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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683037

RESUMO

The integration of scientific research into medical curricula remains insufficient despite its advantages for medical students' professional development and the advancement of medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of first-year medical course attendance on medical students' attitudes and perceptions towards scientific research and clinical practice, while also assessing the contribution of sociodemographic and academic factors. Two hundred and thirteen medical students self-administrated a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the first school year. Their responses were compared and two regression models were calculated to assess factors influencing students' attitudes and perceptions. After freshman year, students displayed significantly lower positive attitudes towards science and research. Their motivation to perform research and to integrate it into the curriculum also decreased, while the importance attributed to research skills for clinical practice increased. Motivation to perform research and negative attitudes were positively and negatively associated with grade point average (GPA), respectively. Female students and those who attended public secondary schools attributed greater importance to communication skills. This study reinforces the need to early develop research skills and positive attitudes in medical students, motivating them to become physician-scientists. Additional follow-up studies may offer further contributions to the integration of research into medical curricula.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Life (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202656

RESUMO

The association between modifiable risk factors and caries in children has been documented; however, most studies have been cross-sectional and have not considered the complexity of dietary factors and oral health habits. This study aimed to investigate the prospective association between dietary patterns and oral health behaviours at 4 years of age and the development of new decayed, missing, and filled teeth (d3-6mft/D3-6MFT) over a period of three years. Participants were children from the Generation XXI population-based birth cohort. At 4 years of age, diet patterns were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, with three dietary patterns being identified. For the purpose of capturing the new development of caries between 4 and 7 years of age, two dental outcomes were defined in the mixed dentition: "dental caries development" and "severe dental caries development" in the mixed dentition. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used. From 4 to 7 years of age, 51.2% of the children had at least one new d3-6mft/D3-6MFT and 27.4% had more than two new d3-6mft/D3-6MFT. Children belonging to the "energy-dense foods" (OR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.20-4.00) and "snacking" (OR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.41-3.41) dietary patterns at 4 years old were associated with severe dental caries development three years later. Preventive strategies should be implemented in an attempt to reduce snacking and the consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods to promote children's oral health.

7.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1049-1059, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187290

RESUMO

Background. Identifying trajectories of kidney disease progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may help to deliver better care. We aimed to identify and characterize trajectories of renal function decline in CKD patients and to investigate their association with mortality after dialysis.Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 378 CKD patients who initiated dialysis (aged 65 years and over) between 2009 and 2016. Were considered mixed models using linear quadratic and cubic models to define the trajectories, and we used probabilistic clustering procedures. Patient characteristics and care practices at and before dialysis were examined by multivariable multinomial logistic regression. The association of these trajectories with mortality after dialysis was examined using Cox models.Results. Four distinct groups of eGFR trajectories decline before dialysis were identified: slower decline (18.3%), gradual decline (18.3%), early rapid decline (41.2%), and rapid decline (22.2%). Patients with rapid eGFR decline were more likely to have diabetes, more cognitive impairment, to have been hospitalized before dialysis, and were less likely to have received pre-dialysis care compared to the patients with a slower decline. They had a higher risk of death within the first and fourth year after dialysis initiation, and after being more than 4 years in dialysis.Conclusions. There are different patterns of eGFR trajectories before dialysis initiation in the elderly, that may help to identify those who are more likely to experience an accelerated decline in kidney function, with impact on pre ESKD care and in the mortality risk after dialysis.

8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(7): 1474-1481, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a promising biomarker of airway inflammation. Lack of method standardization and interstudy variability precludes its use in clinical practice. While endogenous determinants have been described, underlying mechanisms for variability are mostly unknown. Thus, we aimed to assess the association between asthma and EBC pH in children, while studying potential environmental factors for interstudy variability. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of exhaled breath condensates from 613 children, aged 7-12 years, was conducted. Assessments included lung function and airway reversibility, exhaled nitric oxide, allergic sensitization, and body mass index (BMI). Indoor air quality (IAQ) was assessed in children's classrooms during 5 school days. Post-deaeration EBC pH showed a bimodal distribution, and the sample was split into acidic and alkaline groups. Regression models were constructed to assess the effects of asthma and asthma adjusted to IAQ parameters on EBC pH. RESULTS: Following adjustment to gender and BMI, asthma was significantly associated with a lower EBC pH in the acidic group. The effect of asthma on EBC pH was independent of IAQ, in both groups. In the acidic group, EBC pH was significantly affected by temperature [ß = -0.09 (-0.15, -0.02)] and PM 2.5 concentration [ß = -0.16 (-0.32, -0.01)], and in the alkaline group by relative humidity [ß = 0.07 (0.02, 0.13)] and concentration of endotoxins [ß = -0.06 (-0.1, -0.01)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that in addition to individual determinants such as asthma, environmental factors may influence and should be taken into consideration when interpreting EBC pH level in children.

