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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3249, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547330

RESUMO

The PvuII (rs2234693) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for the estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1), has been found associated with outcome in tamoxifen treated patients with early hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this SNP is a predictive marker for tamoxifen efficacy or a prognostic marker for breast cancer outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic potential of this SNP in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant exemestane. Dutch postmenopausal patients randomised to 5 years of adjuvant exemestane of whom tissue was available (N = 807) were selected from the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial database. The SNP rs2234693 in the ESR1 gene was genotyped on DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue using Taqman assays and related to the primary endpoint disease-free survival (DFS) and secondary endpoint overall survival (OS). Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression analysis. In total 805 patients were included in the analyses (median follow up of 5.22 years) and genotypes were obtained in 97% of the samples. The variant T allele of PvuII in ESR1 (rs2234693) was associated with a better DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 0.689, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.480-0.989, P = 0.044) in univariate analysis only, and a better OS in both univariate (HR 0.616, 95%, CI 0.411-0.923, P = 0.019) and multivariate analyses (HR 0.571, 95% CI 0.380-0.856, P = 0.007), consistent with a prognostic rather than a predictive drug response effect. Variation of PvuII in the ESR1 gene is related to OS in postmenopausal, early HR + breast cancer patients treated with exemestane in the TEAM study. Variation in the ESR1 gene may therefore be a prognostic marker of early breast cancer survival, and warrants further research.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(28): 3273-3281, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most distant recurrences (DRs) in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer occur after 5 years from diagnosis. The Clinical Treatment Score post-5 years (CTS5) estimates DRs after 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). The aim of this study was to externally validate the CTS5 as a prognostic/predictive tool. METHODS: The CTS5 categorizes patients who have been disease free for 5 years into low, intermediate, and high risk and calculates an absolute risk for developing DRs between 5 and 10 years. Discrimination and calibration were assessed using data from the TEAM and IDEAL trials. The predictive value of the CTS5 was tested with data from the IDEAL trial. RESULTS: A total of 5,895 patients from the TEAM trial and 1,591 patients from the IDEAL trial were included. When assessing the CTS5 discrimination, significantly more DRs were found at 10 years after diagnosis in the CTS5 high- and intermediate-risk groups than in the low-risk group (hazard ratio, 5.7 [95% CI, 3.6 to 8.8] and 2.8 [95% CI, 1.7 to 4.4], respectively). In low- and intermediate-risk patients, the CTS5-predicted DR rates were higher, although not statistically significantly so, than observed rates. However, in high-risk patients, the CTS5-predicted DR rates were significantly higher than observed rates (29% v 19%, respectively; P < .001). The CTS5 was not predictive for extended AET duration. CONCLUSION: The CTS5 score as applied to patients treated in the TEAM and IDEAL cohorts discriminates between risk categories but overestimates the risk of late DRs in high-risk patients. Therefore, the numerical risk assessment from the CTS5 calculator in its current form should be interpreted with caution when used in daily clinical practice, particularly in high-risk patients.

3.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 110-117, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of subsequent acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to study if radiotherapy also influences the prognosis of these ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all 398 patients diagnosed with ACS following radiotherapy from our hospital-based cohort of early breast cancer patients aged <71 years, treated 1970-2009. Cardiovascular disease incidence and cause of death were acquired through questionnaires to general practitioners and cardiologists. Internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation delivers the highest heart doses in breast cancer radiotherapy. Hence, we compared ACS prognosis between patients treated with/without IMC-irradiation. ACS prognosis was assessed through cardiac death, death due to ACS and cardiovascular disease incidence, using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and by estimating cumulative incidence. RESULTS: In total, 62% of patients with ACS had received IMC-irradiation and 38% did not (median age at ACS diagnosis, 67 years). Median time between breast cancer and ACS was 15 years. After ACS, ten-year cumulative risk of cardiac death was 35% for patients who had IMC-irradiation (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 29-41) compared to 24% (95%CI 17-31) for patients without IMC-irradiation (p = 0.04). After correction for confounders, IMC-irradiation remained associated with a less favourable prognosis of ACS compared to no IMC-irradiation (hazard ratio cardiac death = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that radiotherapy, in case of substantial heart doses,may worsen ACS prognosis. This is an important, novel finding that may impact upon the risk-based care for breast cancer survivors with ACS.

