problematic agricultural pests as well as hosts for parasitic worms. Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are notorious vectors of numerous viral pathogens. Control of these vectors is of utmost importance. In this work, the essential oil compositions, molluscicidal, and mosquito larvicidal activities of four collections of L. camara from north-central Vietnam have been investigated. The sesquiterpene-rich L. camara essential oils showed wide variation in their compositions, not only compared to essential oils from other geographical locations (at least six possible chemotypes), but also between the four samples from Vietnam. L. camara essential oils showed molluscicidal activities comparable to the positive control, tea saponin, as well as other botanical agents. The median lethal concentrations (LC50 ) against the snails were 23.6-40.2 µg/mL (P. canaliculata), 7.9-29.6 µg/mL (G. convexiusculus), and 15.0-29.6 µg/mL (T. granifera). The essential oils showed good mosquito larvicidal activities with 24-h LC50 values of 15.1-29.0 µg/mL, 26.4-53.8 µg/mL, and 20.8-59.3 µg/mL against Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The essential oils were more toxic to snails and mosquito larvae than they were to the non-target water bug, Diplonychus rusticus (24-h LC50 =103.7-162.5 µg/mL). Sesquiterpene components of the essential oils may be acting as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. These results suggest that the invasive plant, L. camara, may be a renewable botanical pesticidal agent.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lantana/química , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Moleculares , Moluscocidas/química , Moluscocidas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610966

RESUMO

The parasitic diseases represent the most important health risk, especially in underdeveloped countries where they have a deep impact on public health. Trichomoniasis is a prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease, and a significant amount of new cases are identified each year globally. Furthermore, the infection is linked with serious concerns such as pregnancy outcomes, infertility, predisposition to cervical and prostate cancer, and increased transmission and acquisition of HIV. The therapy is restricted, adverse effects are often observed, and resistance to the drugs is emerging. Based on this, a new treatment for trichomoniasis is necessary. Natural products represent a rich source of bioactive compounds, and even today, they are used in the search for new drugs. Additionally, natural products provide a wide variety of leadership structures that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry as a template in the development of new drugs that are more effective and have fewer or no undesirable side effects compared to current treatments. This review focuses on the medicinal plants that possess anti-trichomonal activity in vitro or in vivo. An electronic database search was carried out covering the last three decades, i.e., 1990-2020. The literature search revealed that almost a dozen isolated phytoconstituents are being explored globally for their anti-trichomonal activity. Simultaneously, many countries have their own traditional or folk medicine for trichomoniasis that utilizes their native plants, as a whole, or even extracts. This review focuses mainly on the human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, at some points mention is also made to Tritrichomonas foetus that causes trichomoniasis in animals of high veterinary and economical interest. We will focus on the plants and plant-based compounds and their anti-trichomonal activity. The literature search highlighted that there are abundant compounds that possess anti-trichomonal activity; however, in-depth in-vivo evaluation of compounds and their clinical evaluation has not been undertaken. There is a critical need for new anti-trichomonal compounds, and focused research on phytoconstituents can provide the way forward.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Plantas Medicinais , Tricomoníase , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas , Animais , Humanos , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477389

RESUMO

This study evaluated the chemical compositions of the leaves and fruits of eight black pepper cultivars cultivated in Pará State (Amazon, Brazil). Hydrodistillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to extract and analyze the volatile compounds, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were predominant (58.5-90.9%) in the cultivars "Cingapura", "Equador", "Guajarina", "Iaçará", and "Kottanadan", and "Bragantina", "Clonada", and "Uthirankota" displayed oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (50.6-75.0%). The multivariate statistical analysis applied using volatile composition grouped the samples into four groups: γ-Elemene, curzerene, and δ-elemene ("Equador"/"Guajarina", I); δ-elemene ("Iaçará"/"Kottanadan"/"Cingapura", II); elemol ("Clonada"/"Uthirankota", III) and α-muurolol, bicyclogermacrene, and cubebol ("Bragantina", IV). The major compounds in all fruit samples were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene, ß-pinene, and limonene. Among the cultivar leaves, phenolics content (44.75-140.53 mg GAE·g-1 FW), the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (20.19-57.22 µU·mL-1), and carotenoids (0.21-2.31 µg·mL-1) displayed significant variations. Due to black pepper's susceptibility to Fusarium infection, a molecular docking analysis was carried out on Fusarium protein targets using each cultivar's volatile components. F. oxysporum endoglucanase was identified as the preferential protein target of the compounds. These results can be used to identify chemical markers related to the susceptibility degree of black pepper cultivars to plant diseases prevalent in Pará State.


Assuntos
Piper nigrum/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Brasil , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Piper nigrum/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
19.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498594

RESUMO

In the present study, the toxicity and physiological disorders of the essential oil isolated from Artemisia annua flowers were assessed against one of the main insect pests of mulberry, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker, announcing one of the safe and effective alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill 50% of tested insects) values of the oral and fumigant bioassays of A. annua essential oil were 1.204 % W/V and 3.343 µL/L air, respectively. The A. annua essential oil, rich in camphor, artemisia ketone, ß-selinene, pinocarvone, 1,8-cineole, and α-pinene, caused a significant reduction in digestive and detoxifying enzyme activity of G. pyloalis larvae. The contents of protein, glucose, and triglyceride were also reduced in the treated larvae by oral and fumigant treatments. The immune system in treated larvae was weakened after both oral and fumigation applications compared to the control groups. Histological studies on the midgut and ovaries showed that A. annua essential oil caused an obvious change in the distribution of the principal cells of tissues and reduction in yolk spheres in oocytes. Therefore, it is suggested that the essential oil from A. annua flowers, with wide-range bio-effects on G. pyloalis, be used as an available, safe, effective insecticide in the protection of mulberry.

20.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494170

RESUMO

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is an important spice, particularly is Asian cuisine, and is also used in traditional herbal medicine. Curcuminoids are the main bioactive agents in turmeric, but turmeric essential oils also contain health benefits. Turmeric is a tropical crop and is cultivated in warm humid environments worldwide. The southeastern United States also possesses a warm humid climate with a growing demand for locally sourced herbs and spices. In this study, five different varieties of C. longa were cultivated in north Alabama, the rhizome essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, and the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques. The major components in the essential oils were α-phellandrene (3.7-11.8%), 1,8-cineole (2.6-11.7%), α-zingiberene (0.8-12.5%), ß-sesquiphellandrene (0.7-8.0%), ar-turmerone (6.8-32.5%), α-turmerone (13.6-31.5%), and ß-turmerone (4.8-18.4%). The essential oil yields and chemical profiles of several of the varieties are comparable with those from tropical regions, suggesting that these should be considered for cultivation and commercialization in the southeastern United States.

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