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1.
Environ Int ; 167: 107444, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930981

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, like Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is suspected of playing a role in the occurrence of breast cancer. Moreover, there is growing evidence that food chemical contaminants, especially lipophilic ones such as PBDEs, could interact with different components of the diet. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary intake of PBDEs and breast cancer risk in the French E3N cohort study, and to investigate the potential modification of this association by vegetable oil consumption. The study included 67879 women. Intakes of eight PBDEs were estimated using food consumption data from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and food contamination levels measured by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between total PBDEs dietary intake and breast cancer risk. Interaction measures for vegetable oil consumption were estimated on both additive and multiplicative scales. The women were followed for a maximum of 21.4 years, and 5 686 developed an incident breast cancer. A positive linear trend was highlighted between dietary intake of PBDEs in quintile groups and breast cancer risk, borderline with statistical significance (p-trend = 0.06, HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 1.09 [0.99;1.20]). Interaction measures for vegetable oil consumption were significant in both additive and multiplicative scales. Higher effect sizes of the association were highlighted in high consumers of vegetable oil, i.e. ≥4.6 g/day (HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 1.23 [1.08; 1.40]), and almost no effect were found in low consumers (HRQ5vsQ1 and 95% CI: 0.97 [0.86; 1.10]). Highlighting such interactions between nutrients and chemicals is crucial to develop efficient dietary recommendations to limit the negative health effects associated with exposure to food chemical contaminants.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; : OF1-OF10, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that smoking is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. However, it is unknown if this association is causal or confounded. To further elucidate the role of smoking in endometrial cancer risk, we conducted complementary observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS: The observational analyses included 286,415 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and 179,271 participants in the UK Biobank, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. In two-sample MR analyses, genetic variants robustly associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n = 112 variants) were selected and their association with endometrial cancer risk (12,906 cancer/108,979 controls from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium) was examined. RESULTS: In the observational analysis, lifetime amount of smoking and ever having smoked regularly were associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk. In the MR analysis accounting for body mass index, a genetic predisposition to a higher lifetime amount of smoking was not associated with endometrial cancer risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.44). Genetic predisposition to ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risk of endometrial cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was inversely associated with endometrial cancer in the observational analyses, although unsupported by the MR. Additional studies are required to better understand the possible confounders and mechanisms underlying the observed associations between smoking and endometrial cancer. IMPACT: The results from this analysis indicate that smoking is unlikely to be causally linked with endometrial cancer risk.

3.
Epigenetics ; : 1-10, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726372

RESUMO

Lifestyle-related phenotypes have been shown to be heritable and associated with DNA methylation. We aimed to investigate whether genetic predisposition to tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and higher body mass index (BMI) moderates the effect of these phenotypes on blood DNA methylation. We calculated polygenic scores (PGS) to quantify genetic predisposition to these phenotypes using training (N = 7,431) and validation (N = 4,307) samples. Using paired genetic-methylation data (N = 4,307), gene-environment interactions (i.e., PGS × lifestyle) were assessed using linear mixed-effects models with outcomes: 1) methylation at sites found to be strongly associated with smoking (1,061 CpGs), alcohol consumption (459 CpGs), and BMI (85 CpGs) and 2) two epigenetic ageing measures, PhenoAge and GrimAge. In the validation sample, PGS explained ~1.4% (P = 1 × 10-14), ~0.6% (P = 2 × 10-7), and ~8.7% (P = 7 × 10-87) of variance in smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. Nominally significant interaction effects (P < 0.05) were found at 61, 14, and 7 CpGs for smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. There was strong evidence that all lifestyle-related phenotypes were positively associated with PhenoAge and GrimAge, except for alcohol consumption with PhenoAge. There was weak evidence that the association of smoking with GrimAge was attenuated in participants genetically predisposed to smoking (interaction term: -0.022, standard error [SE] = 0.012, P = 0.058) and that the association of alcohol consumption with PhenoAge was attenuated in those genetically predisposed to drink alcohol (interaction term: -0.030, SE = 0.015, P = 0.041). In conclusion, genetic susceptibility to unhealthy lifestyles did not strongly modify the association between observed lifestyle behaviour and blood DNA methylation. Potential associations were observed for epigenetic ageing measures, which should be replicated in additional studies.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156626, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697224