4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(3): 675-685, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The phase III DATA study compared 6 and 3 years of adjuvant anastrozole following 2-3 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. This pre-planned side-study assessed the relationship between a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), and evaluated the effect of bisphosphonates on DRFS. METHODS: We selected all patients with a BMD measurement within 3 years after randomisation (landmark) without any DRFS events. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards models were used for analyses. RESULTS: Of 1860 eligible patients, 1142 had a DEXA scan before the landmark. The BMD was normal in 436 (38.2%) and showed osteopenia in 565 (49.5%) and osteoporosis in 141 (12.3%) patients. After a median follow-up of 5.0 years from the landmark, neither osteopenia nor osteoporosis (compared with normal BMD) were associated with DRFS in both the 6-year [osteopenia HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.45-1.49), osteoporosis HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.26-4.67)] and the 3-year arm [osteopenia HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.40-1.42), osteoporosis HR 1.86 (95% CI 0.43-8.01)]. Moreover, bisphosphonate use did not impact DRFS. CONCLUSION: No association was observed between a reduced BMD and DRFS. Neither did we observe an impact of bisphosphonates on DRFS.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(4): 528-534, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999296

RESUMO

Importance: Trials of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) have failed to show a survival benefit in unselected patients with breast cancer, but long-term follow-up is lacking. Objective: To determine 20-year efficacy and safety outcomes of a large trial of adjuvant HDCT vs conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) for patients with stage III breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used data from a randomized phase 3 multicenter clinical trial of 885 women younger than 56 years with breast cancer and 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes conducted from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 1999. Additional follow-up data were collected between June 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, from medical records, general practitioners, the Dutch national statistical office, and nationwide cancer registries. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1, 2018, to October 14, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 cycles of CDCT consisting of fluorouracil, 500 mg/m2, epirubicin, 90 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, or HDCT in which the first 4 cycles were identical to CDCT and the fifth cycle was replaced by cyclophosphamide, 6000 mg/m2, thiotepa, 480 mg/m2, and carboplatin, 1600 mg/m2, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main end points were overall survival and safety and cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm or cardiovascular events. Results: Of the 885 women in the study (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [6.6] years), 442 were randomized to receive HDCT, and 443 were randomized to receive CDCT. With 20.4 years median follow-up (interquartile range, 19.2-22.0 years), the 20-year overall survival was 45.3% with HDCT and 41.5% with CDCT (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75-1.06). The absolute improvement in 20-year overall survival was 14.6% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95) for patients with 10 or more invoved axillary lymph nodes and 15.4% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.05) for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. The cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm at 20 years or major cardiovascular events was similar in both treatment groups (20-year cumulative incidence risk for second malignant neoplasm was 12.1% in the HDCT group vs 16.2% in the CDCT group, P = .10), although patients in the HDCT group more often had hypertension (21.7% vs 14.3%, P = .02), hypercholesterolemia (15.7% vs 10.6%, P = .04), and dysrhythmias (8.6% vs 4.6%, P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: High-dose chemotherapy provided no long-term survival benefit in unselected patients with stage III breast cancer but did provide improved overall survival in very high-risk patients (ie, with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes). High-dose chemotherapy did not affect long-term risk of a second malignant neoplasm or major cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087409.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 366-374, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop dose-response relationships for heart failure (HF) following radiation and anthracyclines in breast cancer treatment, and to assess HF associations with trastuzumab and endocrine therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within a cohort of breast cancer survivors treated during 1980-2009. Cases (n = 102) had HF as first cardiovascular diagnosis and were matched 1:3 on age and date of diagnosis. Individual cardiac radiation doses were estimated, and anthracycline doses and use of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy were abstracted from oncology notes. For HF cases who received radiotherapy, the estimated median mean heart dose (MHD) was 6.8 Gy [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-13.7]. MHD was not associated with HF risk overall [excess rate ratio (ERR) = 1%/Gy, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 10]. In patients treated with anthracyclines, exposure of ≥20% of the heart to ≥20 Gy was associated with a rate ratio of 5.7 (95% CI 1.7-21.7) compared to <10% exposed to ≥20 Gy. For cases who received radiotherapy, median cumulative anthracycline dose was 247 mg/m2 (IQR 240-319). A dose-dependent increase was observed after anthracycline without trastuzumab (ERR = 1.5% per mg/m2 , 95% CI 0.5-4.1). After anthracycline and trastuzumab, the rate ratio was 34.9 (95% CI 11.1-110.1) compared to no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In absence of anthracyclines, breast cancer radiotherapy was not associated with increased HF risk. Strongly elevated HF risks were observed after treatment with anthracyclines and also after treatment with trastuzumab. The benefits of these systemic treatments usually exceed the risks of HF, but our results emphasize the need to support ongoing efforts to evaluate preventative strategies.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Mastectomia Profilática , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
8.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Cancer ; 145(5): 1325-1333, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748011

