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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166530


Neural language models are widely used; however, their model parameters often need to be adapted to the specific domains and tasks of an application, which is time- and resource-consuming. Thus, adapters have recently been introduced as a lightweight alternative for model adaptation. They consist of a small set of task-specific parameters with a reduced training time and simple parameter composition. The simplicity of adapter training and composition comes along with new challenges, such as maintaining an overview of adapter properties and effectively comparing their produced embedding spaces. To help developers overcome these challenges, we provide a twofold contribution. First, in close collaboration with NLP researchers, we conducted a requirement analysis for an approach supporting adapter evaluation and detected, among others, the need for both intrinsic (i.e., embedding similarity- based) and extrinsic (i.e., prediction-based) explanation methods. Second, motivated by the gathered requirements, we designed a flexible visual analytics workspace that enables the comparison of adapter properties. In this paper, we discuss several design iterations and alternatives for interactive, comparative visual explanation methods. Our comparative visualizations show the differences in the adapted embedding vectors and prediction outcomes for diverse human-interpretable concepts (e.g., person names, human qualities). We evaluate our workspace through case studies and show that, for instance, an adapter trained on the language debiasing task according to context-0 (decontextualized) embeddings introduces a new type of bias where words (even gender-independent words such as countries) become more similar to female- than male pronouns. We demonstrate that these are artifacts of context-0 embeddings, and the adapter effectively eliminates the gender information from the contextualized word representations.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379592


We present VisInReport, a visual analytics tool that supports the manual analysis of discourse transcripts and generates reports based on user interaction. As an integral part of scholarly work in the social sciences and humanities, discourse analysis involves an aggregation of characteristics identified in the text, which, in turn, involves a prior identification of regions of particular interest. Manual data evaluation requires extensive effort, which can be a barrier to effective analysis. Our system addresses this challenge by augmenting the users' analysis with a set of automatically generated visualization layers. These layers enable the detection and exploration of relevant parts of the discussion supporting several tasks, such as topic modeling or question categorization. The system summarizes the extracted events visually and verbally, generating a content-rich insight into the data and the analysis process. During each analysis session, VisInReport builds a shareable report containing a curated selection of interactions and annotations generated by the analyst. We evaluate our approach on real-world datasets through a qualitative study with domain experts from political science, computer science, and linguistics. The results highlight the benefit of integrating the analysis and reporting processes through a visual analytics system, which supports the communication of results among collaborating researchers.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 382-391, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866566


Topic modeling algorithms are widely used to analyze the thematic composition of text corpora but remain difficult to interpret and adjust. Addressing these limitations, we present a modular visual analytics framework, tackling the understandability and adaptability of topic models through a user-driven reinforcement learning process which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying topic modeling algorithms. Given a document corpus, our approach initializes two algorithm configurations based on a parameter space analysis that enhances document separability. We abstract the model complexity in an interactive visual workspace for exploring the automatic matching results of two models, investigating topic summaries, analyzing parameter distributions, and reviewing documents. The main contribution of our work is an iterative decision-making technique in which users provide a document-based relevance feedback that allows the framework to converge to a user-endorsed topic distribution. We also report feedback from a two-stage study which shows that our technique results in topic model quality improvements on two independent measures.