9.
Breast ; 58: 130-137, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify trajectories of cognitive performance up to five years since diagnosis and their predictors, in a cohort of patients with breast cancer (BCa). METHODS: A total of 464 women with BCa admitted to the Portuguese Institute of Oncology, Porto, during 2012, were evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) before any treatment, and after one, three and five years. Probable cognitive impairment (PCI) at baseline was defined based on normative age- and education-specific reference values. Mclust was used to define MoCA trajectories. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive accuracy for cognitive trajectories. RESULTS: Two trajectories were identified, one with higher scores and increasing overtime, and the other, including 25.9% of the participants, showing a continuous decline. To further characterize each trajectory, participants were also classified as scoring above or below the median baseline MoCA scores. This resulted in four groups: 1) highest baseline scores, stable overtime (0.0% with PCI); 2) lowest baseline scores (29.5% with PCI); 3) mid-range scores at baseline, increasing overtime (10.5% with PCI); 4) mid-range scores at baseline, decreasing overtime (0.0% with PCI). Adding the change in MoCA during the first year to baseline variables significantly increased the accuracy to predict the downward trajectory (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.732 vs. AUC = 0.841, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Four groups of patients with BCa with different cognitive performance trends were identified. The assessment of cognitive performance before treatments and after one year allows for the identification of patients more likely to have cognitive decline in the long term.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Disfunção Cognitiva , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Neônio , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033667

RESUMO

The association between family environment and child's eating behaviors is well established but a multidimensional approach to study this relation is lacking. This study aimed to assess the proprieties of a questionnaire created to evaluate parental practices, preferences, skills and attitudes regarding fruit and vegetables (F&V), sugar and salt. Participants (n = 714) were families of pre-school children (aged 2-6 years old) of the Nutriscience Project-a web-based gamification program-who answered a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and a scale evaluating parental practices, preferences, skills and attitudes, at the baseline of the project. Exploratory factorial analysis was applied to the scale: 21 items and 5 factors were extracted (52.4% of explained variance) with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value of 0.770: 1. Modelling/active promotion of F&V consumption (α = 0.73), 2. Skills for choosing/preparing healthy food (α = 0.75), 3. Food preferences and satiety perception (α = 0.70), 4. Awareness regarding sugar/salt intake (α = 0.61), 5. Allowance regarding F&V consumption (α = 0.55). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to compare factors according to socio-demographic characteristics. Higher scores for parental modelling and active promotion of F&V consumption were observed in older parents, those with higher nutrition knowledge and who reported to live without income difficulties. Regarding food preferences, higher scores were observed in mothers, with higher nutrition knowledge and from higher educated groups. Higher awareness regarding salt and sugar consumption were observed in older parents, with higher education, higher nutrition knowledge and with female children. Older parents and with female children also registered higher scores of skills for choosing/preparing healthy food. The scale showed satisfactory proprieties and may contribute to assess family food environment using a multidimensional approach. It also highlighted the importance of considering socio-demographic characteristics in interventions to promote healthy eating.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 979, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing subjective social status (SSS) may be easily accommodated in the context of a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined the association of SSS and health in Angola. Subjective socioeconomic measures may provide a rapid assessment of a relevant social status construct, important for studying health inequalities. In this study, we addressed social determinants of health by examining the relationship between the subjective and objective social status, reported health and healthcare-seeking behaviour. METHODS: This research results from a cross-sectional study performed during 2015 in the Dande HDSS, in Angola. We tested the application of the MacArthur scale as a measure of SSS in a developing setting, in a sample of 12,246 households. First, we investigated its relation to objective socioeconomic indicators, and then we explored how subjective and objective social status associate with health reported needs and health-seeking behaviour of the surveyed population. Chi-square, ANOVA tests, and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curves analysis were computed for testing relationships between subjective status ladder quartiles, sociodemographic and household characteristics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of subjective perception of status in self-reported health and health-seeking behaviour. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that the SSS follows a gradient distribution obtained with more objective socioeconomic indicators. Additionally, we found that subjective perception of status influence health needs reporting and health-seeking behaviour and its significant effect remained after controlling for the objective socioeconomic markers. Individuals standing in the second quartile of the social ladder have more odds of reporting illness and those in the highest quartiles of the ladder were twice more likely (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.52-3.26) to seek help from formal health services than those at the bottom of the ladder. CONCLUSIONS: The MacArthur Scale is a valuable tool to measure SSS in the Dande HDSS, relevant for studying socioeconomic disparities and health inequalities. It is also an easier alternative to traditional measures such as income, usually difficult to measure in developing settings. The social perception of status should be considered as a complement with objective indicators when exploring social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Distância Psicológica , Classe Social , Angola/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
12.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 65-75, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a potentially preventable cause of death. Epidemiology might help to identify death determinants and to monitor prevention strategies. Few studies address secular trends in suicide deaths, and even fewer describe trend-changes in relation to data collection/registration bias. Moreover, suicide is admittedly underreported. It is crucial to validate results in the context of other external causes of death trends, such as unintentional and undetermined intent deaths. We aimed to explore trends in suicide and other external causes of death in Portugal from the inception of registries until 2018, considering breaks in series. METHODS: We collected data from all available official primary sources. We calculated cause-specific age-standardized death rates (SDR) by sex for ages equal or higher than 15 years with reference to the European Standard Population. We considered suicide (S), undetermined intent deaths (UnD), accidents (Accs), and all causes of death (ttMty). A time-series structural analysis was executed. RESULTS: Suicide and other external causes of death rates were consistently higher in males than females. A global decline of deaths by suicide, undetermined intention and unintentional is observable. Breakpoints in years 1930, 1954, 1982, 2000-2001 were associated with major changes in deaths registration procedures or methodology. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of suicide in Portugal has changed over 106 years. However, adjusted data and consideration of bias reduce trends fluctuation. Trend changes are akin to specific changes in methodology of death registry. Suicide surveillance will improve with more reliable and stable procedures.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Suicídio , Acidentes , Adolescente , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
13.
Porto Biomed J ; 6(2): e134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869886