RESUMO

The phase III DATA study investigates the efficacy of adjuvant anastrozole (6 vs. 3 year) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer previously treated with 2-3 years of tamoxifen. This planned side-study assessed patterns of care regarding detection and treatment of osteopenia/osteoporosis, and trends in bone mineral density (BMD) during and after therapy. We registered all BMD measurements and bisphosphonate-use. Time to osteopenia/osteoporosis was analysed by Kaplan Meier methodology. For the trend in T-scores we used linear mixed models with random patients effects. Of 1860 eligible DATA patients, 910 (48.9%) had a baseline BMD measurement. Among patients with a normal baseline BMD (n = 417), osteopenia was observed in 53.5% and 55.4% in the 6- and 3-year group respectively (p = 0.18), during follow-up. Only two patients (3-year group) developed osteoporosis. Of the patients with osteopenia at baseline (n = 408), 24.4% and 20.4% developed osteoporosis respectively (p = 0.89). Three years after randomisation 18.3% and 18.2% used bisphosphonates in the 6- and 3-year groups respectively and 6 years after randomisation this was 23.7% and 20.9% respectively (p = 0.90) of which the majority used oral bisphosphonates. The yearly mean BMD-change during anastrozole in the lumbar spine showed a T-score decline of 0.075. After bisphosphonate addition the decline became less prominent (0.047 (p < 0.001)) and after anastrozole cessation, while continuing bisphosphonates, the mean BMD yearly increased (0.047 (p < 0.001)). In conclusion, extended anastrozole therapy was not associated with a higher incidence of osteoporosis. Anastrozole-use was associated with a BMD decrease; however, the decline was modest and partially reversible after anastrozole cessation.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
10.
Oncologist ; 24(7): e467-e474, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of comorbidities and age on breast cancer mortality, taking into account competing causes of death. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Cohort analysis of Dutch and Belgian patients with postmenopausal, early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer included in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial between 2001 and 2006. This is a randomized controlled trial of patients who had completed local treatment with curative intent and were randomized to receive exemestane for 5 years, or sequential treatment of tamoxifen followed by exemestane for a duration of 5 years. Patients were categorized by number of comorbidities (no comorbidities, 1-2 comorbidities, and >2 comorbidities) and age (<70 years and ≥70 years). Main outcome was breast cancer mortality considering other-cause mortality as competing event; cumulative incidences were calculated using the Cumulative Incidence Competing Risk Methods, and the Fine and Gray model was used to calculate the effect of age and comorbidities for the cause-specific incidences of breast cancer death, taking into account the effect of competing causes of death. RESULTS: Overall, 3,159 patients were included, of which 2,203 (69.7%) were aged <70 years and 956 (30.3%) were aged ≥70 years at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of breast cancer mortality was higher among patients ≥70 without comorbidities (22.2%, 95% CI, 17.5-26.9) compared with patients <70 without comorbidities (15.6%, 95% CI, 13.6-17.7, reference group), multivariable subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.49 (95% CI, 1.12-1.97, p = .005) after a median follow-up of 10 years. Use of chemotherapy was lower in older patients (1%, irrespective of the number of comorbidities) compared with younger patients (50%, 44%, and 38% for patients with no, 1-2, or >2 comorbidities, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Older patients without comorbidities have a higher risk of dying due to breast cancer than younger counterparts, even when taking into account higher competing mortality, while use of chemotherapy in this group was low. These findings underline the need to take into account comorbidities, age, and competing mortality in the prognosis of breast cancer for accurate decision making. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Older patients without comorbidity are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer, despite a higher other-cause mortality. This study shows that including age and comorbidity for the assessment of breast cancer mortality and other-cause mortality is indispensable for treatment decision making in older patients. Future prognostic tools for breast cancer prognosis should incorporate these items as well as risk of toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy to adequately predict outcomes to optimize personalized treatment for older patients with early breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa
11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 595-604, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous reports suggest that radiation therapy for breast cancer (BC) can cause ischemic heart disease, with the radiation-related risk increasing linearly with mean whole heart dose (MWHD). This study aimed to validate these findings in younger BC patients and to investigate additional risk factors for radiation-related myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of BC survivors treated during 1970 to 2009. Cases were 183 patients with MI as their first heart disease after BC. One control per case was selected and matched on age and BC diagnosis date. Information on treatment and cardiovascular risk factors was abstracted from medical and radiation charts. Cardiac doses were estimated for each woman by reconstructing her regimen using modern 3-dimensional computed tomography planning on a typical patient computed tomography scan. RESULTS: Median age at BC of cases and controls was 50.2 years (interquartile range, 45.7-54.7). Median time to MI was 13.6 years (interquartile range, 9.9-18.1). Median MWHD was 8.9 Gy (range, 0.3-35.2 Gy). MI rate increased linearly with increasing MWHD (excess rate ratio [ERR] per Gy, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-16.0%). Patients receiving ≥20 Gy MWHD had a 3.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.6) higher MI rate than unirradiated patients. ERRs were higher for younger women, with borderline significance (ERR<45years, 24.2%/Gy; ERR≥50years, 2.5%/Gy; Pinteraction = .054). Whole heart dose-volume parameters did not modify the dose-response relationship significantly. CONCLUSIONS: MI rate after radiation for BC increases linearly with MWHD. Reductions in MWHD are expected to contribute to better cardiovascular health of BC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Breast ; 44: 1-14, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of developing metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is a recurrent topic at the outpatient clinic. We aimed to provide CBC risk estimates of published patient, pathological, and primary breast cancer (PBC) treatment-related factors. METHODS: PubMed was searched for publications on factors associated with CBC risk. Meta-analyses were performed with grouping of studies by mutation status (i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 c.1100delC), familial cohorts, and general population-based cohorts. RESULTS: Sixty-eight papers satisfied our inclusion criteria. Strong associations with CBC were found for carrying a BRCA1 (RR = 3.7; 95%CI:2.8-4.9), BRCA2 (RR = 2.8; 95%CI:1.8-4.3) or CHEK2 c.1100delC (RR = 2.7; 95%CI:2.0-3.7) mutation. In population-based cohorts, PBC family history (RR = 1.8; 95%CI:1.2-2.6), body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 (RR = 1.5; 95%CI:1.3-1.9), lobular PBC (RR = 1.4; 95%CI:1.1-1.8), estrogen receptor-negative PBC (RR = 1.5; 95%CI:1.0-2.3) and treatment with radiotherapy <40 years (RR = 1.4; 95%CI:1.1-1.7) was associated with increased CBC risk. Older age at PBC diagnosis (RR per decade = 0.93; 95%CI:0.88-0.98), and treatment with chemotherapy (RR = 0.7; 95%CI:0.6-0.8) or endocrine therapy (RR = 0.6; 95%CI:0.5-0.7) were associated with decreased CBC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation status, family history, and PBC treatment are key factors for CBC risk. Age at PBC diagnosis, BMI, lobular histology and hormone receptor status have weaker associations and should be considered in combination with key factors to accurately predict CBC risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
13.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 274-283, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588619