RESUMO

Most studies have explored the adverse health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) occupational exposure. However, the general population is also exposed to PAH, mainly through the diet. The goal of the present study is thus to investigate the association between PAH dietary exposure and mortality risk in middle-aged women of the E3N (Étude Épidémiologique auprès de femmes de la mutuelle générale de l'Éducation Nationale) French prospective cohort. The study included 72,513 women, whom completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire on 208 food items in 1993. Food contamination levels were assessed using data provided by the Anses (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) in the framework of the French second total diet study. PAH dietary exposure was studied as the sum of four PAH (PAH4), namely benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene (CHR), benzo[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of all-cause mortality as well as all-cancer, specific cancer (separately from breast, lung/tracheal, and colorectal cancer), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and specific CVD (including only stroke and coronary heart disease) mortality. During follow-up (1993-2011), 4620 validated deaths were reported, of which 2726 due to cancer and 584 to CVD. The median PAH4 dietary intake was 66.1 ng/day. There was no significant association between PAH4 dietary intake and the risk of all-cause, all-cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, all-CVD and stroke and coronary heart disease mortality. On the contrary, we observed a positive and statistically significant association between PAH4 dietary intake and lung/tracheal cancer mortality risk, with a stronger association among current smokers than among former smokers and never smokers. In this study, we observed an association between PAH dietary exposure and lung/tracheal cancer mortality risk, especially among current smokers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Dietética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 695, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of elevated pre-diagnostic C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on mortality in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and CRP genetic variation associated with circulating CRP and CRC-specific and all-cause mortality based on data from 1,235 individuals with CRC within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 455 CRC-specific deaths were recorded, out of 590 deaths from all causes. Pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations were not associated with CRC-specific (hazard ratio, HR highest versus lowest quintile 0.92, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.66, 1.28) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68, 1.21). Genetic predisposition to higher CRP (weighted score based on alleles of four CRP SNPs associated with higher circulating CRP) was not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality (HR per CRP-score unit 0.95, 95% CI 0.86, 1.05) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90, 1.07). Among four investigated CRP genetic variants, only SNP rs1205 was significantly associated with CRC-specific (comparing the CT and CC genotypes with TT genotype, HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.83 and HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.88, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.85 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.44, 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective cohort study do not support a role of pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations on mortality in individuals with CRC. The observed associations with rs1205 deserve further scientific attention.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(13): 9277-9290, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737879