RESUMO

Background: Montelukast, a safe drug widely use in asthmatic patients, may be an adjuvant in the treatment of Covid-19, either by improving lung injury and inflammation, or by acting as an anti-viral drug. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of montelukast as add-on treatment in patients with Covid-19. Methods: We propose a randomized, controlled, parallel, open-label trial involving 160 hospitalized adult patients with confirmed Covid-19. Patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either montelukast 10 mg, once a day for 14 days, in addition to standard of care (SoC), or SoC alone. SoC will follow the best practice for treating these patients, according to updated recommendations. The primary outcome is time to recovery. Participants will be assessed using diary cards to capture data on treatment-related improvements in an 8-point ordinal scale. Secondary endpoints will include changes in respiratory and inflammatory parameters, and adverse events. This phase IV clinical trial will take place at the University Hospital of São João, Porto. EudraCT number: 2020-001747-21. Results: This study intends to generate scientific evidence on efficacy and safety of montelukast as add-on treatment in Covid-19. The results will be essential to improve clinical outcomes which remains to be determined. Conclusion: Montelukast has been suggested as a potential drug with 2 main actions on Covid-19. The validation of montelukast as an adjuvant treatment may improve lung injury, inflammation, and symptoms leading to a better prognosis. The use of this drug may fulfil the existing gap on therapeutic options.