RESUMO

The DATA study (NCT00301457) compared 6 and 3 years of anastrozole in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer after 2-3 years of tamoxifen. Patients with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure (CIOFF) were also eligible, but could be at risk of ovarian function recovery (OFR). The current analysis compared the survival of women with CIOFF with definitely postmenopausal women and examined the influence of OFR on survival. Therefore, we selected patients from the DATA study aged 45-57 years at randomization who had received (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. They were classified by reversibility of postmenopausal status: possibly reversible in case of CIOFF (n = 395) versus definitely postmenopausal (n = 261). The former were monitored by E2 measurements for OFR. The occurrence of OFR was incorporated as a time-dependent covariate in a Cox-regression model for calculating the hazard ratio (HR). We used the landmark method to calculate residual 5-year survival rates. When comparing CIOFF women with definitely postmenopausal women, the survival was not different. Among CIOFF women with available E2 follow-up values (n = 329), experiencing OFR (n = 39) had an unfavorable impact on distant recurrence-free survival (HR 2.27 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-5.25; p = 0.05] and overall survival (HR 2.61 [95% CI 1.11-6.13; p = 0.03]). After adjusting for tumor features, the HRs became 2.11 (95% CI 0.89-5.02; p = 0.09) and 2.24 (95% CI 0.92-5.45; p = 0.07), respectively. The residual 5-year rate for distant recurrence-free survival was 76.9% for women with OFR and 92.1% for women without OFR, and for 5-year overall survival 80.8% and 94.4%, respectively. Women with CIOFF receiving anastrozole may be at increased risk of disease recurrence if experiencing OFR.


