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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(3): 351-374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614244

RESUMO

Brain is a central and pivotal organ of human body containing the highest lipids content next to adipose tissue. It works as a monitor for the whole body and needs an adequate supply of energy to maintain its physiological activities. This high demand of energy in the brain is chiefly maintained by the lipids along with its reservoirs. Thus, the lipid metabolism is also an important for the proper development and function of the brain. Being a prominent part of the brain, lipids play a vast number of physiological activities within the brain starting from the structural development, impulse conduction, insulation, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, myelin sheath formation and finally to act as the signaling molecules. Interestingly, lipids bilayer also maintains the structural integrity for the physiological functions of protein. Thus, in light to all of these activities, lipids and its metabolism can be attributed pivotal for brain health and its activities. Decisively, the impaired/altered metabolism of lipids and its intermediates puts forward a key step in the progression of different brain ailments including neurodegenerative, neurological and neuropsychiatry disorders. Depending on their associated underlying pathways, they serve as the potential biomarkers of these disorders and are considered as necessary diagnostic tools. The present review discusses the role and level of altered lipids metabolism in brain diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, neurological diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of altered level of lipids and their metabolites have also been discussed in detail.

2.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4(Supplementary)): 1761-1766, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680070

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injury is a complex condition which results in restricted physical activity. Despite the tremendous efforts to figure out effective remedies, the complete functional retrieval is still a goal to be achieved. So, the need of hour is the exploration of potential natural compounds to recover this functional loss. Here, we have investigated the role of a local plant "Neurada procumbens" in ameliorating the functional recovery after an induced nerve compression injury in a mouse model. A dose of N. procumbens (50mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally from the day of injury to onwards. The motor functional recovery was assessed by evaluating muscle grip strength and sciatic functional index; while the sensory functions were gauged by the hotplate test. The serological parameters were carried out to analyze the effect of N. procumbens on oxidative stress level. The recovery of sensory and motor functions was significantly improved and perceived earlier in the treatment group. Moreover, the elevated antioxidant level was statistically significant in the treatment group. These results indicate that the supplementation of N. procumbens accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

3.
J Food Biochem ; 43(9): e12983, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489666

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injury is one of the major health concerns of the present era which can lead to the long-lasting disability and even demise. Currently, no effective and side effect free remedy exists and exploration of effective therapeutic strategies to regain functional outcome is a need of hour. In the present study, we used BALB/c mice (N = 14 age, 10-12 weeks & weight 32-34 g) that were divided into two groups: Normal chow (n = 7) and Fennel chow (n = 7) group. Here, we have explored the role of crude Foeniculum vulgare mill seeds in promoting functional recovery following a mechanical insult to the sciatic nerve by an oral administration of a crude dose of 500 mg/kg BW. The recovery of both sensory and motor functions was significantly (p > .05) accelerated in the treatment group, assessed by behavioral analyses alongside total antioxidant capacity increase. Conclusively, F. vulgare can be a potential therapeutic candidate for accelerating functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The outcomes of study have vital practical application both for scientists and consumers. The therapeutic role of phytochemicals on functional recovery has not been explored yet. This study will help figure out plant based regimen as booster for brain health and intervention against traumatic nerve injuries. Moreover, it may also attract the food and pharmaceutical industries to formulate cost effective therapeutic products. Likewise, it can prove instrumental for scientists for advance research on this aspect with more mechanistic targets.

4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 26, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683111

RESUMO

Brain is a vital organ of the human body which performs very important functions such as analysis, processing, coordination, and execution of electrical signals. For this purpose, it depends on a complex network of nerves which are ensheathed in lipids tailored myelin; an abundant source of lipids in the body. The nervous system is enriched with important classes of lipids; sphingolipids and cholesterol which compose the major portion of the brain particularly in the form of myelin. Both cholesterol and sphingolipids are embedded in the microdomains of membrane rafts and are functional units of the neuronal cell membrane. These molecules serve as the signaling molecules; hold important roles in the neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and many others. Thus, their adequate provision and active metabolism are of crucial importance in the maintenance of physiological functions of brain and body of an individual. In the present review, we have highlighted the physiological roles of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the development of the nervous system as well as the association of their altered metabolism to neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colesterol/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/genética , Colesterol/genética , Humanos , Lipídeos/genética , Microdomínios da Membrana/genética , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Esfingolipídeos/genética
5.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(1): 129-135, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953314

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of veterinary and human public health importance for which birds act as an intermediate host. No information is available about the epidemiology of T. gondii in wild birds of Pakistan. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii antibodies in wild birds of District Kasur, Punjab Province, Pakistan. A total of 200 wild birds of 28 species were captured from four tehsils (administrative subdistricts of districts) of the district Kasur and their serum samples screened for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (cut-off value: 1:64). Twenty-five (13%) individual birds and 13 (46%) of the bird species were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. There were statistical differences in T. gondii prevalence between adults and young (15% and 7%, respectively, P=0.001) and healthy and sick (11% and 50%, respectively, P=0.000) while there were not differences between genders, sites, urbanicity, and tehsils. The present study provides evidence of T. gondii antibodies in wild birds of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/sangue , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
6.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614843

RESUMO

Neurodegeneration is a progressive loss of neuronal cells in certain regions of the brain. Most of the neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) share the communal characteristic such as damage or reduction of various cell types typically including astrocytes and microglial activity. Several compounds are being trialed to treat NDDs but they possess solitary symptomatic advantages along with copious side effects. The finding of more enthralling and captivating compounds to suspend and standstill the pathology of NDDs will be considered as a hallmark of present times. Phytochemicals possess the potential to alternate the synthetic line of therapy against NDDs. The present review explores the potential efficacy of plant-derived flavonoids against most common NDDs including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Flavonoids are biologically active phytochemicals which possess potential pharmacological effects, including antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects and are able to attenuate the pathology of various NDDs through down-regulating the nitric oxide (NO) production, by reducing the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), by reducing the excitotoxicity of superoxide as well as acting as tyrosine kinase (TK) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting enzyme.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Open Microbiol J ; 9: 26-32, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668658

RESUMO

The development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. Aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in Lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. Unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. All the samples were subjected to Total viable count (TVC), Staphylococcal count (SC) and Coliform count (CC). One hundred and ten strains of bacteria were isolated from various fruit juices and identified on the basis of cultural characters, morphology and biochemical characters. Mean TVCs, SCs and CCs of juices (6.80±1.91, 5.45±1.06 and 3.25±1.25 log10 CFU/ml respectively) were non-significant with standard permissible limits (p<0.05). Among all the fruit juices, 66.66% of samples had TVC more than 4 log10 CFU/ml, 51.66% of samples had SC more than 3 log10 CFU/ml and 46.66% of samples had CC more than 2 log10 CFU/ml. Among the bacillus isolates purified, were Bacillus alvei, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobecter. All five different types of honey samples used in this study showed antibacterial activity against B. alvei, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis and S. aureus and no activity against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobecter and E. coli. It is concluded that microbial load in unpasteurized fruit juices is significantly higher than standard permissible limits which insinuates its possible role in spoilage and food borne illnesses. Periodic monitoring of packed fruit juices should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. Honey can be used as an alternative for treatment of various infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria.

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