RESUMO

We assessed mortality risks associated with source-specific fine particles (PM2.5) in a pooled European cohort of 323,782 participants. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for source-specific PM2.5 identified through a source apportionment analysis. Exposure to 2010 annual average concentrations of source-specific PM2.5 components was assessed at baseline residential addresses. The source apportionment resulted in the identification of five sources: traffic, residual oil combustion, soil, biomass and agriculture, and industry. In single-source analysis, all identified sources were significantly positively associated with increased natural mortality risks. In multisource analysis, associations with all sources attenuated but remained statistically significant with traffic, oil, and biomass and agriculture. The highest association per interquartile increase was observed for the traffic component (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04 and 1.08 per 2.86 µg/m3 increase) across five identified sources. On a 1 µg/m3 basis, the residual oil-related PM2.5 had the strongest association (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05 and 1.22), which was substantially higher than that for generic PM2.5 mass, suggesting that past estimates using the generic PM2.5 exposure response function have underestimated the potential clean air health benefits of reducing fossil-fuel combustion. Source-specific associations with cause-specific mortality were in general consistent with findings of natural mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Environ Int ; 166: 107341, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies have shown higher greenness exposure associated with reduced mortality risks, but few controlled for spatially correlated air pollution and traffic noise exposures. We aim to address this research gap in the ELAPSE pooled cohort. METHODS: Mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in a 300-m grid cell and 1-km radius were assigned to participants' baseline home addresses as a measure of surrounding greenness exposure. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association of NDVI exposure with natural-cause and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for a number of potential confounders including socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors at individual and area-levels. We further assessed the associations between greenness exposure and mortality after adjusting for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and road traffic noise. RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 327,388 individuals who experienced 47,179 natural-cause deaths during 6,374,370 person-years of follow-up. The mean NDVI in the pooled cohort was 0.33 (SD 0.1) and 0.34 (SD 0.1) in the 300-m grid and 1-km buffer. In the main fully adjusted model, 0.1 unit increment of NDVI inside 300-m grid was associated with 5% lower risk of natural-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.96)). The associations attenuated after adjustment for air pollution [HR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) adjusted for PM2.5; 0.98 (0.96, 0.99) adjusted for NO2]. Additional adjustment for traffic noise hardly affected the associations. Consistent results were observed for NDVI within 1-km buffer. After adjustment for air pollution, NDVI was inversely associated with diabetes, respiratory and lung cancer mortality, yet with wider 95% confidence intervals. No association with cardiovascular mortality was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant inverse association between surrounding greenness and natural-cause mortality, which remained after adjusting for spatially correlated air pollution and traffic noise.

9.
Epigenomics ; 14(12): 793-810, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762294

RESUMO

Aim: We systematically reviewed and evaluated current literature on alcohol consumption and DNA methylation (DNAm) at the genome-wide and probe-wise level in blood of adults. Materials & methods: Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycInfo) were searched until 20 December 2020. Studies assessing the effect of alcohol dependence on DNAm were not eligible. Results: 11 cross-sectional studies were included with 88 to 9643 participants. Overall, all studies had a risk of bias criteria unclear or unmet. Epigenome-wide association studies identified between 0 and 5458 differentially methylated positions, and 15 were observed in at least four studies. Conclusion: Potential methylation markers for alcohol consumption have been identified, but further validation in large cohorts is needed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Metilação de DNA , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between physical activity before cancer diagnosis and survival among lung cancer patients. In this pooled analysis of 11 prospective cohorts, we investigated associations of prediagnosis leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality among incident lung cancer patients. METHODS: Using self-reported data on regular engagement in exercise and sports activities collected at study enrollment, we assessed metabolic equivalent hours (MET-h) of prediagnosis LTPA per week. According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, prediagnosis LTPA was classified into inactivity, less than 8.3 and at least 8.3 MET-h per week (the minimum recommended range). Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality after adjustment for major prognostic factors and lifetime smoking history. RESULTS: Of 20 494 incident lung cancer patients, 16 864 died, including 13 596 deaths from lung cancer (overall 5-year relative survival rate = 20.9%, 95% CI = 20.3% to 21.5%). Compared with inactivity, prediagnosis LTPA of more than 8.3 MET-h per week was associated with a lower hazard of all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88 to 0.99), but not with lung cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.04), among the overall population. Additive interaction was found by tumor stage (Pinteraction = .008 for all-cause mortality and .003 for lung cancer-specific mortality). When restricted to localized cancer, prediagnosis LTPA of at least 8.3 MET-h per week linked to 20% lower mortality: multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65 to 0.99) for lung cancer-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Regular participation in LTPA that met or exceeded the minimum Physical Activity Guidelines was associated with reduced hazards of mortality among lung cancer patients, especially those with early stage cancer.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Atividade Motora , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8622, 2022 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597776