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4746, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420699

RESUMO

Biomarkers lie at the heart of precision medicine. Surprisingly, while rapid genomic profiling is becoming ubiquitous, the development of biomarkers usually involves the application of bespoke techniques that cannot be directly applied to other datasets. There is an urgent need for a systematic methodology to create biologically-interpretable molecular models that robustly predict key phenotypes. Here we present SIMMS (Subnetwork Integration for Multi-Modal Signatures): an algorithm that fragments pathways into functional modules and uses these to predict phenotypes. We apply SIMMS to multiple data types across five diseases, and in each it reproducibly identifies known and novel subtypes, and makes superior predictions to the best bespoke approaches. To demonstrate its ability on a new dataset, we profile 33 genes/nodes of the PI3K pathway in 1734 FFPE breast tumors and create a four-subnetwork prediction model. This model out-performs a clinically-validated molecular test in an independent cohort of 1742 patients. SIMMS is generic and enables systematic data integration for robust biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Benchmarking , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Br J Cancer ; 119(4): 408-418, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved breast cancer (BC) survival and evidence showing beneficial effects of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation underscore the importance of studying late cardiovascular effects of BC treatment. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in 14,645 Dutch BC patients aged <62 years, treated during 1970-2009. Analyses included proportional hazards models and general population comparisons. RESULTS: CVD rate-ratio for left-versus-right breast irradiation without IMC was 1.11 (95% CI 0.93-1.32). Compared to right-sided breast irradiation only, IMC irradiation (interquartile range mean heart doses 9-17 Gy) was associated with increases in CVD rate overall, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF) and valvular heart disease (hazard ratios (HRs): 1.6-2.4). IHD risk remained increased until at least 20 years after treatment. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with an increased HF rate (HR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.07-5.69), emerging <5 years and remaining increased at least 10-15 years after treatment. IMC irradiation combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with substantially increased HF rate (HR = 9.23 95% CI 6.01-14.18), compared to neither IMC irradiation nor anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Women treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and IMC irradiation (in an older era) with considerable mean heart dose exposure have substantially increased incidence of several CVDs. Screening may be appropriate for some BC patient groups.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Radioterapia/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(6): 616-627, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917140