14.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(10): 2798-2807, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal association between parental BMI and offspring's BMI, in EPACI Portugal 2012. DESIGN: Longitudinal study with retrospective collection of children's anthropometry data since birth. Children's anthropometric data were gathered from individual child health bulletins, and parents' anthropometrics were self-reported. Children's and parents' BMI were classified according to WHO cut-offs. Linear mixed models with random intercept and slope for age were applied to quantify the association between parental BMI and children BMI Z-score (zBMI). SETTING: EPACI Portugal 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample from the Portuguese population (n 2230) aged from 12 to 36 months. RESULTS: 58·9 % of the fathers and 35·6 % of the mothers were overweight (OW) or obese. Prevalence of infants who were, at least, at risk of OW increased from 17·0 % to 30·3 % since birth to 12 months. About half of the mothers with pre-pregnancy OW and obesity (OB) gained gestational weight above the recommendations. The children from mothers with gestational weight gain (GWG) below the recommendations showed a -0·15 SD lower zBMI (95 % CI -0·23, -0·06) in early life, comparing with mothers within GWG recommendations. Children of obese mothers were more likely to present a higher zBMI (0·24 SD, 95 % CI 0·13, 0·35) throughout the first months of life. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of OW and OB was observed in Portuguese young adults and toddlers. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and insufficient GWG had a direct effect on offspring BMI. Early effective interventions are needed in order to prevent the transgenerational transmission of OB.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 101-108, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food parenting practices have been associated with children's eating behaviors, but analyses exploring the bidirectional effects are limited. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the bidirectional relations between food parenting practices and the eating behavior of children from 4 to 7 y old. METHODS: Participants are from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Portugal) assessed at both 4 and 7 y of age (n = 3698 singletons). A validated version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the overt/covert control scale were used. Three patterns of food parenting practices (Perceived Monitoring, Restriction, and Pressure to eat) were studied. Perception of children's eating behaviors (eating large amounts of food, eating very slowly, and food refusal) was reported by parents (measured using dichotomous questions). Cross-lagged analyses were performed to evaluate the direction of the associations (parenting practices at 4 y to behaviors at 7 y and the reverse). RESULTS: Eating large amounts of food was unidirectionally associated with higher Restriction 3 y later (ßstandardized = 0.047; 95% CI: 0.019, 0.075). Apart from Restriction, all associations had a bidirectional effect of similar magnitude. Eating large amounts of food and food refusal at age 4 influenced food parenting, such as Perceived Monitoring and Pressure to eat at age 7, but these practices were prospectively linked to these eating behaviors too (e.g., ßstandardized = 0.033; 95% CI: 0.022, 0.064 for food refusal at age 4 and Pressure to eat at age 7, and ßstandardized = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.034, 0.086, in the reverse direction). Parenting practices and children's eating behaviors showed significant moderate tracking (standardized path coefficients from 0.24 to 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Eating large amounts of food, eating slowly, and food refusal can influence parents to adopt certain food parenting practices, but these practices also influence children's behaviors after a few years. This reciprocal relation should be considered in future research. Parents should be advised to use food parenting practices associated with healthier eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Coleta de Dados , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The usual definition of dietary patterns only accounts for the explanation of dietary choices and not a specific health outcome. This could partially explain the lack of consistent associations between diet and related diseases. This study aims to identify dietary patterns in 7 years olds explaining body mass index (BMI) at age 10 and to assess their association with early-life factors (sociodemographic, birth, and infancy characteristics). METHODS: Children from the birth cohort Generation XXI at ages 7 and 10 were included (n = 4698). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Measured BMI z-scores (zBMI) were calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were run to derive dietary patterns. RESULTS: The component scores of PCA was able to explain 13.0% of food groups and only 0.2% of zBMI, while the PLS scores explained the variance of both food groups (10.1%) and zBMI at age 10 (4.2%). By using PLS, two dietary patterns were derived, but only one, higher in processed meats and energy-dense foods and lower in vegetable soup consumption, was significantly associated with an increased zBMI in 10 years olds (adjusted ß̂ 0.032; 95% CI:0.017; 0.047). It was more likely followed by children from younger and less educated mothers and who were born heavier. CONCLUSIONS: A dietary pattern higher in processed and energy-dense foods and with lower vegetable soup intake in 7 years olds significantly explained zBMI of 10 years olds, and was predicted by early-life characteristics. The other dietary patterns were not significantly associated with zBMI at age 10.

17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583437

RESUMO

The Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED Index) is frequently used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern among children and adolescents, through sixteen questions with the associated total score ranging from -4 to 12. However, in the authors' best knowledge, the psychometric properties of this index had not yet been investigated in Portugal. Thus, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and the validity of the KIDMED Index in a sample of 185 Portuguese adolescents. The reproducibility was tested by comparing the application of the KIDMED Index at two different times (2-week interval), using McNemar test and Kappa statistics. There was moderate agreement (κw = 0·591; 95 % CI 0·485, 0·696) and no significant change (P-value = 0·201) in the KIDMED Index classification, between the two applications. The validity was explored by comparing the results obtained by the KIDMED Index and by the average of 3-d Dietary-Record (DR), using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Kappa statistics. There was weak correlation (ρ = 0·317; P-value < 0·001) and slight agreement (κw = 0·167; 95 % CI 0·071, 0·262) between the KIDMED Index classification and the 3-d DR-derived KIDMED score, and moderate correlation (ρ = 0·423; P-value < 0·001) and fair agreement (κw = 0·344; 95 % CI 0·202, 0·486) between the terciles of the KIDMED Index and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index scores. The results suggested an acceptable reproducibility and validity of the Portuguese version of the KIDMED Index, in alignment with the few studies investigating psychometric properties of this index in other countries.