RESUMO

Assessment of the intensity, dynamics and determinants of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in the general population is critical to guide vaccination policies. This study characterized the anti-spike IgG titers in 13,971 participants included in a French multicohort population-based serological survey on COVID-19 between April and October 2020 and followed-up with serological testing between May and October 2021. Eight follow-up profiles were defined depending on SARS-CoV-2 infection (0, 1 or 2) and COVID-19 vaccination (0, 1, 2 or 3). The anti-spike titer was lower in adults with no vaccination even in case of infection or reinfection, while it was higher in adults with infection followed by vaccination. The anti-spike titer was negatively correlated with age in vaccinated but uninfected adults, whereas it was positively correlated with age in unvaccinated but infected adults. In adults with 2 vaccine injections and no infection, the vaccine protocol, age, gender, and time since the last vaccine injection were independently associated with the anti-spike titer. The decrease in anti-spike titer was much more rapid in vaccinated than in infected subjects. These results highlight the strong heterogeneity of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in the general population depending on previous infection and vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinação
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(6): 629-640, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595947

RESUMO

Smoking-related epigenetic changes have been linked to lung cancer, but the contribution of epigenetic alterations unrelated to smoking remains unclear. We sought for a sparse set of CpG sites predicting lung cancer and explored the role of smoking in these associations. We analysed CpGs in relation to lung cancer in participants from two nested case-control studies, using (LASSO)-penalised regression. We accounted for the effects of smoking using known smoking-related CpGs, and through conditional-independence network. We identified 29 CpGs (8 smoking-related, 21 smoking-unrelated) associated with lung cancer. Models additionally adjusted for Comprehensive Smoking Index-(CSI) selected 1 smoking-related and 49 smoking-unrelated CpGs. Selected CpGs yielded excellent discriminatory performances, outperforming information provided by CSI only. Of the 8 selected smoking-related CpGs, two captured lung cancer-relevant effects of smoking that were missed by CSI. Further, the 50 CpGs identified in the CSI-adjusted model complementarily explained lung cancer risk. These markers may provide further insight into lung cancer carcinogenesis and help improving early identification of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumar , Carcinogênese , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(5): e447-e457, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the interactions between individual socioeconomic position and neighbourhood deprivation and the findings so far are heterogeneous. Using a large sample of diverse cohorts, we investigated the interaction effect of neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual socioeconomic position, assessed using education, on mortality. METHODS: We did a longitudinal multicohort analysis that included six cohort studies participating in the European LIFEPATH consortium: the CoLaus (Lausanne, Switzerland), E3N (France), EPIC-Turin (Turin, Italy), EPIPorto (Porto, Portugal), Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (Melbourne, VIC, Australia), and Whitehall II (London, UK) cohorts. All participants with data on mortality, educational attainment, and neighbourhood deprivation were included in the present study. The data sources were the databases of each cohort study. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rates and associations (relative risk, 95% CIs) with neighbourhood deprivation (Q1 being least deprived to Q5 being the most deprived). Baseline educational attainment was used as an indicator of individual socioeconomic position. Estimates were combined using pooled analysis and the relative excess risk due to the interaction was computed to identify additive interactions. FINDINGS: The cohorts comprised a total population of 168 801 individuals. The recruitment dates were 2003-06 for CoLaus, 1989-91 for E3N, 1992-98 for EPIC-Turin, 1999-2003 for EPIPorto, 1990-94 for MCCS, and 1991-94 for Whitehall II. We use baseline data only and mortality data obtained using record linkage. Age-adjusted mortality rates were higher among participants residing in more deprived neighbourhoods than those in the least deprived neighbourhoods (Q1 least deprived neighbourhoods, 369·7 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI 356·4-383·2] vs Q5-most deprived neighbourhoods 445·7 per 100 000 person-years [430·2-461·7]), but the magnitude of the association varied according to educational attainment (relative excess risk due to interaction=0·18, 95% CI 0·08-0·28). The relative risk for Q5 versus Q1 was 1·31 (1·23-1·40) among individuals with primary education or less, but less pronounced among those with secondary education (1·12; 1·04-1·21) and tertiary education (1·16; 1·07-1·27). Associations remained after adjustment for individual-level factors, such as smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake, among others. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that the detrimental health effect of living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods is more pronounced among individuals with low education attainment, amplifying social inequalities in health. This finding is relevant to policies aimed at reducing health inequalities, suggesting that these issues should be addressed at both the individual level and the community level. FUNDING: The European Commission, European Regional Development Fund, the Portugese Foundation for Science and Technology.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 118, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and might differently impact breast cancer risk among pre and postmenopausal women. We performed a nested case-control study to examine whether pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, c-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and 6 interleukins were associated with breast cancer risk, overall and by menopausal status. METHODS: Pre-diagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma from 1558 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer at blood collection, per one standard deviation increase in biomarker concentration. RESULTS: Cases were diagnosed at a mean age of 61.4 years on average 8.6 years after blood collection. No statistically significant association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer risk overall. In premenopausal women, borderline significant inverse associations were observed for leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and CRP [OR= 0.89 (0.77-1.03), OR= 0.88 (0.76-1.01) and OR= 0.87 (0.75-1.01), respectively] while positive associations were observed among postmenopausal women [OR= 1.16 (1.05-1.29), OR= 1.11 (1.01-1.23), OR= 1.10 (0.99-1.22), respectively]. Adjustment for BMI strengthened the estimates in premenopausal women [leptin: OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.00), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 0.80 (0.66-0.97), CRP: OR = 0.85 (0.72-1.00)] but attenuated the estimates in postmenopausal women [leptin: OR = 1.09 (0.96-1.24), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 1.02 (0.89-1.16), CRP: OR = 1.04 (0.92-1.16)]. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between CRP, leptin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio with breast cancer risk may represent the dual effect of obesity by menopausal status although this deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Leptina , Adipocinas , Adiponectina , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 17: 100363, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434687