RESUMO

Background: Aromatase inhibitors improve disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial compared exemestane monotherapy with sequential therapy of tamoxifen followed by exemestane. The trial failed to show a statistically significant difference between treatment arms. A robust translational program was established to investigate predictive biomarkers. Methods: A tissue microarray was retrospectively constructed using a subset of patient tissues (n = 4631) from the TEAM trial (n = 9766). Immunohistochemistry was performed for biomarkers, classed into three groups: MAPK pathway, NF-kappa B pathway, and estrogen receptor (ER) phosphorylation. Expression was analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) at 2.5 and 10 years and treatment regimen using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: In univariate analysis, ER167 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59 to 0.85, P < .001), IKKα (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.92, P = .005), Raf-1338 (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.80, P < .001), and p44/42 MAPK202/204 (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.92, P = .004) were statistically significantly associated with improved RFS at 10 years in patients receiving sequential therapy. Associations were strengthened when IKKα, Raf-1338, and ER167 were combined into a cumulative prognostic score (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.77, P < .001). Patients with an all negative IKKα, Raf-1338, and ER167 score favored exemestane monotherapy (odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.90). In multivariable analysis, the IKKα, Raf-1338, and ER167 score (P = .001) was an independent prognostic factor for RFS at 10 years in patients receiving sequential therapy. Conclusions: The IKKα, Raf-1338, and ER167 score is an independent predictive biomarker for lower recurrence on sequential therapy. Negative expression may further offer predictive value for exemestane monotherapy.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 52(4): 245-252, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Challenges of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (BR) are to achieve sufficient implant coverage and lower pole projection. We assessed reoperation rates, long-term patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcome after direct-to-implant BR without acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in women with high breast cancer risk. METHODS: Women who underwent bilateral skin or nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate direct-to-implant BR between 1994 and 2006 completed a survey on reoperations and the Breast-Q Reconstruction questionnaire. Photographs taken during follow-up were rated for long-term aesthetic outcome (scale 1-10) by five plastic surgeons. Outcomes were compared between women who never underwent unanticipated reoperations after immediate BR and women who underwent one or more reoperations, adjusted for potential confounders using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Of 143 women, 70 (49%) were never reoperated and 73 (51%) had undergone reoperations. Median follow-up was 12 years in both groups (range 7-17 and 6-19 years, respectively). Baseline characteristics were comparable except for history of prophylactic oophorectomy with 81% in the no-reoperations group versus 66% in the reoperated group (p = .03). Breast-Q scores were 59.7 ± 17.3 versus 58.0 ± 17.8 (p = .67) for 'satisfaction with breasts' and 71.1 ± 20.3 versus 68.1 ± 22.9 (p = .47) for 'satisfaction with outcome' in the no-reoperation versus reoperation group, respectively. Aesthetic outcome was scored 5.8 ± 1.1 in the no-reoperation group versus 5.3 ± 1.3 in the reoperation group (p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: The single-stage intent did not prevent unanticipated surgical reinterventions in 51% of the patients. Long-term patient satisfaction was reasonable and not affected by reoperations. Aesthetic outcome, however, was only poor to reasonable and scores were significantly lower in the reoperated group.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário , Implantes de Mama , Estética , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mastectomia Subcutânea , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Caderinas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 95: 59-67, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for postmenopausal breast cancer has been studied within multiple phase III trials. Treatment compliance in these trials is generally poor. In this analysis, we aimed to determine factors that were associated with participation in the phase III Investigation on the Duration of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole (IDEAL) trial and with early treatment discontinuation, and how this influenced survival outcome. METHODS: In the IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients were randomised between 2.5 or 5 years of extended letrozole, after completing 5 years of endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. A subgroup of this population participated earlier in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial (5 years of exemestane or 2.5 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane as primary adjuvant therapy) in which we explored which factors were determinative for enrolment in the IDEAL study. In the IDEAL cohort, we evaluated which factors predicted for early treatment discontinuation and the effect of early treatment discontinuation on disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Nodal status, younger age and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with higher enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In the IDEAL cohort, adverse events (AEs), the type of primary endocrine therapy and the interval between primary and extended therapy were associated with early treatment discontinuation. Among the reported AEs, depressive feelings (56%) were most frequently associated with early treatment discontinuation. Early treatment discontinuation was not associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.76-1.37). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis, we found that risk factors were most strongly associated enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In contrast, patient experiences were the most significant factors leading to early treatment discontinuation, with no effect on DFS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(4): 746-757, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492969

RESUMO

Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that the etiology of hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer may differ by levels of histologic grade and proliferation. We pooled risk factor and pathology data on 5,905 HR+ breast cancer cases and 26,281 controls from 11 epidemiological studies. Proliferation was determined by centralized automated measures of KI67 in tissue microarrays. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values for case-case and case-control comparisons for risk factors in relation to levels of grade and quartiles (Q1-Q4) of KI67 were estimated using polytomous logistic regression models. Case-case comparisons showed associations between nulliparity and high KI67 [OR (95% CI) for Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.54 (1.22, 1.95)]; obesity and high grade [grade 3 vs. 1 = 1.68 (1.31, 2.16)] and current use of combined hormone therapy (HT) and low grade [grade 3 vs. 1 = 0.27 (0.16, 0.44)] tumors. In case-control comparisons, nulliparity was associated with elevated risk of tumors with high but not low levels of proliferation [1.43 (1.14, 1.81) for KI67 Q4 vs. 0.83 (0.60, 1.14) for KI67 Q1]; obesity among women ≥50 years with high but not low grade tumors [1.55 (1.17, 2.06) for grade 3 vs. 0.88 (0.66, 1.16) for grade 1] and HT with low but not high grade tumors [3.07 (2.22, 4.23) for grade 1 vs. 0.85 (0.55, 1.30) for grade 3]. Menarcheal age and family history were similarly associated with HR+ tumors of different grade or KI67 levels. These findings provide insights into the etiologic heterogeneity of HR+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Obesidade/complicações , Paridade , Fatores de Risco
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