18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562675

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with glucocorticoid (GC) hypersensitivity. Although genetic factors account for 30-46% of the variance in PTSD, no associations have been found between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GC receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) and risk for this disorder. We studied the association of five SNPs in the GR gene (rs10052957, rs6189/rs6190, rs6195, rs41423247, and rs6198) and haplotypes with PTSD, in a group of Portuguese male war veterans (33 with lifetime PTSD, 28 without). To determine whether the 9ß SNP (rs6198) was associated with chronically altered cortisol levels, we evaluated hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in a sample of 69 veterans' offspring. The 9ß variant (G allele) was significantly associated with lifetime PTSD under a dominant model of inheritance. The 9ß variant was also significantly associated with severity of current PTSD symptoms. The haplotype analysis revealed an association between a common haplotype comprising the 9ß risk allele and lifetime PTSD. Carriers of the 9ß risk allele had significantly lower HCC than non-carriers. We found the 9ß risk allele and a haplotype comprising the 9ß risk allele of the GR gene to be associated with PTSD in veterans. This 9ß risk allele was also associated with lower HCC in their offspring.

19.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reduced lung function in early adulthood is associated with respiratory and non-respiratory diseases and is a long-term predictor of mortality. This study investigated the association between early socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) and lung function growth trajectories from early adolescence until early adulthood. METHODS: We analysed data from the EPITeen population-based study, including adolescents born in 1990. Study waves occurred at 13, 17 and 21 years of age. Information on sociodemographic, behavioural and health factors, anthropometry and spirometry was collected. Early-life SEC were assessed using maternal education and paternal occupational position. The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) growth trajectories were drawn considering sex-and-height interactions over an 8-year period. Our sample included 2022 participants with complete information for the relevant variables. RESULTS: Participants from most disadvantaged SEC presented lower FEV1 at early adolescence compared to high-SEC counterparts, but differences seem to diminish with height growth. The effect of paternal occupational position in lung function growth trajectories was moderated by height, thus individuals from fathers with less advantaged occupational position had lower FEV1 at early adolescence, but they had a faster FEV1 growth over time. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals from most disadvantaged SEC presented lower lung function at early adolescence compared to high-SEC counterparts; nevertheless, a catch-up growth was observed. IMPACT: Lower socioeconomic circumstances were previously associated with reduced lung function and a higher risk of respiratory diseases in adults. Fewer studies analysed the effects of early-life socioeconomic circumstances in lung function growth during adolescence. Disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances were associated with lower lung function in early adolescence. However, social differences diminished over adolescence, suggesting a catch-up growth of lung function among those from lower socioeconomic circumstances. An improved understanding of the mechanism underlying lung function catch-up (or the absence of catch-up) might support interventions to narrow social inequalities in respiratory health and should be further investigated.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 611565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614581

RESUMO

Introduction: The large number of passengers, limited space and shared surfaces can transform public transportation into a hub of epidemic spread. This study was conducted to investigate whether proximity to railway stations, a proxy for utilization, was associated with higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection across small-areas of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). Methods: The number of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infections from March 2 until July 5, 2020 at the parish-level was obtained from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System. A Geographic Information System was used to estimate proximity to railway stations of the six railway lines operating in the area. A quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression model was fitted to estimate the relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Between May 2 and July 5, 2020, there were a total of 17,168 SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, with wide disparities between parishes. Overall, parishes near any of the railway stations of the Sintra line presented significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates (RR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.16, 1.75) compared to parishes located farther away from railway stations, while the opposite was observed for parishes near other railway stations (Sado and Fertagus lines), where infection rates were significantly lower than those observed in parishes located farther away from railway stations (RR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.50, 0.87). The associations varied according to the stage of the epidemic and to the mitigation measures enforced. Regression results also revealed an increasing influence of socioeconomic deprivation on SARS-CoV-2 infections. Conclusions: No consistent association between proximity to railway stations and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in the most affected metropolitan area of Portugal was observed, suggesting that other factors (e.g., socioeconomic deprivation) may play a more prominent role in the epidemic dynamics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ferrovias , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia
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