RESUMO

Background: Many patients report persistent symptoms after COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether some of these symptoms were more associated with past SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to other conditions. Methods: This prospective survey was nested in CONSTANCES, a randomly selected French population-based cohort, started in 2012. All participants being followed-up by internet completed 2 questionnaires during the first wave of the pandemic focusing on the acute symptoms of their COVID-19-like illness. Serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 were then performed (May-Nov 2020). Between December 2020 and January 2021, participants completed a third questionnaire about symptoms that had lasted more than 2 months. Participants were classified into four groups according to both European Center for Diseases Control (ECDC) criteria for COVID-19 (ECDC+ or ECDC-) and serological SARS-CoV-2 test results (Sero+ or Sero-). To compare the risk of each persistent symptom among the groups, logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, educational level, comorbidities, and the number of acute symptoms declared during the first wave of the epidemic. A mediation analysis was performed to estimate the direct effect of the infection on persistent symptoms and its indirect effect via the initial clinical presentation. Findings: The analysis was performed in 25,910 participants. There was a higher risk of persistent dysgeusia/anosmia, dyspnea and asthenia in the ECDC+/Sero+ group than in the ECDC+/Sero- group (OR: 6.83 [4.47-10.42], 1.69 [1.07-2.6] and 1.48 [1.05-2.07], respectively). Abdominal pain, sensory symptoms or sleep disorders were at lower risk in the ECDC+/Sero+ group than in the ECDC+/Sero- group (0.51 [0.24-0.96], 0.40 [0.16-0.85], and 0.69 [0.49-0.95], respectively). The mediation analysis revealed that the association of the serological test results with each symptom was mainly mediated by ECDC symptoms (proportion mediated range 50-107%). Conclusion: A greater risk of persistent dysgeusia/anosmia, dyspnea and asthenia was observed in SARS-CoV-2 infected people. The initial clinical presentation substantially drives the association of positive serological test results with persistent symptoms. Funding: French National Research Agency.

17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(12): 1429-1439, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258439

RESUMO

Rationale: Ambient air pollution exposure has been linked to mortality from chronic cardiorespiratory diseases, while evidence on respiratory infections remains more limited. Objectives: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and pneumonia-related mortality in adults in a pool of eight European cohorts. Methods: Within the multicenter project ELAPSE (Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe), we pooled data from eight cohorts among six European countries. Annual mean residential concentrations in 2010 for fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land-use regression models. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and pneumonia, influenza, and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) mortality. Measurements and Main Results: Of 325,367 participants, 712 died from pneumonia and influenza combined, 682 from pneumonia, and 695 from ALRI during a mean follow-up of 19.5 years. NO2 and BC were associated with 10-12% increases in pneumonia and influenza combined mortality, but 95% confidence intervals included unity (hazard ratios, 1.12 [0.99-1.26] per 10 µg/m3 for NO2; 1.10 [0.97-1.24] per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC). Associations with pneumonia and ALRI mortality were almost identical. We detected effect modification suggesting stronger associations with NO2 or BC in overweight, employed, or currently smoking participants compared with normal weight, unemployed, or nonsmoking participants. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to combustion-related air pollutants NO2 and BC may be associated with mortality from lower respiratory infections, but larger studies are needed to estimate these associations more precisely.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 27, 2022 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants (BFR) and per- and polyfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) are two groups of substances suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. Such substances could therefore be implicated in the occurrence of breast cancer, nevertheless, previous studies have led to inconstant results. Due to the large correlation between these substances, and the possibly non-linear effects they exert, evaluating their joint impact as mixtures on health remains challenging. This exploratory study aimed to generate hypotheses on the relationship between circulating levels of 7 BFR (6 polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 1 polybrominated biphenyls) and 11 PFAS and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study nested in the E3N French prospective cohort by performing two methods: Principal Component Regression (PCR) models, and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models. METHODS: 194 post-menopausal breast cancer cases and 194 controls were included in the present study. Circulating levels of BFR and PFAS were measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The first statistical approach was based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by logistic regression models that included the identified principal components as main exposure variables. The second approach used BKMR models with hierarchical variable selection, this latter being suitable for highly correlated exposures. Both approaches were also run separately for Estrogen Receptor positive (ER +) and Estrogen Receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cases. RESULTS: PCA identified four principal components accounting for 67% of the total variance. Component 3 showed a marginal association with ER + breast cancer risk. No clear association between BFR and PFAS mixtures and breast cancer was identified using BKMR models, and the credible intervals obtained were very wide. Finally, the BKMR models suggested a negative cumulative effect of BFR and PFAS on ER- breast cancer risk, and a positive cumulative effect on ER + breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Although globally no clear association was identified, both approaches suggested a differential effect of BFR and PFAS mixtures on ER + and ER- breast cancer risk. However, the results for ER- breast cancer should be interpreted carefully due to the small number of ER- cases included in the study. Further studies evaluating mixtures of substances on larger study populations are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio
19.
Environ Res ; 210: 112788, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are organic compounds that are widespread in the environment. Because of their persistence, they are able to bioaccumulate with major impacts on human health. It has been hypothesized that the effect of BFRs on human health is mediated by alterations of DNA methylation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between methylation of DNA extracted from peripheral blood and circulating levels of BFRs measured in plasma. METHODS: We conducted a methylation wide association study on 336 blood samples from a study within the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale) cohort, a long-term longitudinal cohort of French women. DNA methylation at more than 850 000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites was measured with the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation - EPIC BeadChip. Circulating levels of seven BFRs (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154 and PBB-153) were measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry in plasma samples. The association between DNA methylation and BFRs plasma levels was assessed through linear mixed-effects models followed by gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA). RESULTS: We identified 253 CpG sites whose methylation levels were significantly associated with exposure to BFRs after Bonferroni correction. For 50 of these CpGs the p-values were less than 2.2x10-9 with the strongest association being between BDE-154 and cg23619365 (4.32x10-13). GSEA of CpG sites associated with exposure to BFRs identified significant enrichment of genes involved in hypoxia, glycolysis and adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to BFRs appears to be related to numerous alterations in DNA methylation. These findings, if replicated in independent studies, provide insights into the biological and health effects of BFRs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Estudos Transversais , DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Metilação
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